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Conceptual Model of Innovation Capability in Industrial and Academic Research Centers: A Systematic Review.

Introduction

Research and Development (R&D) is the only path towards the production and knowledge acquisition and is the basis for the innovation, greater productivity, and sustainable and pervasive excellence (Paolillo & Brown, 1978; Brouwer & Kleinknecht, 1997; Ulku, 2007). Nowadays, it is the scientific research indices that determine a country's status and ranks amongst others. In developed countries, the investment on research and development is regarded as something self-evident; something that determines the budget allocation, financial issues and future conditions of the organizations (Rabiey, 2008).

The companies use the research and development for leading and support of the innovation (Edwin, 1991; Hall & Bagchi-Sen, 2002; Daniel Amrik, 2006). A history of the research and development in the developed countries especially Japan, United States, and China (over 60% of R&D costs spent worldwide) suggests their increased focus on innovation and entrepreneurship in the research and development issue (Yadollahi Farsi et al., 2012; Momaezi, 2013). The Chinese push ahead with the growth of science and technology through adopting the thinking "Science and technology is the first productive force". One of China's strategic policies for national development is encouraging the researchers to create innovations and to find ways for their application in industry (Xin, 2002). Long-term vision, the focus on human resources, intra-organizational growth, and accelerated innovation are among the most important features of management in the R&D section of Japan. The governing principle in Japanese research institutes is warmly welcoming and rapid circulation of new thoughts which causes the growth of innovation (Salehi & Banisi, 1996). In the United States, the commercialization of research results plays a major role in development and economic growth of the country (Karlsson, 2004). Self-entrepreneurship training in the universities and investment in innovation sector are considered as commercialization of research results in the United States (Jamaly & Shafizada, 2012). Iran's 20-year vision plan considers 6 axes aiming at technological development: "Conducting and leadership, research and development, budget allocation for research and development, human resource development, circulation of technology, and promotion of technological entrepreneurship" (SCCR, 2011).

The development and innovation plan of medical education and research has been arranged in line with moving towards the third university generation and empowerment of the medical sciences universities which is of top priorities of Iran's health system comprehensive plan of higher education (HBI, 2015).

World Health Organization defines the innovation in health system as identification of policies, systems, products and technologies, services, and new transportation methods or their improvement for the people's health and welfare (WHO, 2017). In fact, health innovation will be responsible for meeting the unmet needs of public health by developing new thought and work methods through focusing on the needs of vulnerable groups (WHO, 2017).

Innovation in any organization is vital for individuals, groups, and organizations (West & Altink, 1996). As a comprehensive definition, the innovation is defined as the organizational potential for rehabilitation of products, services, strategies, and new managerial activities (Kianto, 2008; Baregheh et al., 2009; Rosenblatt, 2011) applicable anywhere in the organization especially in the R&D unit.

The innovation capability means the capability, talent, potential, and ability to achieve innovation in the future (Cristina & Benavides-Velasco, 2004; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Saunila, 2014; Aryanto et al., 2015). A set of skills and skill patterns used by the organizations for compilation and implementation of an innovative strategy that includes the creation, development, and optimization of resource for the innovation (Helfat & Peteraf, 2009; Malek Akhlagh et al., 2013), that can provide for the innovation probability in the future and continuity as well as the duration of existing innovation in the organization is called the organizational innovation capability (Dehqan et al., 2012). Numerous factors affect the organizational innovation capability; as an example, the knowledge and skills brought by an employee into the organization have a direct relationship with the innovation capability of the organization (Raffai, 2014). The innovation capability assigns widespread spectrum dimensions and components to itself in the literature. In a study, the learning ability, research and development capability, marketing ability, ability of resources, and the organizational strategy have been introduced as the organizational innovation capability (Teece, 2009; Kindstrom et al., 2013). Also, the organizational structure and culture, type of strategy, knowledge process, market strategy, human resources management, legal and political framework, and the economic environment have been referred to as the organizational innovation capability (Pierce & Delbecq, 1977; Smith et al., 2008; Zurina et al., 2011; Verma et al., 2014). The results of several studies indicate the possibility of developing innovation capability (Kessler & Chakrabarti, 1996; Lawson & Samon, 2001; Martensen et al., 2007; Teece, 2009; Giannopoulou et al., 2011; Kindstrom et al., 2013). Smith et al. (2008) introduces nine key factors effective in organizational capability for innovation management.

Considering the responsibility of academic research centers for production of science for further authority and sustainable development of the country (Yaghoubi et al., 2017), this paper was first designed for identifying the components and dimensions of innovation capability in academic research institutes; However, due to the limited number of published articles on the innovation capability in academic research centers, and considering that the objectives and activities of all R&D research centers are moving towards the innovation and development of the organization, thus having the relatively identical identity, the authors added the studies on the industrial research centers. This study, therefore, was designed aiming at identifying and designing a conceptual model of innovation capability in industrial and academic research centers, especially in medical sciences universities, through the application of the systematic review method.

