Constatativ study concerning the manifestation level of the anaerobe effort's capacity at pupils from high school.
In searching the identity, youth try to harmonize "in an own system the values and beliefs of every person that means something for them: parents, teachers and age group" (R. Atkinson, E.Smith, D. Bem, 2002). In the situation in which these values are incompatible, it is possible the appearance of role confusion and the successive testing of many roles, before finding out the own identity.
Domain specialists consider that the success of youth, in a professional plan, is conditioned by the biologic, motor resources of the individual (the motor capacity, the physical condition), that creates a healthy intern environment, balanced, a well physical and psychic state responsible for the working productivity; depending on the implication degree in the motor activities, they are classified in: sedentary teenagers, teenagers vaguely interested in movement and active teenagers, on a motor plan (A. Dragnea, A. Bota, 1999).
In order to eliminate the noxious effects of the social activity over the health state of youth, but also in order to insure a good effort's capacity and psychic capacity, man must posses a good health state, physical and psychic strength, easy to realize at the age of pupils from high school cycle. Physical education and sport contributes at forming an aware attitude concerning the practicing of the physical exercise in the free time, in order to obtain certain benefic effects, of long term, through the independent sport activity (M.Finichiu, M., 2008.
The peoples of the ancient world had made the movement and corporal harmony virtues; across the existence, a series of civilizations, had made from this movement a national cult; the Greek palestras, the Roman thermals represented true temples for a physical development as harmonious as possible, places for shows but also for health. In the contemporary era, movement, sport, rule more and more the humanity life, becoming true shows and financial sources, with an important role in the political influence and social existence. The diversity of acts and motor actions but also their number and variety give the level of the motor capacity level for every individual. Man's motor capacity evolves limitative, not linear, once with the increase and the individual development, life and quotidian activities contributing to the enrichment of the skills and motor abilities luggage.
The number of motor skills and abilities of which an individual is capable to use and put them into practice represent the true measurement of his motorness (A.Prescornita, 2004) that if it is accompanied by high indices of the conditioned and coordinative capacities lead to the obtaining of a high sport performance; only the predispositions and aptitudes are not sufficient (V. Ludu, 1969) if they are not accompanied by lots of work and a very well managed training. On the same scale with the performance capacity notion, used a lot in the activity domain of the physical education and sport, we can place the notions of performance capacity, physical capacity and effort capacity, used more frequently in the performance sport and high performance sport.
The physical effort capacity defines the organism's possibilities to develop a travail, a mechanic thing of an intensity as higher as possible, with a duration as longer as possible (C. Bota, 2000) and presents two forms: the anaerobe effort's capacity and the aerobe effort's capacity.
The effort's capacity represents the maximum power of which an individual is capable to realize, it being the maximum intensity of the effort that can be realized by a subject, or representing the maximum working quantity of a mechanical thing that can be made in the time unity of an individual (M. Georgescu 1977).
The organism's effort capacity represents a resultant of the functional interaction of organs and systems having at the base the specific energetic potential, from which it results a mechanical thing expressed in acknowledged measurement units (A.Dragnea, A., S.Teodorescu, 2002).
The energetic sub layer immediately usable is the phosphate-macroergical connection from ATP of which resistance is realized in the intense efforts and really short ones on the account of CP; both substances with phosphate-macroergic connections constitute the so-called system of the phosphagenes.
Research objectives consist of:
* Making physical education programs and differentiating the requirements for each study year and class, that traces the useful indicators in the perception of the anaerobe effort's capacity at pupils of both sexes.
* Knowing the values of the anaerobe effort's capacity at the age of 14-15 can use as reference term, tracing/selecting the elements talented for the performance sport.
* In the scholar sport branches where the evolution of the anaerobe effort's capacity represents a limitative factor of the motor performance, it is urgent to know the evolution of this capacity to determine the optimum age for selection.
* Improving the anaerobe effort's capacity is conditioned by the individuals' age subject to the experiment.
* Sex particularities influence the values of the anaerobe effort's capacity, at this age.
* The appreciation of obtaining weak results are due to the reduced number of physical education classes and also of the minor preoccupations for the independent practice of the physical exercises, at the individual level and group level from where the subjects are.
Research procedures and methods
The research has been developed at the Technical College "Lazar Edeleanu" from Ploiesti, during the period 15.10-20.11.2009, the subjects being pupils from the 9th-12th grades, with ages between 14-19, clinically healthy (100 boys and 106 girls).
