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Comunidades alpinas de los macizos calizos de los Picos de Europa (norte de Espana).

Alpine plant communities in the Picos de Europa calcareous massif (Northern Spain)

INTRODUCTION

Mountain ecosystems are among the most valuable habitats for biodiversity and conservation (NAGY & GRABHERR, 2009; GAVILAN & al., 2013). In the mountains of southern Europe, plant diversity has been historically influenced by post-glacial isolation and related processes such as local extinctions and speciation (TABERLET & al, 1998). Due to recent climatic change, mountain habitats are also experiencing important changes in vegetation diversity (PAULI & al., 2012; FERNANDEZ CALZADO & MOLERO MESA, 2013; JIMENEZ-ALFARO & al., 2014a). Addressing diversity patterns at community level is therefore important for understanding mountain habitats and for developing conservation actions in alpine landscapes (GAVILAN & al., 2012). Among different approaches, vegetation surveys based on the classification of plot data provide useful information for synthesizing the variation of plant communities into vegetation types (BLASI & al., 2005; LANCIONI & al., 2011; PEYRE & FONT, 2011; NOROOZI & al., 2014) and for defining spatial patterns of alpine ecosystems (DIRNBOK & al., 2003; FERNANDEZ CALZADO & MOLERO MESA, 2011).

In this study, we focus on the classification of alpine communities in the Picos de Europa National Park (northern Spain). The study system comprises vegetation above the treeline dominated by hemicryptophytes and chamaephytes, and representing an important outspot of zonal alpine plant diversity in southern Europe (NAGY & GRABHERR, 2009). This vegetation has been traditionally related to the subalpine and alpine altitudinal belts, bioclimatically corresponding to the orotemperate and criorotemperate types (ALONSO FELPETE & al., 2011 RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2011). Indeed, dominant plant communities are structured by alpine species with different biogeographic origin that respond synchronically to local topographic gradients (JIMENEZ-ALFARO & al., 2014b). Although several plant communities have been described based on floristic, phytosociological or mapping surveys (RIVAS-MARTINEZ& al., 1984; NAVA, 1988; FERNANDEZ PRIETO & BUENO, 2013), there is still lacking a comprehensive classification of alpine-like vegetation in the Picos de Europa.

According to the vegetation classification of the Iberian Peninsula (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2001, 2002), high-mountain vegetation of the Cantabrian mountains is floristically related to three major types: (i) Alpine-Pyrenean-Carpathian alpine communities (class Kobresio myosuroidis -Seslerietea caeruleae) mainly distributed in the Picos de Europa and the Ubina massifs (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984); (ii) Alpine -Pyrenean-Carpathian swards dominated by Kobresia myosuroides (class Carici rupestris-Kobresietea myosuroidis) only found in the central massif of the Picos de Europa, and (iii) high-mountain communities of the class Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae, mainly represented in continental areas of the central Cantabrian range (MARTINEZ & MAYOR, 1974; Amigo & al., 1993). Here, we compile vegetation plot data from the Picos de Europa to assess the diversity of species assemblages in these major vegetation types. Our main objectives are (1) to classify local alpine communities according to their floristic composition, (2) to interpret the resulting vegetation types in floristic and ecological terms and (3) to link our results with the phytosociological classification of the Iberian Peninsula.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

We built a vegetation-plot database consisting on complete lists of vascular plants (releves) sampled according to the Braun-Blanquet method (BRAUN-BLANQUET, 1979) above 1800 m.a.s.l. in the three calcareous massifs of the Picos de Europa (Figure 1). Main data sources were collected from vegetation surveys (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984; JIMENEZ-ALFARO & al., 2014b) and for the development of the vegetation map of the Picos de Europa (FERNANDEZ PRIETO & BUENO, 2013). To obtain a relatively homogeneous data set, only releves sampled in areas from 10 to 100 [m.sup.2] were considered, since these are the most frequently sampled plot areas. In a few releves where this information was not available, we estimated the plot size by comparing species richness of similar communities to remove outliers potentially sampled in smaller or larger areas. The data were stored in a database using Turboveg v.2 (HENNEKENS & SCHAMINEE 2001). Taxonomical concepts were standardized according to Flora Iberica (www.floraiberica.org), although in particular cases the nomenclature follows the floristic catalogue of the Picos de Europa National Park (ALONSO FELPETE & al., 2011).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