The study has been conducted to find answers for the following two questions:

1. What are the industrial and academic research centers' innovation capabilities (especially the medical sciences universities)?

2. What are the relationships between the dimensions and components of industrial and academic research centers innovation capabilities (especially the medical sciences universities)?

Materials and Methods

This is a systematic review of the papers published in the field of innovation capability dimension in industrial and academic research centers, especially medical sciences universities. The authors have used the standard guideline of systematic review (PRISMA) that includes 27 items (Liberati et al., 2009), to review 342 articles on the strategic management of innovation published in seven journals from 1992 to 2010.

These studies have been undertaken through searching in Iranian electronic data banks including the Scientific Islamic Database (SID), Scientific Medical Papers' Database (IranMedex), Iranian Research Institute for Science and Technology (IranDoc), Iranian Journals Databank, and foreign scientific databases like Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar. The main study search phrases included the innovation capability, capability in innovation, innovation ability, innovation possibility, innovation in the universities, innovation in research and development (R&D) institutes, and the similar keywords in journals.

Searching was limited to all the Persian language papers published in scientific research journals of the country and the English papers pertaining to the subject of the study published inside and outside of the country during the years 2000-2016 time span. (No innovation capability related paper was found in Iranian journals published before the year 2009).

Selection criteria

The entry criteria of papers included the publication of the papers in credible scientific research journals, language of the paper (Persian or English), and full text of the paper. The exclusion criteria of papers included inaccessibility to the full text of the paper, letter to the editor or the papers published in non-credible journals; also the papers with shared subjects published in Persian and English language journals were considered as identical.

Data extraction, variables and data analysis

Researcher-made data extraction form based on the study objective was used for analysis of the papers. This form included parts of the article details including the author's name, publication year, paper's objective, article type, study methodology, and the information relevant to the innovation capability, the dimensions and the innovation capability components, and the papers' final results. Two researchers were involved in the selection process and data extraction activities. In this study, based on the existing studies, the innovation capability dimensions are classified into two intra and extra-organizational dimensions.

* Intra-organizational dimension. The potential and actual intra-organizational capacities that the organization has the power of controlling and organizing, and are considered as the strength points of the organization for innovation.

* Extra-organizational dimension. The opportunities through which the organization can take steps towards the organizational innovation, mostly having supportive and facilitating roles.

The main characteristics of these selected articles, based on the aim and variables of this study, are presented in Table 1.

The main features of the studies and their results have been summarized considering the following variables:

* Type of study. Considering the research design, the study classification included the sectional studies, correlational-descriptive studies, descriptive-analytical studies, qualitative studies, and review studies.

* Target population. Target population constituted from 5 categories based on the participants' role in the study that included research and development (R&D) centers, faculty members, researchers and employees, senior managers and data reviewers.

* Study approach. This variable shows the conducted studies approach in line with the description of innovation capability, identifying innovative capability dimensions, factors affecting the innovation capability and the relationships between innovation capability dimensions.

* Study language. This variable indicated the language into which the study or article was published, that is Persian or English.

* Presentation year. Included the two publication year classifications of 2000-9 and 2010-16 AD.

Results

Searching the data sources was performed for two month based on the keywords and searching strategies until January 4, 2017, and 43 Persian and 169 English papers were selected from among 173 and 879 Persian and English articles respectively. The title and abstract of all papers in indices were considered systematically by the author based on the relevancy to the study subject as well as the inclusion and exclusion criteria. In this step, 109 papers (21 Persian and 88 English papers) were entered into the study, as 11 papers with no access to the full texts, and 4 duplicates (Persian and English) were excluded from the study and 94 papers remained. After exclusion of the papers lacking the inclusion criteria, those papers with more comprehensive information and more relevancy to the study objective were selected and their text were assessed by two independent judges and experts in innovation management. In this step, 32 papers were selected and 8 papers were also selected from those referred to in the reference section of the above papers and finally 40 papers were selected. The flow chart of the literature review and data extraction is presented in Figure 1.

Findings show that the publication of papers pertaining to the innovation capability has increased considerably during the recent decade. Between the year 2000 to 2009, 2 Persian (5%) and 6 English (15%) papers and from the year 2010 to 2016, 14 Persian (35%) and 18 English (45%) papers have been published showing a growing trend. Eight articles (20%) were of review study type, 12 papers (30%) included descriptive-analytical type, 6 papers (15%) were qualitative and 14 papers (35%) comprised the descriptive-correlational paper type. From among 40 papers, 24 papers (60%) were in English language. The target population consists of the managers (20%), staff and researchers (35%), industrial and academic research centers (17%), university scientific board members (7.5%), and data reviewers (20%). The review results for the selected articles are summarized in Table 2.

This study was a broad systematic review in which more than 400 abstract papers and full text of more than 100 articles have been studied. Based on the conducted study, the innovation capability dimensions and their relationships in two internal and external dimensions were plotted in a conceptual model framework (Fig. 2). On the basis of the reviewed studies, 6 intra-organizational and 2 extra-organizational capacities effective in organization's innovation capability and innovative ability have been determined.

