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Constellations.

For thousands of years, people have looked at the night sky. Gazing at the stars above, they saw many patterns. Connecting the stars with imaginary lines, they formed special shapes. We call these shapes constellations.

There are 88 different constellations recognized by astronomers all over the world. Constellations got their names from very old legends. Some constellations were also named after animals and objects found on Earth.

During the year, the constellations seem to be moving through the sky. It is really the Earth that is moving--on its long trip around the Sun. This is why we are not able to see every star all of the time. Some stars can be seen only during certain times of the year. A star chart shows us when we can find certain constellations.

For a long, long time, people have used constellations as a guide. When the right constellations appeared in the sky, farmers knew it was time to start planting. The Pawnee Indians set up their villages to look like mirror images of the stars in the sky. Indian chiefs also used the constellations to decide when to hold their tribal meetings, called pow-wows.

Early sailors looked at constellations to help them navigate the oceans. Some people even believe that constellations can predict their future. Today, people still use stars to find their direction by looking to Polaris, the North Star.

Find the Big Dipper. Follow the 2 pointer stars at the end of its cup, They lead straight to Polaris, the North Star.

Vocabulary

Do you know these STAR words?

1. This underwater animal is a S T A R --.

2. When the bell rings in the morning, school --.

S T A R--.

3. If you didn't eat for a long time, you would be --.

S T A R--.

4. People often spray this to stiffen their clothes when they iron. S T A R--.

DID YOU KNOW??

The longest constellation is Hydra, the Sea Monster. In the spring, it spans about 1/3 of the sky.

DID YOU KNOW??

Stars twinkle because their light is bent by passing through the Earth's atmosphere. Stars do not appear to twinkle when astronauts view them from space.

Weekly Lab

Stars shine all the time, but we can't see them during the day. This is because the Sun's bright light blocks them from view. Some stars are brighter than others because they are larger or closer to Earth.

You need: an index card, a lamp, an envelope, a hole punch, a pencil, a piece of thick cardboard

Step 1: Place your index card on top of the thick piece of cardboard. Carefully punch 3 small holes in your index card using your pencil point.

Step 2: Now use the hole punch to punch 3 larger holes in the index card. Imagine that these holes are different sized stars.

Step 3: Put the index card inside your envelope.

Step 4: Hold the envelope in front of the lamp.

What do you see?

Step 5: Now hold the envelope in back of the lamp.

What do you see now?

Does the size of the stars affect how well you can see their light?

Weekly Problem

These MAGIC STARS contain roman numerals.

1. Pick a roman numeral.

2. Write down the number in the circle under all the stars where you see it.

3. Now add up the numbers you wrote down.

What did you discover?
 I = 1 VI = 6
 II = 2 VII = 7
III = 3 VIII = 8
 IV = 4 IX = 9
 V = 5 X = 10


DID YOU KNOW??

The stars we see are in the Milky Way Galaxy. There are about 100 billion stars in this galaxy.

DID YOU KNOW??

The Sun is our nearest star. Compared to others, it is just an average-sized star.

Writing or Science

Draw your own constellations using these stars. Then write a story about your new constellations.

Challenge

Can you copy these constellations?

Corona the Crown

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Cygnus the Swan

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Canus Major (The Big Dog)

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Draw them on dark-colored construction paper using chalk or a ight-colored crayon.

When you're finished, put dots of glow-in-the-dark paint or star stickers on every star you drew. Then look at your constellations in a dark room.

Puzzle

Use the key to find your way through the Maze. You can only pass through each box once.

[ILLUSTRATIONS OMITTED]

DID YOU KNOW??

Stars are very hot. They are many thousands of degrees Celsius!

Note: Move one square at a time. Diagonals are O.K.

DID YOU KNOW??

On a clear night, without moonlight or any other lights, you can see about 2,000 stars.

DID YOU KNOW??

The light we see from a star may have left that Star thousands of years ago.

DID YOU KNOW??

The ancient Greeks named 48 constellations.