We classified the plots using cluster analyses in PC-ORD 4 (MCCUNE & MEFFORD, 1999) with the Bray-Curtis distance as a measure of dissimilarity and the beta-flexible linkage method with coefficient [beta] = -0.25. Species percentage cover was log transformed. The optimal number of clusters was established by using the crispness of classification (BOTTA-DUKAT & al., 2005) as a guide to optimize the structure of the data. Non-metric Dimensional Scaling (NMDS) (KRUSKAL, 1964) implemented in the R program, library "vegan" (OKSANEN & al., 2013) was applied to assess the similarities of the established groups in the multidimensional space. The resulting clusters were characterized by sorting their diagnostic species in a synoptic table by using the phi coefficient of association and a Fisher exact test to detect significant preferences to groups (TICHY & CHYTRY, 2006). To obtain a comparative measure of the species characterizing each cluster, we counted the number of diagnostic species with significant (P < 0.05) phi coefficient > 30. We assessed differences in altitude and species cover between clusters using the values provided for each plot by the original sources and the ANOVA test with post-hoc classification.

Vegetation types were finally described by their physiognomic characteristics and species composition, and compared with the vegetation types included in the classification of plant communities of the Iberian Peninsula (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al, 2001, 2002, 2011). For those plant communities identified as distinct associations but not described before, we propose new syntaxa following the rules of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature (IZCO & DEL ARCO, 2003). The nomenclature of the new communities was based on the species recognized as characteristics of the vegetation type and the presence of endemic species, following the preliminary proposals used for vegetation mapping in the study area (FERNANDEZ PRIETO & BUENO, 2013).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A total of 211 vegetation plots were selected, including 214 species of vascular plants. The most frequent species in the data set were Anthyllis vulneraria (80% of the plots), Thymus praecox subsp. britannicus (80%), Carex sempervirens (74%), Silene acaulis (71%) and Minuartia verna (67%). The crispness of classification suggested an optimal number of 6 clusters (maximum crispness = 0.658) with differences in species composition (Figure 2) that were also supported by relative differences in altitude and cover (Figure 3). The resulting dendrogram recognized two major branches and the six clusters were distinctly identified in the NMDS ordination diagram (Bray-Curtis distance, total stress = 32.4). The first branch included two clusters (cluster 1 and cluster 2) clearly differentiated from the others but also between each other, with contrasting differences in altitude and cover (Figure 3). The remaining plots were separated in two branches, being the first one (clusters 3 and cluster 4) more homogeneous in species composition and altitude than the second one (clusters 5 and cluster 6). The diagnostic species that characterize each community type are showed in Table 1, and a representative image of their physiognomic characteristics is presented in Figure 4.

CLUSTER 1 corresponds to stripped communities characterized by Jurinea humilis, Koeleria vallesiana and Helianthemum canum subsp. cantabricum among a total of eight diagnostic species. These communities are found at relatively low altitudes (Figure 4) and many of the constituent species are distributed in other mountains of the Iberian Peninsula (e.g. Jurinea humilis). They are easily characterized in the field by evidences of soil cryoturbation (repetition of freezing and thawing processes in periglacial zones, AMICO & PREVITALI, 2012). Similar communities with Mediterranean influence have been described in dry stands of the Cantabrian range under the phytosociological alliance Festucion burnatii, including the associations Arenario cantabricae -Festucetum hystricis (MARTINEZ & MAYOR, 1974), Festucetum burnatii (FERNANDEZ PRIETO, 1983), Koelerio vallesianae-Erodietum glandulosi (AMIGO & al, 1993), Saxifrago coniferae-Festucetum burnatii (FERNANDEZ PRIETO & al. 1983) and Festucetum burnatii (MAYOR & al., 1973; RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984). However, the floristic composition of the cluster 1 is clearly different in species composition, with species combinations not represented in previously described communities. We therefore typify a new association, Helianthemo cantabrici-Festucetum hystricis F. Prieto, Bueno, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova hoc loco (Appendix, Table S1, holotypus rel. 24) broadly described in the vegetation map of the study area (FERNANDEZ PRIETO & BUENO, 2013: 159) under the type "10.7b2. Cespedes psicroxerofilos calcicolas del Androsaco villosae-Festucetum hystricis". The name Androsaco villosae-Festucetum hystricis has been validly published in the past (Navarro, 1989) and hence it cannot be used to nominate this association.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