Analysis of Model and Discussion

Based on the existing studies, the organizational innovation capability was plotted in two intra and extra-organizational dimensions.

Internal Dimension of Organizational Capability

Most of the studies believe that intra-organizational capacity, ability and competency constitute the organizational innovative capabilities (Kianto, 2008; Teece, 2009; Saunila et al., 2014; Verma et al., 2014). The review results showed that the innovation capability is multi-dimensional and consequently an overlapping combination of the capacities is created. In intra-organizational dimension, 6 capacities including the management and leadership, organizational resources (human capital, structure and strategy, financial and technology sources), knowledge and information management, research and development (R&D), organizational culture, and intangible aspects of organizational innovation capability constitute the innovation capability (Table 3).

Leadership and management capability

The managerial styles and methods (Smith et al., 2008; Wang & Tsai, 2014), human resources management (John & Doty, 1996), the morale and the manager's ability are effective factors of organizational innovation (Bincheng & Qian, 2013). Today, the traditional methods of managing organizations are unable to respond adequately to the competitive and variable environment requirements of the industry (Yaghoubi et al., 2012).

The leadership and decision making processes (Zurina et al., 2011; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Nisula & Kianto, 2013; Saunila et al., 2014) and innovation management (Smith et al., 2008), especially the innovation performance measurement due to correction of mistakes may result in the development of innovation capability (Nilsson & Ritzen, 2014). The studies' results are indicative of the significance of this ability in the organizational innovation and its effect on other organizational innovation capabilities. Innovation process mismanagement is a major barrier to the organization's innovation (Assink, 2006). The result of senior managers' decision making process, strategic orientation, organizational learning and the planned systems and rules for the staff encouragement and reward all affect the performance and development of other organizational capabilities of the organization (Amabile & Kramer, 2010; Bel, 2010; Lisboa et al., 2011; Bincheng & Qian, 2013; Wang & Tsai, 2014; Haghighi Kafash et al., 2015).

Organizational sources capability

Human capital

The most important capability and the major capital of an organization especially in research centers is its human capital (Zurina et al., 2011); environmental monitoring, idea making and personal knowledge are among the capacities of this capability (Bahadori et al., 2013; Haghighi Kafash et al., 2015; 2016), risk taking (Siadat et al., 2013), personal creativity (Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Siadat et al., 2013), knowledge, previous experiences and skills (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002), personal learning and personal development (Saida Ardakani et al., 2013) all constitute the personal characteristics of the employees which can affect the organizational innovation (Zurina et al.. 2011; Siadat et al., 2013). Results of the three-year longitudinal study undertaken was indicative of the human capital interactions with the organization and the social capital on various types of innovation (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005).

Organizational structure and strategy capital

The deducted strategy and structure shall be necessary for innovation in the organization (John & Doty, 1996; Zurina et al., 2011). There is more possibility for change and innovation in decentralization (Mirkamalian & Rezaian, 2015), and horizontal expansion (Lai et al., 2015) of the organization. However, different components such as intra-organizational relationships, managerial, cultural and organizational knowledge capacities concerning organizational structure are also seen in categorizations made by some studies (Subramaniam & Youndt, 2005; Haghighi Kafash et al., 2015; 2016). The organizational structure is basically under the effect of the management and leadership capability in terms of the complexity, formality, and concentration of the decision making in the organization (Zurina et al., 2011; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Saunila et al., 2014; Mirkamalian & Rezaian, 2015). The results of Lai et al. (2015) study however were indicative of ineffectiveness of the organizational structure on the innovation.

The innovation as a competitive advantage and long term performance in the organization requires a common organizational vision and strategic orientation (Lawson & Samon, 2001), and the objectives of research and development (R&D) organizations must be regulated to support the development of innovation capability in the organization (Kianto, 2008; Nisula & Kianto, 2013). Findings of this study showed that the five type known innovations including the market innovation, product, strategy, process, and behavior can be accessible based on the adopted strategy of the organization (Ibrahim et al., 2009).

Financial and technological capital

Romijn and Albaladejo (2002) believes that the research centers to achieve professional superiority and a sustainable competitive advantage require supportive financial budget during the first 5-6 years of establishment. The supply of resources network is one of the capabilities effective in the organizational innovation (Delbufalo & Cerruti, 2012; Wang & Tsai, 2014); also the exclusive technology resources are considered an organizational innovation capability (Vieites & Calvo 2011; Yi et al., 2013).

In sum, all the three capability resources capitals (human, structure and strategy, financial and technology) are affected by the performance and behavior of the management and leadership and have bidirectional relationship with the knowledge management and research technology management.