The used research methods and techniques have been the observation method, the experimental method (the provoked checking experiment in order to observe and measure the produced effects, natural--realized in natural conditions, represented by the physical education class, in a transversal section, synchronic, at the same time), the statistic-mathematic method and the graphic one (the processing method, the analysis and the obtained data by applying the tests processing). The used test for the evaluation of the maximum anaerobe alactacid power (expressed in kg/s by measuring the detent at vertical) was the Sargent test (C.Bota, 2000).
The development manner of the testing:
* The effort consisted of the making of three maximum jumps on vertical from standing (the detent on vertical through which we measure and the value of the motor capacity/quality combined with strengthspeed, named the explosive force at the level of the inferior limbs), after a previous warming period of the making musculature, recording the best value from the jump (expressed in centimeters).
* The measurement of individual body weight (expressed in kg).
* Introducing the obtained results in the calculus formula: where P = [square root of (4.95xG)] x [square root of (D)]; the power expressed in kg/s; G = body weight; D = detent on vertical; 4,95 represents a constant.
* The appreciation scale after Dal Monte 1998 for the individuals with age between 15-20. Men: weak grade < 113; satisfactory between 113-149; medium between 150-187; good between 188-224; very good >224. Women: weak grade <92; satisfactory between 92-120; medium between 121-151; good between 152-182; very good >182.
Research results and their interpretation
The analysis and processing of the obtained data has been realized on the basis of the calculus of the arithmetic mean (X), of the standard deviation (S), of the variability coefficient (Cv), of the estimation of the medium error (EEm) and of the significance of the difference between the two means--the "z" test (M. Niculescu, 2002).
The obtained results after making the testing and their introduction in the calculus formula, shows us the following situation, on age and sex groups:
* The arithmetic mean calculated for the researched pattern (table 2 and figure 3) presents values, both for boys and girls, that is framed, after the appreciation scale, at the level of "weak" grade.
For the boys' pattern, the calculated arithmetic mean is framed in a 58% percentage at the level of "weak" grade, 29% satisfactory grade and 13% "medium" grade.
On age and class groups, the maximum anaerobe power values (table 1, figure 1) are appreciated as followed:
* 14-15 years (9th grade) 68% "weak" grade and 32% "satisfactory" grade;
* 15-16 years (10th grade) 64% "weak" grade and 36% "satisfactory" grade;
* 16-17 years (11th grade) 48% "weak" grade, 24% "satisfactory" grade and 28% "medium" grade;
* 17-18 years (12th grade) 52% "weak" grade, 24% "satisfactory" grade and 24% "medium" grade.
For the girls pattern, the calculated arithmetic mean is framed in a 52,83% at the level of "weak" grade, 33,01% "satisfactory" grade and 14,15% "medium" grade.
On age and class groups, the maximum anaerobe power values (table 1, figure 1) are appreciated as followed:
* 14-15 years (9th grade) 42,85% "weak" grade, 28,57% "satisfactory" grade and 28,57% "medium" grade;
* 15-16 years (10th grade) 55,55% "weak" grade, 25,92 "satisfactory" grade and 18,51 "medium" grade;
* 16-17 years (11th grade) 52% "weak" grade, 40% "satisfactory" grade and 8% "medium" grade;
* 18-19 years (12th grade) 61,53 % "weak" grade and 38,46% "satisfactory" grade.
* The variability coefficient Cv% (table 2) calculated, presents us the perceptual approximation of the report between the standard deviation and the arithmetic mean, as followed: at the classes and boys groups level a group with moderate homogeneity (18,52%) and at the level of classes and girls groups a group with high homogeneity (12,95%).
* The calculus of the estimation of the medium error EEm (table 2) presents us a framing in the value interval 100,71-102,69 (101,70+0,99) of the arithmetic mean, for the boys pattern, representing the trust interval of the mean at the significance level p<0,01. The trust limits of the pattern mean are 100,71 and 102,69 and the real mean is between this value interval.
For the girl pattern the arithmetic mean si between the value interval 88,05-90,09 (89,07+1,02), representing the trust interval of the mean at the significance level p<0,01. The trust limits of the pattern mean are 88,05 and 90,09 and the real mean is between this value interval.
* Calculating the significance between the two means (table 2)--the "z" test = 8,95, we can notice that it is higher than the "t" value from the Fischer table, so, the difference between the two means is significant at the significance level p<0,01, the research hypothesis is valid.