CLUSTER 2 corresponds to stripped communities with low plant cover characterized by Jasione cavanillesii, Potentilla nivalis subsp. asturica, Galium pyrenaicum and a total of nine diagnostic species (Table 1). These communities are found at the highest altitudes of the study area (Figure 4) and they are mainly distributed on rocky soils. They occur where snow melt happens early due to topographic top positions that favour the snow-clean effect by strong wind exposures and also prevent the formation of deep soils. Although these communities include a few arcticalpine species (e.g. Silene acaulis) the species composition (Appendix, Table S2) is characterized by indicators of dry and cryoturbated soils (e.g. Senecio boissieri) reflecting strong connections with the high-mountain Iberian flora (Peredo & al, 2009). Thus, these communities were ascribed to the Festucion burnatii alliance. They have been described in FERNANDEZ PRIETO & BUENO (2013: p.194) under the vegetation type "14.1a Nanofruticedas cespitosas con Galium pyrenaicum y Helictotrichon sedenense" and the association Jasiono cavanillesii-Helictotrichetum sedenensis Prieto & Bueno ined. (= Galio pyrenaici-Helictotrichetum sedensis Prieto & Bueno ined.). The absence of tables and thus the lack of designated typus lead us to typify the association Jasiono cavanillesii-Helictotrichetum sedenense Bueno, F. Prieto, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova hoc loco (Appendix, Table S2, holotypus rel. 6) as a new sintaxa probably exclusive of the Picos de Europa National Park.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

CLUSTER 3 corresponds to snow-bed grasslands characterized by Ranunculus carinthiacus, Poa alpina, Carex macrostylon and a total of eight diagnostic species (Table 1). These communities are mainly found in stands where snow accumulates for long, favouring the development of high-cover grasslands in the north-facing slopes of the alpine belt. They are ecologically similar to the phytosociological association described in the Pyrenees as Festuco-Trifolietum thalii Br.-Bl 1948 (alliance Primulion intricatae). The floristic composition with Armeria cantabrica, Pedicularis pyrenaica var. fallax, Dethawia splendens, Jasione cavanillesii and Silene ciliata lead us to include this association in the Cantabrian alliance Armerion cantabricae, the Cantabrian vicariant of Primulion intricatae. These plant communities have been described in Fernandez Prieto & Bueno (2013: 196) under the vegetation type "14.1c Cespedes con Poa alpina" and the association Ranunculo carinthiaco-Poetum alpine. Since this name was not validly published according to article 5 of the International Code of Phytosociological Nomenclature, we proceed to the mandatory typification of Ranunculo carinthiaco-Poetum alpinae F. Prieto, Bueno, JimenezAlfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova hoc loco (Appendix 1, Table S3, holotypus rel. 10).

CLUSTER 4 corresponds to high-cover grasslands characterized by Sesleria caerulea, Luzula pediformis, Polygonum viviparum and a total of 28 diagnostic (species (Table 1). These communities occur at relatively low altitudes; they show higher plant height than the cluster 3 and they probably grow in topographic stands with shorter periods of snow cover. According to the species composition (Appendix, Table S4), they can be ascribed to the association Pediculari fallacis-Armerietum cantabricae, which is the community of reference for the alliance Armerion cantabricae in the Picos de Europa (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984).