Knowledge and information management

Knowledge is one of the basic capabilities of organizational innovation (Zurina et al., 2011; Andreeva, 2012; Saunila, 2014; 2016). Combining the knowledge elements in the organization is one of the important challenges of the management, neglecting of which could result in the degeneration of innovation and creativity in the organizations (Yaghoubi et al., 2011a; 2011b). All the knowledge management processes (Kianto, 2011; Nisula & Kianto, 2013; Inkinen, 2015) including the acquisition (Liao et al., 2007; Fulvio & Miguel, 2013), knowledge sharing (Rifat & Fusun, 2010; Ramazanian et al., 2013; Zareei et al., 2015), and exploitation of knowledge affect the organizational learning (Davarzani et al., 2011; Zafarian et al., 2012; Hailekiros & Renyong, 2016) are regarded as organizational capability. Paying attention to the organizational learning and creating learner organizations helps promote the innovation and creativity culture in the workplace and among employees (Yaghoubi et al., 2010). Experimental studies' results indicate that the knowledge sharing is effective both directly and indirectly in the organizational innovation through creating motivation and empowerment of the employees and thereby increasing the knowledge absorption capacity (Liao et al., 2007). Huge organizations need the development of their data sources to adapt with the changing circumstances for better competition in the market. Domestic resources and market information as well as the other resources must be well managed (Vieites & Calvo, 2011).

Research and development (R&D) capability

According to the Frascati and Oslo instructions, the research and development (R&D) activities are necessary for technology innovation (OECD, 2002; OECD & Eurostat, 2005). The experimental results of the studies are also indicative of direct effect of R&D on different types of innovation (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002; Vieites & Calvo, 2011; Lai et al., 2015). In most of the studies, the R&D are recognized as an important and essential capability for establishment of innovation in the organization (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002; Vieites & Calvo, 2011; Zurina et al., 2011; Haghighi Kafash et al., 2015; Lai et al., 2015; Haghighi Kafash et al., 2016). The R&D work climate is important for innovation (Abbey & Dickson, 1983). The activity and performance of research and development capability is affected by all company capacities and abilities (Sher & Yang, 2005). The resources capability is effective on the performance of R&D activities through human capital performance and direct effect of technological and financial capital. The outcome of R&D will affect all the existing capacities of the organization through solving a problem, devising a new technology, introducing a new process or product and so on; that is, the research and development (R&D) capability has a bidirectional relationship with other organizational capabilities in line with the creation of innovation.

Organizational culture capability

The organizational culture is one of the essential components in the individuals' perception of the organizational objectives (Shoujun et al., 2014). Organizational culture gives identity to an organization. Principally the organizational culture is used for describing the conditions the employees are faced with, and that affects their attitude and behavior (Mirkamalian & Rezaian, 2015). Goal setting and team orientation, integration, performance emphasis, innovation orientation, members' participation, and reward orientation are presented as elements of corporate culture (Cheung et al., 2011).The organizational culture's capability significantly affects the innovation (Valencia et al., 2010; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Mirkamalian & Rezaian, 2015).

Organizational culture is a key factor in innovation management (Smith et al., 2008).

The experimental studies results are indicative of the effect of organizational support and award systems (Azad & Arshadi, 2009; Cheung et al., 2011; Asadi & Zakery, 2013; Shoujun et al., 2014), risk taking by the organization, Islamic work ethics (Farrukh et al., 2015), and organizational equality (Dashty et al., 2013) on the organizational innovation, all corresponding to the organizational culture features. Leadership, coherence, integrity and management support can affect the organizational innovation (Nicnami & Hematpur, 2009; Namamian & Faezalahi, 2015). Organizational culture is influential on all organizational capacities and is influenced by all of them (Smith et al., 2008). The proposed model obviously shows the bidirectional relationship between organizational culture and all organizational capacities.

Organizational intangible aspects capabilities

An innovation orientation that directly leads the organization's strategy and performance toward a particular type of innovation is an intangible aspect of organizational innovation that embraces the philosophy of learning, strategic orientation, and mutual beliefs of the organization (Siguaw et al., 2006).

The management orientation and the manager's innovative spirit (Lisboa et al., 2011; Bincheng & Qian, 2013), the participatory management culture (Saunila, 2014; Saunila & Ukko, 2014), and participatory knowledge management are effective in organizational innovation. The learning orientation for obtaining competitive advantage is a requirement for the organization and is determined by four elements, namely the commitment to learning, common vision, intellectuality, and intra-organizational sharing (Calantone et al., 2002; Nisula & Kianto, 2013). The organizational learning culture will also affect the innovation through occupational motivation (Liberati et al., 2009; Verma et al., 2014; Zareei et al., 2015). The strategy orientation of the organization (Ibrahim et al., 2009; Lisboa et al., 2011), organizational equality (Dashty et al., 2013), organizational motivation (Dobni, 2008; Verma et al., 2014; Wang & Tsai, 2014), exploitation of time (Nisula & Kianto, 2013), internal motivation, and individual activity (Saunila & Ukko, 2014; Saunila, 2016) are other invisible capabilities effective in innovation in organizations (Zheng et al., 2013). It must be noted that some studies have rejected the effect of the age and size of the organization in innovative capability (Saunila & Ukko, 2012; 2014).