BACKGROUND

For thousands of years, people have seen patterns in the stars of the night sky. Civilizations across the world, from the ancient Greeks to Native Americans, saw the shapes of figures from their legends. Some of the legends behind the constellations date back over 2,000 years. Others found the shapes of objects in the real world, like a telescope, or a crown. Today, astronomers recognize 88 different constellations.

Astronomers rank the brightness of stars by their magnitude, with -2 being the brightest and 11 the dimmest. The brightness of a star depends on its distance from Earth, the size of the star, and its color. The faintest star is Proxima Centauri with a magnitude of 11. The brightest star is Sirius, in the constellation Canis Major (the Great Dog), with a magnitude of -1.4.

Stars are so far away that their distances must be measured in light years. A light year is equal to 5.9 trillion miles and is defined as the amount of time it takes light to travel in one year. Light travels at 186,300 miles per second. The light from the Sun takes 8 minutes to reach us. The Andromeda Galaxy, which is visible without a telescope, is 2 million light years away. In reality, stars that seem to make up a single constellation may be hundreds of light years apart.

If we think of the celestial sky as a large sphere or globe surrounding the Earth, we can visualize a celestial equator and North and South Poles. At the Northern Celestial Pole (NCP) we'll find the North Star, Polaris. From a viewpoint in the Northern Hemisphere, all other stars appear to circle around it. To locate Polaris, just follow the pointer stars at the end of the cup of the Big Dipper (Ursa Major the Great Bear). Stars that are near Polaris are called circumpolar stars and can be seen throughout the year. Stars that are closer to the celestial equator are visible only during certain seasons of the year and are called non-circumpolar stars. The same holds true for stars in the Southern Celestial Hemisphere. Stars appear in different areas of the sky throughout the year, because the Earth is always revolving around the Sun in our 365-day orbit.

The 12 zodiac constellations are the ones that follow the path of the Sun. Your students may be familiar with the names of these constellations from horoscopes. People throughout history have interpreted the constellations in special ways and have placed great significance on their exact location in the night sky at different times of the year. The Pawnee Indians planned their villages to be mirror images of the stars. Early farmers based their planting times on the appearance of certain constellations. Explorers and sailors navigated the seas using star charts and simple astronomical instruments. Constellations were used not only for finding direction, but to tell time as well. Today, we still enjoy recognizing the different constellations in the night sky as much as our ancestors did, and we still use Polaris to help locate north. Encourage your students to use their STAR CHARTS to stargaze with a family member tonight.

GLOW-IN-THE-DARK PAINT

We recommend obtaining some glow-in-the-dark fabric paint (e.g., Glo Away[TM] or Scribbles[R]) for use with all levels. These paints are inexpensive and work well on both paper and fabric and dry quickly, Several students can share a single bottle. If you are unable to locate this type of product at your local craft or hobby store, you may find them online.

Glo Away[TM] can be ordered directly from: Plaid at www.plaidonline.com and Michaels at www.michaels.com.

SOME ACTIVITY SUGGESTIONS:

Have your students -

* dot glow-in-the-dark paint on the stars in any of the constellations in this issue,

* use this paint on the stars in the STAR CHART.

* use it to make constellation shirts out of old dark colored T-shirts.

Alternative activities that do not need Glow-in-the Dark Paint:

* punch holes out of cardboard to make constellation sewing cards.

* punch holes in the constellation stars and hold these up to a light source.

* shine a flashlight through the holes to project the constellations onto a ceiling or wall.

* use glitter or stickers to create constellations.

(There are many kinds of stickers that work well, e.g., star-shaped, glow-in-the-dark, reflective, holographic, prismatic, etc.)

National Science Education Standards

Unifying Concepts and Processes (K-8)

* Systems, order, and organization

* Evidence, models, and explanation

* Constancy, change, and measurement

* Form and function

Standard A: Science as Inquiry (K-8)

* Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry

* Understanding about scientific inquiry

Standard B: Physical Science (K-4)

* Properties of objects and materials

* Position and motion of objects

* Light, heat, electricity, and magnetism (5-8)

* Transfer of energy

Standard D: Earth and Space Science (K-4)

* Objects in the sky

* Changes in earth and sky (5-8)

* Earth's history

* Earth in the solar system

Standard E: Science and Technology (K-4)

* Abilities of technological design

* Understanding about science and technology

* Abilities to distinguish between natural objects and objects made by man (5-8)

* Abilities of technological design

* Understandings about science and technology

Standard G: History and Nature of Science (K-8)

* Science as a human endeavor (5-8)

* History of science

Level Pre-A

Main Concepts: Constellations are special shapes made by connecting stars with imaginary lines.