CLUSTER 5 corresponds to high-altitude communities characterized by Festuca glacialis, Veronica nummularia subsp. cantabrica, Omalotheca hoppeana and a total of 11 diagnostic species (Table 1). According to the ecology of their characteristic species, these communities are probably linked to late snow-melt and periglacial processes that favour the development of screes. Although these communities seem to be mainly related to intermediate conditions between clusters 2 and 4, i.e. with certain snow persistence (indicated by Omalotheca hoppeana or Festuca glacialis) but also with dry conditions (indicated by Saxifraga conifera or Arenaria moehringioides), the species combination is to our known genuine from the Picos de Europa and widely represented in local dolomitic screes. Thus, we describe a new association typified as Saxifrago coniferae-Helianthemetum urrielensis Bueno, F. Prieto, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova hoc loco (Appendix 1, Table S5, holotypus rel. 42), previously described in Fernandez Prieto & Bueno, 2013: 254).

CLUSTER 6 corresponds to wind-edge swards characterized by Kobresia myosuriodes, Oxytropis halleri, Arenaria grandiflora and a total of five diagnostic species (Table 1). The ecological preference of the dominant Kobresia myosuroides is commonly related to wind-edge sites with deept soils where snow melts early (Baptist & al., 2010). Similar conditions occur in the study area, where Kobresia communities are developed at the highest altitudes and also settled in microtopographic windy tops. They are relict communities of the Kobresia swards widely repreesnted in the Alpine-Pyrenean-Carpathian mountains, locally occuring in less than 20 sites restricted to the central massif of the Picos de Europa. The species composition closely corresponds to the phytosociological association Oxytropido neglectae-Kobresietum myosuriodis nom. mut propos. Rivas-Martinez & al. 2002, also recognized by Nava (1988: table 14) as "Comunidades con Elyna myosuroides". The association Oxytropidetum neglecto-halleri recently described by RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al. (2011) seems to be a variant of these communities with absence of Kobresia myosuroides. However, the species list provided by the authors in only one releve reflects a complex mosaic of ecological conditions, therefore postponing its validity until the collection of new data.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study we described the alpine vegetation of the Picos de Europa National Park by using a comprehensive data set covering the three calcareous massifs. Overall, we detected two major vegetation types based on floristic composition but also differentiated in ecological terms. The first vegetation type is characterized by stripped communities here ascribed to the alliance Festucion burnatii, representing xerophilous mountain communities subjected to cryoturbation processes previously described in the highest altitudinal belt of the Picos de Europa (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984, Nava, 1988; Jimenez-Alfaro & al., 2014b). These communities are characterized by medium-to-low species cover and by the presence of species commonly found in high-mountain Iberian habitats (e.g. Festuca hystrix, Helianthemum canum, Senecio boissieri). A second vegetation type was ascribed to the Cantabrian alliance Armerion cantabricae, which is characterized by alpine mesophilous species (e.g. Alchemilla alpigena, Plantago alpina, Luzula pediformis) probably reflecting deeper soils and longer periods of snow cover. This group is mainly represented from 2000 to 2200 m asl, where the presence of microtopographies with snow accumulation is more likely to occur than in higher altitudes.

Our study also showed that the diversity of alpine plant communities in the Picos de Europa can be synthesized in six phytosociological associations differentiated by a relatively high number of diagnostic species. This reflects a higher diversity of alpine vegetation than previously observed in vegetation surveys of the study area (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 1984, Nava, 1988) and supports the typology used for the vegetation map of the Picos de Europa National Park (Fernandez Prieto & Bueno, 2013). Our results also agree with some of the alpine communities identified by Nava (1988), despite we couldn't include these data because of the different sampling criteria and the small plot size used by this author. Moreover, the floristic and ecological differences between clusters support the complexity of local alpine communities with different ecological responses (Jimenez-Alfaro & al., 2014b). The relatively high diversity of alpine communities in the Picos de Europa is comparable with wider regions of Southern Europe such as the Apennines (Lancioni & al., 2011), despite in the latter region the influence of the Alpine floristic component is stronger. In contrast, the vegetation of the calcareous massif of the Picos de Europa is referred to phytosociological classes from both Temperate and Mediterranean bioclimatic regions, which are much more influenced by the Iberian floristic component. This highlights the biogeographic relevance of plant diversity in the Picos de Europa National Park and provides an additional argument for the conservation of this important centre of mountain diversity.