External Dimension of Organizational Capability

In extra-organizational dimension, two innovation capabilities of the (a) organizational climate and environment and (b) extra-organizational relationships and interactions have been considered (Table 4).

Organizational climate and environment

Porter (1991) believed that the environment produces positive effect on the enterprise performance through stimulating the internal innovation for outer competition. Complex and dynamic environment has positive effect on the organizational innovation capability (Bincheng & Qian, 2013); also, the uncertainty and environmental instability (Lai et al., 2015) are effective on the organizational innovation through motivating the managers and researchers. The study findings also indicate the innovative climate effect on the organizational innovation (Amabile et al., 1996; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Dashty et al., 2013; Saunila et al., 2014). The extra-organizational environment can, through its motivations and support, be regarded as underlying opportunities of innovation and is considered an innovative capability.

Organizational communications and interactions

As in the industry of alliances, close interactions increase innovation (Dunlap-Hinkler et al., 2010). Of course, there is a need for a boundary in the communication network and the transfer of information by the organization based on the nature of the organization's work (Tushman, 2007). The relationship and interaction with other research and academic centers (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002; Nisula & Kianto, 2013; Qavamipur & Irandost, 2013; Xu, 2013; Puffal & Teixeira, 2014), as well as the relationship with suppliers, customers and stakeholders are effective on the organizational innovation. It was also determined that the proximity to academic centers and resource suppliers has no effect in increasing the enterprise innovation (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002) but the industry and university participation is effective on the organizational innovation capability (Puffal et al., 2011; Perkmann & Walsh, 2007; Qavamipur & Irandost, 2013; Xu, 2013).

Conclusions

The innovation has a broad concept and plays a major role in all the industrial life cycle in any unit of organization including the production, product, process, market, research and development (R&D) and even the organizational behavior, and as a competitive advantage can act as the survival and stability factor of an organization. The study findings are indicative of the importance of innovation capability in industrial and academic centers. In this study six capacities including organizational resources (human capital, structure and strategy, financial and technological resources), organizational culture, management and leadership, knowledge management, R&D and finally the organizational intangible aspects capacity were identified as intra-organizational innovation capabilities; also the environmental capacity of the organization and the extra-organizational relationships and interactions were determined as the extra-organizational innovation capabilities that can affect the development of the organizational innovation and can be accessible in any organization. In this model based on the study results, it was found that the relationship between the resource capacities and knowledge management on the one hand, and R&D on the other hand, is a bidirectional relationship. The management and leadership capacity is effective on all internal capacities. The organizational culture has a bidirectional relationship with all activities and performances of internal innovation capacities. The intangible aspects of the organization is more related to the orientation and culture of all internal capacities of the organization. In extra-organizational dimension, there exist the external relationships and interactions as well as the environment (or climate) that affect the organizational innovation and are considered as the organizational capabilities. Nevertheless, such relationships need to be confirmed by the experimental data.

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Maryam Yaghoubi, Ehsan Teymourzadeh, Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Fatemeh Ghardashi (*)

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

(Received: June 26, 2017; Revised: September 11, 2017; Accepted September 16, 2017)

(*) Corresponding Author, Email: f2.ghardashi@gmail.com

DOI: 10.22059/ijms.2017.238379.672756
Table 1. Characteristics of selected articles classified by aim and
variables

                                        Capability innovation
             Variables                  Internal  External


             - Review                    5        1
             - Descriptive               2        0
Study        - Qualitative               5        0
             - Descriptive correlation   9        3
             - Descriptive-analytical    2        4
             - Faculty members           1        1
             - Staff and researchers     9        2
Target       - Senior managers           2        2
             - Data reviewers            5        1
             - R&D centers               4        1
             - Identify dimensions of
             innovation capability       5        1
             - Describe the dimensions
             of innovation capability    3        1
Approach     - Factors affecting the
             innovation capability       2        0
             - Relationship between
             dimensions of              12        5
             innovation capability
Language     Persian                     9        6
             English                    14        2
Year of      2000-2009                   3        2
publication  2010-2016                  18        6

                                                    Total
             Variables                  Internal &  N=40   100%
                                        External

             - Review                   2            8     20
             - Descriptive              1            3      7.5
Study        - Qualitative              2            7     17.5
             - Descriptive correlation  3           15     37.5
             - Descriptive-analytical   1            7     17.5
             - Faculty members          1            3      7.5
             - Staff and researchers    3           14     35
Target       - Senior managers          4            8     20
             - Data reviewers           2            8     20
             - R&D centers              2            7     17.5
             - Identify dimensions of
             innovation capability      3            9     22.5
             - Describe the dimensions
             of innovation capability   2            6     15
Approach     - Factors affecting the
             innovation capability      1            3      7.5
             - Relationship between
             dimensions of              5           22     55
             innovation capability
Language     Persian                    1           16     40
             English                    8           24     60
Year of      2000-2009                  3            8     20
publication  2010-2016                  8           32     80