Picture Activity

Ask your students if they have ever imagined seeing shapes or pictures when they've looked at the stars. Tell them that people have been doing this for a long time. Sometimes they saw pictures of people, animals, or other objects. These special star shapes are called constellations. The large constellation on the front page is Draco the Dragon. Their New Words are inside the Big Dipper, which looks like a big ladle.

Vocabulary

Review the pictures together - stairs (or steps), stamp, straw, stove, brush, stapler, nose. Tell them to draw lines from the 5 star points to the 5 "st" pictures.

Weekly Lab

You need: Glow-in-the-Dark fabric paint (See the Box on Page 2 of the TNs for more information.) Your students will be putting dots of this paint on all the stars in the Big Dipper (Ursa Major the Great Bear) and Cygnus (SlG-nuhs) the Swan. Darken the room for viewing. Have them work in small groups to share the paint. This activity can also be done with small glow-in-the-dark star stickers.

Weekly Problem

Tell them this constellation is called the Little Bear (Ursa Minor). It also has another name. They will see what it is after they connect the stars. The connected stars form the Little Dipper.

Storytelling

Encourage your students to use their imaginations. After they have made up their own stories about these stars, tell them these constellations are Bootes the Herdsman and Ursa Major the Great Bear (or the Big Dipper). According to legend, Bootes is the keeper of the bears and can be seen chasing the Great Bear and the Little Bear around and around the sky.

Challenge

Tell them to look very carefully before they draw lines matching the star pairs. Ask what WHY-FLY is looking through. It's a telescope, which works like a giant magnifying glass to make the stars look bigger.

Home Base

See the Star Chart Box on the front page of the TNs. Encourage them to view the stars tonight with a family member. They can make their chart more visible at night by using glow-in-the-dark paint or small glow-inthe dark stickers, or by punching holes in the stars and shining a flashlight underneath them.

Level A

Main Concepts: Constellations are special shapes made by connecting stars with imaginary lines. Some were named after ancient legends.

Picture Activity

Ask your students if they have ever imagined seeing shapes or pictures when they've looked at the stars. Tell them that people have been doing this for a long time. Sometimes they saw pictures of people, animals, or other objects. These special star shapes are called constellations. The large constellation on the front page is Draco the Dragon. Their New Words are inside the Big Dipper, which looks like a big ladle or a longhandled cup.

Vocabulary

Review the words and pictures together. Then have them draw a line between each word and its matching picture.

Weekly Lab

You need: 1 toilet paper tube per student, glow-inthe-dark fabric paint. (See the Box on Page 2 of the TNs for more information.) For this activity, your students will be putting dots of this paint on all the stars in the 3 constellations - Cygnus (SIG-nuhs) the Swan, Corona the Crown, and the Big Dipper (Ursa Major the Great Bear). You can have them work in small groups to share the paint. When the paint has dried, have them put their tubes over the circles to view the constellations. This activity can also be done with small glow-in-the-dark star stickers.

Weekly Problem

Tell them this constellation is called the Little Bear (Ursa Minor). It also has another name. They will see what it is after they solve the math problems and connect the stars. The connected stars form the Little Dipper.

Writing for Science

Encourage your students to use their imaginations. After they have made up their own stories about these stars, tell them these constellations are Bootes the Herdsman and Ursa Major the Great Bear (or the Big Dipper). According to legend, Bootes is the keeper of the bears and can be seen chasing the Great Bear and the Little Bear around and around the sky.

Challenge

Answers: ALASKA - 9, 6, 9, 8, 7, 9. This constellation is Ursa Major the Great Bear (also called the Big Dipper). Have them use the letter code to fill in the circles.