doi: 10.5209/rev_LAZA.2013.v34.n1.43646

Received: 5 December 2013

Accepted: 4 October 2014

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We thank Corrado Marceno, Ana Fernandez Rodriguez, Amparo Mora, Sara Gonzalez Robinson and Eduardo Fernandez Pascual for their help in botanic expeditions and data compilation, and Flavia Landucci and one anonymous referee for providing useful comments to the manuscript. We also thank the personnel from the Picos de Europa National Park for assistance in the field. BJA was supported by the project "Employment of Best Young Scientists for International Cooperation Empowerment" (CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0037) co-financed from European Social Fund and the state budget of the Czech Republic.

SYNTAXONOMIC SCHEME

Syntaxonomical synopsis of alpine communities in the Picos de Europa according to the present study, adscribed to the phytosociological classification of the Iberian Peninsula (RIVAS-MARTINEZ & al., 2001, 2002).

FESTUCO HYSTRICIS-ONONIDETEA STRIATAE Rivas-Martinez, T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 2002

FESTUCO HYSTRICIS-POETALIA LIGULATAE Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martinez 1963

Festucion burnatii Rivas Goday & Rivas-Martinez ex Mayor, Andres, Martinez, F. Navarro & T.E. Diaz 1973

Helianthemo cantabrici-Festucetum hystricis F. Prieto, Bueno, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova (cluster 1)

Jasiono cavanillesii-Helictotrichetum sedenensis Bueno, F. Prieto, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova (cluster 2)

KOBRESIO MYOSUROIDIS-SESLERIETEA CAERULEAE Br.-Bl. 1948 nom. mut. propos. Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002

SESLERIETALIA CAERULEAE Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl. & Jenny 1926

Armerion cantabricae Rivas-Martinez, T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984

Ranunculo carinthiaco-Poetum alpinae F. Prieto, Bueno, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova (cluster 3)

Pediculari fallacis-Armerietum cantabricae Rivas-Martinez, T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (cluster 4)

Saxifrago coniferae-Helianthemetum urrielensis Bueno, F. Prieto, Jimenez-Alfaro & A. Felpete ass. nova (cluster 5)

CARICI RUPESTRIS-KOBRESIETEA MYOSUROIDIS Ohba 1974 nom. mut. propos. Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002

KOBRESIETALIA MYOSUROIDIS Oberdorfer 1957 nom. mut. propos. Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002

Oxytropido-Kobresion myosuroidis Br.-Bl. (1948) 1949 nom. mut. propos. Rivas-Martinez et. al 2002

Oxytropido neglectae-Kobresietum myosuroidis Rivas-Martinez, T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 nom. mut. propos. Rivas-Martinez et al. 2002 (cluster 6)

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APPENDIX (Tables S1-S6)
Table S1(1)

Helianthemo cantabrici-Festucetum hystricis ass. nov.
(Festucion burnatii, Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae, Festuco
hystricis-Ononidetea striatae)