Table 2. The review results for the selected articles

Authors           Study objectives

                  Determine the impact of the
Ramazanian,       process of knowledge sharing
Moradi et al      and the ability to absorb
(2013)            knowledge on innovation
                  capability.
HaghighiKafash,   Modeling the factors
Hajipor et al.    affecting food industry
(2016)            innovation capability.
Zareei,           The relationship between
Hasanzadeh et     knowledge sharing and
al. (2015)        Innovation capability in
                  academic libraries.
Nicnami &         Determine the relationship
Hematpur          between organizational
(2009)            culture and increase
                  innovation
                  The role of inter-organizational
Qavamipur &       relationships,
Irandost (2013)   organizational learning and
                  the creation of open
                  innovation in SMEs.
                  Determine the impact of
Asadi & Zakery    organizational culture
(2013)            variables on organizational
                  innovation with fuzzy logic.
                  Identify factors affecting the
Siadat, Chopani   realization of innovation
et al. (2013)     organizations in Iran and
                  providing strategies for its
                  development.
                  Determine the impact of
Mirkamalian &     organizational structure and
Rezaian (2015)    culture on innovation.
Haghighi Kafash   Modeling organizational
et al. (2015)     innovation capability.
Davarzani,        The model is designed to
Kazemzadeh et     evaluate the effect of
al. (2011)        organizational learning
                  capability on innovation.
Zafarian,         Determine the role of
Mohammady         network capital on
Elyasi et al.     organizational innovation
(2012)            capability.
Dehqan (2014)     Determine the role of
                  knowledge management in
                  innovation organization.
Saida Ardakani,   Identify factors affecting the
Konjkav           development of individual
Monfared et al.   innovation.
(2013)
                  Determine the role of
Azad & Arshadi    organizational culture on
(2009)            perceived support of
                  innovation.
                  Determine the effect of
Namamian &        organizational culture on
Faezalahi (2015)  organizational performance
                  Mediating Role of
                  Innovation.
Dashty,           How organizational justice
Taqizadeh Harat   influence on the behavior of
et al. (2013)     individual innovative?
                  Investigate the association
Farrukh, Butt et  between
al. (2015)        Islamic work Ethics (IWE)
                  and innovation capability.
                  Highlighting relationship
Delbufalo &       between the Capability of
Cerruti (2012)    Firms to Innovate and the
                  supply network configuration.
                  Designing a non-recursive
Wang & Tsai       model based on Amabile's
(2014)            (1988) componential theory
                  of organizational creativity
                  and innovation.
                  Describing the innovation
Bincheng &        ability of Chinese enterprise
Qian (2013)       managers.
                  The effect on performance
Ruiz-Jimenez &    management capabilities for
Fuentes-Fuentes   industrial innovation in
(2016)            Spain.
                  Explore ways of improving
                  the interoperability of
Lai, Lin et al.   innovation service and
(2015)            corporate sustainability by
                  strategic corporate social
                  responsibility.
Lisboa,           Innovative capabilities: Their
Skarmeas et al.   drivers and effects on current
(2011)            and future performance.
                  Developing Innovation
Verma, Singh et   Capability: The Role of
al. (2014)        Organizational Learning
                  Culture and Task motivation.
                  Developing a conceptual
                  framework.
Hailekiros &      The role of technological
Renyong (2016)    competence in organizational
                  learning capacity and
                  performance.
Nisula & Kianto   Evaluating and Developing
(2013)            Innovation Capabilities with
                  a Structured Method.
                  Determinants of innovation
Romijn &          capability in small electronics
Albaladejo        and software firms in
(2002)            southeast England.
                  The influence of intellectual
Subramaniam &     capital on the types of
Youndt (2005)     innovative capability.
                  Identify aspects of innovation
                  capability and the
Saunila (2014)    relationship between these
                  aspects of organizational
                  performance.
                  Identify intangible aspects of
                  innovation capability in
                  SMEs. And to examine
Saunila & Ukko    whether a firm's size or the
(2014)            industry have a significant
                  impact on intangible aspects
                  of innovation capability in
                  SMEs.
Calantone,        Learning orientation, firm
Cavusgil et al.   innovation capability, and
(2002)            firm performance.
                  Providing a comprehensive
Saunila, Ukko et  description of the effects of
al. (2014)        the determinants of
                  innovation capability on
                  profitability of SMEs.
                  Factors Influencing an
Smith, Busi et    organization's ability to
al. (2008)        Manage Innovation.
Vieites & Calvo   Identified nine key factors
(2011)            influencing the organization's
                  ability to manage innovation.
                  The definition of innovation
Saunila & Ukko    capability and relationships
(2012)            with organizational
                  performance.
Ibrahim, Zolait   Describes the capabilities of
et al. (2009)     innovation in companies in
                  Malaysia.
                  Determine the effect of
Nilsson &         Measuring innovation
Ritzen (2014)     performance and innovation
                  management on ability to
                  innovate a medical device
                  company.
XU (2013)         Analyzing the causes of the
                  lack of technology innovation
                  capability
                  The relationship between
Liao, Fei et al.  knowledge sharing,
(2007)            knowledge absorption with
                  innovation capability in
                  Taiwanese companies.
                  Determine the role of
Saunila, Pekkola  performance evaluation as a
et al. (2014)     mediator between innovation
                  capability and organizational
                  performance.