Home Base

See the Star Chart Box on the front page of the TNs. Encourage them to view the stars tonight with a family member. They can make their chart more visible at night by using glow-in-the-dark paint or small glow-in-the dark stickers, or by punching holes in the stars and shining a flashlight underneath them.

Level B

Main Concepts: For thousands of years people have seen patterns in the stars, often naming them after legends.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) starfish 2) starts 3) starving. Bonus: e.g., Star Trek, Star Wars, etc.

Weekly Lab

A lamp or any bright light source may be used. When the envelope is in front of the lamp, the holes in the card will be easily visible through the envelope. This represents the stars' own light. Putting the envelope behind the lamp represents the Sun's bright light shining during the day. This light blocks out the stars' light, which makes the holes more difficult to see through the envelope.

Weekly Problem

Answers: ALASKA - 9, 12, 9, 7, 6, 9.

Writing for Science

After your students have created their constellations and "legends" for these stars, tell them that these stars are actually the constellations Orion the Hunter and Canis Major the Great Dog. Show them (or draw) this picture. Draw their attention to the 3 stars in Orion's belt which point to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. Read them the legend of Orion on the Star Chart, which can be found on the back page of the Teaching Notes.

Challenge

Answers: A - 2, B - 3, C - 1, D - 4.

Home Base

See the Star Chart Box on the front page of the TNs. Encourage your students to view the stars tonight with a family member. They can make their chart more visible at night by using glow-in-the-dark paint or small glow-in-the-dark star stickers, or by punching holes in the stars and shining a flashlight underneath them.

Level C

Main Concepts: Constellations are patterns of stars. Due to Earth's orbit around the Sun, the constellations are found in different areas of the sky during the course of the year.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) starfish 2) starts 3) starving 4) starch. Bonus: e.g., Star Trek, Star Wars, Star Spangled Banner, etc.

Weekly Lab

A lamp or any bright light source may be used. When the envelope is in front of the lamp, the holes in the card will be easily visible through the envelope. This represents the stars' own light. Putting the envelope behind the lamp represents the Sun's bright light shining during the day. This light blocks out the stars' light, which makes the holes more difficult to see through the envelope.

Weekly Problem

The roman numeral they choose will always be the same as the sum of the stars they appear in. Many of the legends about constellations are based on Greek and Roman mythology.

Writing for Science

See TN - Level B - WRITING FOR SCIENCE.

Challenge

Copying star patterns will help your students recognize constellations in the night sky. See the Glow-in-the-Dark Paint Box on Page 2 of the TNs for alternative ideas.

Puzzle

You may want to do the first few moves together. Tell your students that they can only move one square each time - either to the left, right, above, below, or on a diagonal. Remind them to look at the KEY carefully to determine their next move.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Level D

Main Concepts: Constellations are patterns of stars. Due to Earth's orbit around the Sun, the constellations are found in different areas of the sky during the course of the year. Civilizations around the world looked for constellations and named them, often based on legends. Starlight can take many light years to travel to Earth.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) starfish 2) starts 3) starboard 4) starving 5) starch. Bonus: e.g., Star Trek, Star Wars, Star Spangled Banner, etc. In addition, try using the Bonus activity for a classroom competition.

Weekly Lab

Encourage your students to research other constellations and to make additional constellation cards. You can also do this activity using glow-in-the-dark paint on the stars or small glow-in-the-dark star stickers.

Weekly Problem

Answers: ALASKA - 48, 88, 48, 75, 91, 48.

Writing for Science

After your students have created their constellations and "legends" for these stars, tell them that these stars are actually the constellations Orion the Hunter and Canis Major the Great Dog. Show them (or draw) this picture. Draw their attention to the 3 stars in Orion's belt which point to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. Read them the legend of Orion on the Star Chart, which can be found on the back page of the Teaching Notes.

Challenge

This activity will help your students understand the concept of parallax. The closer a star is to the Earth, as compared to any background stars, the greater its parallax. Parallax shows how a stars appears to shift when it is in front of a background of other stars. Bonus: Have your students choose partners, and take turns holding the pencil closer to the board for the other to view.