Altitude (l=10m)              214   215   216   205   213   204   192
Area ([m.sup.2])              50    10    50    80    100   20    50
Cover (%)                     20    60    --    20    --    --    100
Aspect                         W    SW     N    SW     W     N    NW
Releve number                  1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum subsp.      1     3     3     2     2     1     2
  cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana            1     2     +     1     1           1
Carex sempervirens             1     +     1     +     1     2     2
Anthyllis vulneraria           +     1     1     1     1     2     1
Thymus praecox                 1     +     2           +     2
Minuartia verna                1     +     +                 2     +
Androsace villosa                    +           +           1     +
Helictotrichon sedenense       1     1     1     +     +     1     2
Jurinea humilis                                  +     +     +     +
Dethawia splendens                         1     +     1           +
Saxifraga conifera                   1     1
Euphrasia salisburgensis       +     +
Festuca hystrix
Galium pyrenaicum              1     +     +     +     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens          1     1     1           1     1
Gypsophila repens                                +     +
Silene acaulis                 +           +           1
Pedicularis pyrenaica          +                             +
  var. fallax
Globularia repens              2                 +     +
Euphorbia chamaebitxits        +           +     +                 +
Poa alpina                           +     +           +     1
Silene ciliata                 +
Alchemilla alpigena                                    +     +
Plantago alpina
Gentianella campestris
Festuca burnatii               +     1     1     +           +     1
Helianthemum urrielense
Releve number                  1     2     3     4     5     6     7
Juniperus alpina                                                   1
Viola rupestris
Potentilla crantzii                  +
Gentiana occidentalis                                  +     +
Seditm atratum                                         +
Eryngium bourgatii                                           1     1
Genista legionensis                                                4
Erigeron alpinus
lberis carnosa
Ranunculus carinthiacus
Agrostis schleicheri
Astragalus depressus
Hippocrepis comosa
Draba dedeana
Ranunculus parnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Carex hitmilis
Potentilla nivalis subsp.      +
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica                   +                       1
Matthiola perennis
Minuartia villarii                                           +
Sempervivum cantabricum                                      +
Litzula pediformis                                           +
Gentiana vertia                                                    +
Sideritis hyssopifolia                                             +
Arenaria moehringioides
Reseda glauca                                    +     +           1
Festuca rubra
Festuca picoeuropeana
Lotus corniculatus
Saxifraga paniculata
Arenaria erinacea
Hemiaria glabra
Trinia glauca

Altitude (l=10m)              223   197   222   205   206   197   211
Area ([m.sup.2])              75    100   75    50    75    100   20
Cover (%)                     40    40    70    40    40    60    50
Aspect                        SE     N    SE    SW     E    SE    SW
Releve number                  8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum subsp.      3     2     3     2     2     2     2
  cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana            2     1     1     2     1     1     1
Carex sempervirens             2     +     +     1     2     2     +
Anthyllis vulneraria           1     +     3     +     1     2
Thymus praecox                 1     +     1     1     1
Minuartia verna                      +           +     1           1
Androsace villosa              2           1     +     1     +     1
Helictotrichon sedenense       +     +
Jurinea humilis                1     1           2     1     2     1
Dethawia splendens             +           2     1     2     1     +
Saxifraga conifera                         1     1     1     1     2
Euphrasia salisburgensis             +           +     1           +
Festuca hystrix                +     2           +
Galium pyrenaicum                                      +
Arenaria purpurascens                                              1
Gypsophila repens              1     +     2     1           +
Silene acaulis                                   +     +     +
Pedicularis pyrenaica                +                       1
  var. fallax
Globularia repens                                                  +
Euphorbia chamaebitxits        +     +     +           +
Poa alpina                     +
Silene ciliata                                   +     +
Alchemilla alpigena                                          +
Plantago alpina                      +           +     1     +     1
Gentianella campestris
Festuca burnatii
Helianthemum urrielense        1     +     1     +     2     2     1
Releve number                  8     9    10    11    12    13    14
Juniperus alpina                     +     +
Viola rupestris                +           +           +
Potentilla crantzii
Gentiana occidentalis          +                 +
Seditm atratum                       +                 +
Eryngium bourgatii             1     +                       +     +
Genista legionensis            1     +
Erigeron alpinus                                       1     2
lberis carnosa                                         +
Ranunculus carinthiacus                                      +
Agrostis schleicheri
Astragalus depressus
Hippocrepis comosa                   +
Draba dedeana                        1
Ranunculus parnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Carex hitmilis
Potentilla nivalis subsp.
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica                                           1     +
Matthiola perennis                   +                             +
Minuartia villarii
Sempervivum cantabricum
Litzula pediformis                                                 +
Gentiana vertia                                              +
Sideritis hyssopifolia                           +                 1
Arenaria moehringioides                          +
Reseda glauca
Festuca rubra                        +
Festuca picoeuropeana                      +
Lotus corniculatus                                           +
Saxifraga paniculata
Arenaria erinacea
Hemiaria glabra
Trinia glauca