Authors           Summary Results

Ramazanian,       Absorb knowledge mediator
Moradi et al      between knowledge sharing and
(2013)            innovation capability.
HaghighiKafash,   Innovation capability depends to
Hajipor et al.    three dimensions: operational
(2016)            capability, human and structural.
Zareei,           There is a significant relationship
Hasanzadeh et     between knowledge sharing and
al. (2015)        Innovation capability
Nicnami &
Hematpur          Effective organizational culture of
(2009)            innovation Academic Staff.
Qavamipur &       Knowledge acquisition and
Irandost (2013)   Knowledge dissemination could
                  open innovation company.
                  Availability Management Most
Asadi & Zakery    effective and evaluate the
(2013)            performance of the least impact on
                  creating a corporate culture that
                  supports innovation.
                  Factors in three categories:
Siadat, Chopani   individual, organizational and
et al. (2013)     human resources were identified. 14
                  strategy for the development of
                  organizational innovation identified.
                  Culture has a significant effect on
Mirkamalian &     innovation and structure
Rezaian (2015)    due to the impact of culture on
                  organizational innovation is
                  effective.
                  There is a direct link between
Haghighi Kafash   Innovation capability and human
et al. (2015)     capabilities, operational capability
                  and structural features.
Davarzani,        There is a significant relationship
Kazemzadeh et     between learning capability and
al. (2011)        organizational innovation.
Zafarian,         Capital of industrial network
Mohammady         through inter-organizational
Elyasi et al.     learning has a positive effect on
(2012)            product innovation capabilities.
Dehqan (2014)     The use of social web tools (Web 2)
                  and collaborative knowledge
                  management (KM 2) causes of
                  social organization (organization 2)
                  that leads to innovation opens.
                  7 factors (interaction, leadership,
Saida Ardakani,   communication, knowledge,
Konjkav           integrity, organizational support and
Monfared et al.   motivation) have a significant effect
(2013)            on innovation. Knowledge a greater
                  impact on innovation.
                  There is a positive correlation
Azad & Arshadi    between support for innovation
(2009)            with perception of support,
                  solidarity and organizational reward
                  systems.
                  Organizational cultures (group,
Namamian &        logical, developmental,
Faezalahi (2015)  hierarchical) are effective the
                  performance of the organization
                  with innovation intermediary.
Dashty,           Innovative behavior is correlated
Taqizadeh Harat   with Perception of organizational
et al. (2013)     justice, innovation climate and
                  intrinsic motivation.
                  There is a positive relationship
Farrukh, Butt et  between IWE and innovation
al. (2015)        capability.
                  The network configurations
Delbufalo &       enhancing the joint generation or
Cerruti (2012)    adoption of multiple innovation
                  types.
                  Resources, management practices,
Wang & Tsai       and organizational motivation have
(2014)            unique positive direct effects on
                  innovation.
                  Managers with the spirit of
                  innovation in the implementation of
Bincheng &        the more successful business.
Qian (2013)       Dynamic and complex execution
                  environment is the development of
                  innovation capability managers.
                  Management capabilities have a
Ruiz-Jimenez &    greater influence on innovation
Fuentes-Fuentes   when the management team is more
(2016)            balanced in number of men and
                  women.
                  The SCSR from corporate
Lai, Lin et al.   innovation service has a significant
(2015)            influence on the performance of
                  corporate sustainability.
Lisboa,           Orientation towards customer or
Skarmeas et al.   competitor company was confirmed
(2011)            as drivers of innovation capability.
                  Organizational learning culture
Verma, Singh et   directly and work motivation
al. (2014)        indirectly affect the organization's
                  ability to innovate.
                  The learning mediator between the
Hailekiros &      organizations' learning capacity and
Renyong (2016)    the performance of the organization
                  and positive effects on performance.
                  Identify strengths and weaknesses
Nisula & Kianto   of the organization by questionnaire
(2013)            innovation capabilities to better
                  develop innovation and helps
                  continuing innovation.
                  The potential internal resources
                  (training, previous experimental
Romijn &          work, research and development
Albaladejo        efforts) and the intensity of external
(2002)            interactions and the proximity of
                  network relationships are effective
                  on organizational innovation.
                  Human, organization, social capital
Subramaniam &     and their interactions selectively
Youndt (2005)     affect the organization's ability to
                  innovate.
                  Three aspects of innovation
                  capability, namely ideation and
                  organizing structures, participatory
Saunila (2014)    leadership culture, and know-how
                  development, has some effect on
                  different aspects of firm
                  performance.
                  7 factors as intangible aspects of
                  innovation capability in the
Saunila & Ukko    organization identified .The size of
(2014)            the company does not explain the
                  level of innovation capability.
Calantone,        Learning orientation is critical for
Cavusgil et al.   innovation and performance.
(2002)
Saunila, Ukko et  Innovation capability is not realized
al. (2014)        in SMEs, at least in profitability
                  measures.
                  Identified nine key factors
Smith, Busi et    influencing the organization's
al. (2008)        ability to manage innovation.
Vieites & Calvo   R & D activities, management of
(2011)            information and IT resources on
                  effective innovation results.
                  Designing a conceptual model to
Saunila & Ukko    measure the performance of the
(2012)            organization based on innovation
                  capability.
                  Five innovation: market, product,
Ibrahim, Zolait   strategy, and innovation behavior
et al. (2009)     that the review process had
                  achieved in Malaysian companies
                  were also confirmed.
Nilsson &         Measuring innovation performance
Ritzen (2014)     in innovation management could
                  correct the mistakes and develop the
                  innovation.
                  Relationship between industry and
                  universities to accelerate the flow of
XU (2013)         information, transfer of knowledge,
                  External Communications
                  international and sharing sources of
                  innovation, develops technology
                  innovation capability.
Liao, Fei et al.  Knowledge absorption is mediator
(2007)            between knowledge sharing and
                  innovation capability.
                  Rely on aspects of internal
Saunila, Pekkola  innovation capability have a
et al. (2014)     significant positive effect on the
                  performance of the organization.