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

Level E

Main Concepts: Constellations are patterns of stars. Civilizations around the world looked for constellations and named them, often based on legends. Due to Earth's orbit around the Sun, the constellations are found in different areas of the sky during the course of the year.

Vocabulary

Answers: 1) starfish 2) starts 3) starboard 4) starving 5) starch 6) startle. Use the Bonus activity for a classroom competition. Bonus: e.g., Star Trek, Star Wars, Star Spangled Banner, etc.

Weekly Lab

Encourage your students to research additional constellations and to make more constellation cards. This activity can also be done using glow-in-the-dark paint or small glow-in-the-dark stickers. Have them work with partners to test distances to find the best spot for projection.

Weekly Problem

Answers: AUSTRALIA - 720, 972,884, 918, 840, 720, 961, 864, 720. The constellation is the Southern Cross. The Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom, is in the upper left corner of the flag to represent Australia's part in the British Commonwealth.

Writing for Science

After your students have created their updated constellations, tell them that these stars are actually the constellations Orion the Hunter and Canis Major the Great Dog. Have them refer to the Star Chart, found on the back page of the Teaching Notes, to see how the stars are connected. Also have them read the legend of Orion. Draw attention to the 3 stars in Orion's belt, which point to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky.

Challenge

The closer a star is to the Earth, as compared to any background stars, the greater its parallax. Bonus: Have your students choose partners, and take turns holding the pencil closer to the board for the other to view.

Puzzle

Your students will subtract from 2003 to find the correct answers. Answers: 1) Alioth 2) Alkaid 3) Dubhe 4) Mizar 5) Merak.

Level F

Main Concepts: Constellations are patterns of stars. Civilizations around the world have looked for constellations and named them, often based on legends. Sailors, farmers, and Indian tribes used stars as guides. Due to Earth's orbit around the Sun, the constellations are found in different areas of the sky during the course of the year. Starlight can take many light years to travel to Earth.

Weekly Lab

To practice using their quadrant, hang paper stars along the ceiling or upper walls of your classroom (or just indicate spots for your students to measure). People have recorded and measured stars for thousands of years using this type of instrument.

Weekly Problem

Answers: AUSTRALIA - 10,472, 17,544, 29,493, 30,233, 17,024, 10,472, 69,372, 46,134, 10,472. The constellation is the Southern Cross. The Union Jack, the flag of the United Kingdom, is in the upper left corner of the flag to represent Australia's part in the British Commonwealth.

Writing for Science

After your students have created their updated constellations, tell them that these stars are actually the constellations Orion the Hunter and Canis Major the Great Dog. Have them refer to the Star Chart, found on the back page of the Teaching Notes, to see how the stars are connected. Also have them read the legend of Orion. Draw attention to the 3 stars in Orion's belt, which point to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky.

Challenge

Encourage your students to research additional constellations and to make more constellation cards. Have them find out how different cultures interpreted these star patterns. You can also do this activity using glow-in-the-dark paint on the stars.

Puzzle

Your students will first divide the distances of each star by 6 trillion and write their answers in the blank spaces under `years ago'. (If necessary, remind them that they should ignore the word trillion and simply divide the numbers, as in 468/6 for Merak, and so on.) Next, they will subtract their answers from 2003 to find the correct years for each star. Answers: 1) Alioth 2) Alkaid 3) Dubhe 4) Mizar 5) Merak.

Helpful Sources for Planning your Science Weekly Classroom Activities

Recommended Resources

* Couper, Heather and Nigel Henbest. How the Universe Works. Pleasantville, NY: Reader's Digest, 1994

* Lee, Fran. Wishing on a Star: Constellation Stories and Stargazing Activities for Kids, Layton, Utah: Gibbs Smith, 2001

* Moore, Patrick. Stargazing, Woodbury, NY: Barron's Educational Series, 1985

* Nicolson, lain. The Illustrated World of Space, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991

* Rey, H. A. The Stars: A New Way to See Them, New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1976

* Tennant, Catherine. The Box of Stars, Boston: Bulfinch Press - Little, Brown & Co., 1993

* VanCleave, Janice. Constellations for Every Kid. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1997