Altitude (l=10m)              207   211   197   212
Area ([m.sup.2])              25    50    75    75
Cover (%)                     50    --    60    70
Aspect                         W    SW    SE    NE
Releve number                 15    16    17    18

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum subsp.      3     2     3     3
  cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana            2     2     2     1
Carex sempervirens             1     2     2     2
Anthyllis vulneraria           2     1     3     1
Thymus praecox                       1     2     1
Minuartia verna                +     +     1     1
Androsace villosa              1     1     2     2
Helictotrichon sedenense       +           1     1
Jurinea humilis                +     1     1     1
Dethawia splendens             +     1     +     +
Saxifraga conifera             +     1     1     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis       +     1           1
Festuca hystrix                                  +
Galium pyrenaicum              +     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens          +           +     1
Gypsophila repens                    1     +
Silene acaulis                       1     1
Pedicularis pyrenaica          +     +     1     1
  var. fallax
Globularia repens              1     1           +
Euphorbia chamaebitxits                          +
Poa alpina
Silene ciliata                             +     +
Alchemilla alpigena
Plantago alpina
Gentianella campestris               +
Festuca burnatii
Helianthemum urrielense
Releve number                 15    16    17    18
Juniperus alpina               r                 +
Viola rupestris
Potentilla crantzii
Gentiana occidentalis                1
Seditm atratum                       +     +
Eryngium bourgatii                               +
Genista legionensis
Erigeron alpinus                           1
lberis carnosa                       +
Ranunculus carinthiacus
Agrostis schleicheri
Astragalus depressus
Hippocrepis comosa
Draba dedeana
Ranunculus parnassiifolius           +     +
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia                    +
Carex hitmilis
Potentilla nivalis subsp.
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica
Matthiola perennis
Minuartia villarii
Sempervivum cantabricum                          +
Litzula pediformis                               1
Gentiana vertia                +                 1
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Arenaria moehringioides
Reseda glauca
Festuca rubra
Festuca picoeuropeana
Lotus corniculatus
Saxifraga paniculata                             +
Arenaria erinacea
Hemiaria glabra
Trinia glauca

Table S1(2)

Helianthemo cantabrici-Festucetum hystricis ass. nov.
(Festucion burnatii, Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae, Festuco
hystricis-Ononidetea striatae)

Altitude (l=10m)             213   215   195   202   195   199   201
Area ([m.sup.2])             75    75    75    75    75    75    30
Cover (%)                    60    65    60    40    50    80    70
Aspect                        E     E     W     W     W     W     N
Releve number                19    20    21    22    23    24    25

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum            2     3     1     3     3     2     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana           1     1     2     2     2     2     2
Carex sempervirens            3     2     +     +           1     1
Anthyllis vulneraria          1     1     1     2     2     1     1
Thymus praecox                1     1     1     +     2     1     1
Minuartia verna               1     1     1     1     1     1     1
Androsace villosa             2     2     1     1     1     2
Helictotrichon sedenense            +     +     +     1
Jurinea humilis               1     1     1     +     1     1
Dethawia splendens            +
Saxifraga conifera            +     1                             3
Euphrasia salisburgensis      +     1     +                 +
Festuca hystrix                           3     3     4     3     3
Galium pyrenaicum                               +
Arenaria purpurascens         +     1                             1
Gypsophila repens             +     +                 +
Silene acaulis                      +
Pedicularis pyrenaica         +     +
  var. fallax
Globularia repens                               +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                     +     +
Poa alpina                                                        +
Silene ciliata                            +           +
Alchemilla alpigena           +     +
Plantago alpina
Gentianella campestris        1
Festuca burnatii                                      1
Helianthemum urrielense       +     1
Releve number                19    20    21    22    23    24    25
Juniperus alpina              +     +
Viola rupestris                     +
Potentilla crantzii                                         2
Gentiana occidentalis
Seditm atratum
Eryngiitm bourgatii
Genista legionensis           +
Erigeron alpinus
lberis carnosa
Ranunculus carinthiacus
Agrostis schleicheri
Astragalus depressus
Hippocrepis comosa                                          +     +
Draba dedeana
Ranunculus parnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Carex humilis
Potentilla nivalis subsp.
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica
Matthiola perennis
Minuartia villarii
Sempervivum cantabricum                               +           +
Litzula pediformis
Gentiana verna
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Arenaria moehringioides
Reseda glauca
Festuca rubra                 +
Festuca picoeuropeana
Lotus corniculatus
Saxifraga paniculata          +
Arenaria erinacea                         +           2
Hemiaria glabra
Trinia glauca