1. The anaerobe effort's capacity represents an indicator that is dependent of the pupils' age, until the age of 17, boys 11th grade; at girls this aspect is obvious only until the age of 14-15, 9th grade.
2. The anaerobe effort's capacity progresses in a different manner at boys in comparison with girls; girls have a better anaerobe effort's capacity, reported to the appreciation scale presented by the domain specialists.
3. Calculated values for the maximum individual anaerobe power are close, fact that denotes an evolution of it similar, generally valid, from individual to individual.
4. The higher percentage of "weak" grades at measuring this physiologic indicator allows us to state that the researched subjects have a weak concern in what concerns the maintaining of the health state by making independent sport activities, movement in the fresh air.
5. To limit the practice of physical exercise just as a scholar obligation (as it is looked for today through all the education programs, that limit the number of physical education classes, motivating the specific of the specialties and exceeding the weekly number of study hours) would mean a serious error for the young generation, that is why we sustain the necessity of the increase of physical education and sport classes, especially at the 11th and 12th grades, from the superior high school cycle and not only.
6. Practicing the favored sport, in a rhythmic manner, independent or organized, is made in a permanent necessity, representing a call to reflection to apply in the daily life at the specific means of the favored sports, as factors of fortification and relaxation.
7. Measuring the maximum anaerobe power, through the Sargent test, has pointed out the fact that, the development of the anaerobe effort's capacity can have at its base the use during the physical education and sport of the self-organizing capacities, self-leading and self-evaluation of pupils.
8. The assimilation process of the motor skills and abilities has aimed the increase of the independence degree of the pupils in the instructive-educational process, through a thoroughly observation and the reception of information and through an aware and creative attitude.
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DRAGNEA, A., TEODORESCU--MATE, S., 2002, Sport's Theory, FEST Publishing House, Bucharest, 245-246.
DRAGNEA, A., BOTA, A., 1999, Motor activities theory, Didactic and Pedagogic Publishing House, Bucharest, 98-99.
FINICHIU, M., 2008, Physical education and sport scholar and university. The Petroleum and Gas University Publishing House, Ploiesti, 45-55.
GEORGESCU, M., 1977, Medical control and first aid, IEFS Publishing House, Bucharest, 67-69. LUDU, V., 1969, Skill and the method of its development, CNEFS Publishing House, Bucharest, 12-13.
NICULESCU, M., 2002, Scientific research methodology in the physical education and sport, ANEFS Publishing House, Bucharest, 475-498.
PRESCORNITA, A., 2004, Motor capacity and coordinative capacities, The Publishing House of the Transilvania University, Brasov, 109-111.
Physical Education and Sport Department
Petroleum and Gas University of Ploiesti, ROMANIA
Table 1. Number of subjects--appreciation scale Grade Boys (number of pupils and %) Age group 14/15 15/16 16/17 17/18 14/18 Weak 17 16 12 13 58% Satisfactory 8 9 6 6 29% Medium -- -- 7 6 13% Girls (number of pupils and %) Age group 14/15 15/16 16/17 17/18 14/18 Weak 12 15 13 16 52,83% Satisfactory 8 7 10 10 33,01% Medium 8 5 2 -- 14,15% Table 2. Calculated statistic indicators Boys/grade Statistic IX X XI XII Pattern indicators X 89,13 95,67 112,09 109.98 101,70 S 10.66 9,97 9,65 9,09 9,90 Cv% 17,98 18,66 18,01 19,45 18,52 EEm 0,99 The "z" Test 8,95 Girls/grade Statistic IX X XI XII Pattern indicators X 93.17 90.44 88.21 87.01 89.07 S 10,45 9,97 10,88 10.25 10,49 Cv% 13,67 14,05 11,78 12,32 12,95 EEm 1,02 The "z" Test Figura 1. Number of descriptions age group--test Sargent Boys Medium Satisfactory Weak 14-15 0 8 17 15-16 0 9 16 16-17 7 6 12 17-18 6 6 13 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figura 2. Number of descriptions age group--test Sargent Girls Medium Satisfactory Weak 14-15 8 8 12 15-16 5 7 15 16-17 2 10 13 17-18 0 10 16 Note: Table made from bar graph. Figura 3. Arithmetic means values Boys Girls Class XII 109.98 87.01 Class XI 112.09 88.21 Class X 95.67 90.44 Class IX 89.13 93.17 The maximum anaerobe power Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Publication:||Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health|
|Date:||Jun 1, 2010|
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