Table 3. Internal capacities of organizational innovation capability

Innovation        Authors
capability

Sources           Haghighi Kafash et al. (2015), Haghighi Kafash et al.
Human capital     (2016), Romijn & Albaladejo (2002), Saida Ardakani et
                  al. (2013), Siadat et al. (2013), Subramaniam & Youndt
                  (2005), Smith et al. (2008), Saunila & Ukko (2012)
Organizational    Haghighi Kafash et al. (2015), Mirkamalian & Rezaian
structure &       (2015), Haghighi Kafash et al. (2016), Lai et al.
strategy capital  (2015), Nisula & Kianto (2013), Smith et al. (2008),
                  Saunila & Ukko (2012)
Financial and     Delbufalo & Cerruti (2012), Wang & Tsai (2014), Romijn
technological     & Albaladejo (2002), Smith et al. (2008), Vieites &
capital           Calvo (2011)
Leadership and    Haghighi Kafash et al. (2015), Haghighi Kafash et al.
management        (2016), Siadat et al. (2013), Ruiz-Jimenez &
                  Fuentes-Fuentes (2016), Wang & Tsai (2014), Nisula &
                  Kianto (2013), Smith et al. (2008), Saunila & Ukko
                  (2012), Bincheng & Qian (2013), Asadi & Zakery (2013).
Knowledge and     Ramazanian et al. (2013), Zareei et al. (2015),
information       Hailekiros & Renyong, (2016), Davarzani et al. (2011),
management        Zafarian et al. (2012), Nisula & Kianto (2013),
                  Saunila et al. (2014), Smith et al. (2008), Vieites &
                  Calvo (2011), Liao et al. (2007)
R&D               Haghighi Kafash et al. (2015), Haghighi Kafash et al.
                  (2016), Lai et al. (2015), Romijn & Albaladejo (2002),
                  Smith et al. (2008), Vieites & Calvo (2011)
Organizational    Farrukh et al. (2015), Saunila & Ukko (2012), Nicnami
culture           & Hematpur (2009), Mirkamalian & Rezaian (2015), Azad
                  & Arshadi (2009), Namamian & Faezalahi (2015), Saunila
                  (2014)
Organizational    Bincheng & Qian (2013), Wang & Tsai (2014),
intangible        Ruiz-Jimenez & Fuentes-Fuentes (2016), Lisboa et al.
aspects           (2011), Ibrahim et al. (2009), Verma et al. (2014),
                  Calantone et al. (2002), Dehqan (2014), Nisula &
                  Kianto (2013), Saunila & Ukko (2014)

Table 4. External capacities of organizational innovation capability

Innovation        Authors
capability

Organizational    The complexity and dynamics of the environment
climate and       (Bincheng & Qian, 2013), environmental uncertainty
environment       (Lai et al., 2015), innovative climate (Abbey &
                  Dickson, 1983; Saunila & Ukko, 2012; Dashty et al.,
                  2013; Saunila, 2014)
Organizational    Communications between the company (Ahmadi & Nasiri,
communications    2009), supply network (Delbufalo & Cerruti, 2012),
and interactions  customer experience (Foroudi et al., 2016),
                  stakeholders (Lai et al. 2015; Nisula & Kianto, 2013),
                  Interactions with other universities and R&D Centers
                  (Romijn & Albaladejo, 2002)
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Author:Yaghoubi, Maryam; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ghardashi, Fatemeh
Publication:Iranian Journal of Management Studies
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 22, 2017
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