* VanCleave, Janice. Astronomy for Every Kid. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1991

* Zim, Herbert and Robert Baker. Stars, New York: Golden Press, 1985

Internet Resources

Discovery Channel - skywatching page for kids -

http://www.school.discovery.com/schooladventures/skywatch

Discovery Channel - computer lesson on the apparent motion of stars in the sky -

http://www.school.discovery.com/lessonplans/programs/heavensabove

Translations of the 88 constellation names - http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004505.html

Hawaiian Astronomical Society - sky maps - http://www.hawastsoc.org/deepsky/constellations.html

Online encyclopedia of mythology and folklore - http://www.pantheon.org

Sky and Telescope Magazine - astronomy news, facts, and guides - http://www.skyandtelescope.com

Online planetarium - http://einstein.stcloudstate.edu/Dome/foyer2.html

University of California San Diego's astronomy tutorial - http://casswww.ucsd.edu/public/astroed.html

Materials Needed for Issue 9 - Plastics

Pre-A, A - water, borax, white glue (like Elmer's[R]), plastic cups, zipper-lock bags, plastic milk jugs, plastic soft drink bottles

B, C, D - water, borax, clear plastic cups, white glue, stirring sticks, zipper-lock bags, plastic milk jugs (Level B - plastic soft drink bottles also)

E - water, borax, clear plastic cups, white glue, stirring sticks, zipper-lock bags, assorted recyclable plastic bottles and containers - (Try to find plastic types I - 6, as identified by the number inside the 3-arrow recycling logo.)

F - water-soluble markers, paper clips, water, borax, clear plastic cups, white glue, stirring sticks, zipper-lock bags, rulers, assorted recyclable plastic bottles and containers - (Try to find plastic types 1 - 6, as identified by the number inside the 3-arrow recycling logo.)

STAR CHART

CONSTELLATIONS OF THE WINTER SKY

[ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

SOME CONSTELLATION LEGENDS

LEGENDS

In ancient times, people believed that goddesses and gods ruled the world and had magical powers. The Greeks and Romans had many stories about the adventures of these gods and the people they ruled.

BOOTES (the Herdsman)

Bootes is the keeper and protector of bears. He guards Ursa Major and Ursa Minor. He can be seen herding them around the Northern Pole of the sky. Bootes is the son of Zeus, the king of gods, and the human maiden Callisto.

URSA MAJOR

When the goddess Artemis became very angry with Callisto, Zeus saved her. He turned Callisto into a great bear in the sky near the Northern Pole. Bootes, her son, watches over her.

CYGNUS (the Swan)

When the mighty soldier Cygnus was killed, his father Poseidon (god of the seas) changed him into a swan. Cygnus can be seen flying towards the Milky Way on outstretched wings.

GEMINI (the Twins)

The twins Castor, the Horseman, and Pollux, the Boxer, are always together. They traveled at sea with the Argonauts and calmed the stormy waters. They represent brotherly love and are a sign of good luck to sailors.

ORION (the Hunter)

Orion boasted that he was the greatest hunter in the world. This boast angered the god Jupiter, who sent a scorpion to sting him. The goddess Diana saved Orion by putting him in the sky far away from the scorpion. The 3 stars on Orion's belt point to Sirius, the brightest star in the sky. It is part of the constellation Canus Major, the Great Dog, which can be seen next to Orion.

CASSIOPEIA (the Queen)

Cassiopeia claimed she was more beautiful than all the lovely maidens who guarded the sea, called the sea nymphs. When the gods heard this, they punished her by making her live in the sky forever upside down, next to her husband, King Cepheus, and her daughter, Andromeda.

HERCULES

Hercules is one of the greatest heroes of all time. He wore a magic lion skin of invincibility and performed 12 legendary labors (tasks). When he died, he joined the gods at Olympus, their home.

VIRGO (the Maiden)

Virgo, the goddess of justice, spent her days searching for peace, but only found sadness. So she decided to live in the sky instead. She carried a stalk of wheat, which broke. The grains scattered and became stars.
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Copyright 2002 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

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Date:Dec 12, 2002
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