Altitude (l=10m)             239   222   228   236   225   202   209
Area ([m.sup.2])             100   50    100   100   100   100   50
Cover (%)                    30    60    30    20    40    60    70
Aspect                        N     W     S     N    NW    NW     N
Releve number                26    27    28    29    30    31    32

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum            2     2     2     2     1     2     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana           1     2     2     2     2     2     1
Carex sempervirens            +     1     +     +     1     3     3
Anthyllis vulneraria          1     1     2     1     +
Thymus praecox                1     1     +     +     1           1
Minuartia verna               +     1     1     1           1
Androsace villosa             1     1     +     +
Helictotrichon sedenense      2     2     2     2     2     1     1
Jurinea humilis                           +
Dethawia splendens            +     1           1     +           +
Saxifraga conifera            +     1     +     +     +     +     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis            +     +           +     +
Festuca hystrix                     2     1     1     1     +
Galium pyrenaicum             1     +     1     1     1
Arenaria purpurascens               1                 +     +     +
Gypsophila repens                         +     +
Silene acaulis                +     +     +     +     +     +
Pedicularis pyrenaica                     +     +     +           +
  var. fallax
Globularia repens             +           +     1     +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus               +           +                 +
Poa alpina                    1     +     +     +     1     1     1
Silene ciliata                +           +
Alchemilla alpigena                 +           +     +     +
Plantago alpina                     +           1                 +
Gentianella campestris        +     +     +     +     +     +     +
Festuca burnatii
Helianthemum urrielense
Releve number                26    27    28    29    30    31    32
Juniperus alpina
Viola rupestris                                 1     +     +
Potentilla crantzii                       +     +     +           1
Gentiana occidentalis                     +
Seditm atratum                            +           +
Eryngiitm bourgatii
Genista legionensis
Erigeron alpinus                                            +     +
lberis carnosa                1                 +     +
Ranunculus carinthiacus       +     +                 +     +
Agrostis schleicheri          +     +                       +     1
Astragalus depressus          +     +                 +     +
Hippocrepis comosa
Draba dedeana                                         +     +     +
Ranunculus parnassiifolius    +                       +
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia             +           +                 +
Carex humilis                       +     1                 +
Potentilla nivalis subsp.                 +     +     +
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica
Matthiola perennis
Minuartia villarii                  1                 +     +
Sempervivum cantabricum
Litzula pediformis                                          +
Gentiana verna
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Arenaria moehringioides       +           +           +
Reseda glauca
Festuca rubra                                               +
Festuca picoeuropeana               +                             1
Lotus corniculatus                                          +
Saxifraga paniculata
Arenaria erinacea
Hemiaria glabra                           +           +           +
Trinia glauca                                   +

Altitude (l=10m)             182   205   200   187
Area ([m.sup.2])             100   100   10    20
Cover (%)                    70    50    --    --
Aspect                       NE     W     E     S
Releve number                33    34    35    36    Syn.

Characteristics

Helianthemum canum            2     1     1           V
  subsp. Cantabricum
Koeleria vallesiana           2     2     1           V
Carex sempervirens            +     +                 V
Anthyllis vulneraria                1                 V
Thymus praecox                +     1                 IV
Minuartia verna               1     1                 IV
Androsace villosa             +     1                 IV
Helictotrichon sedenense      +     1                 IV
Jurinea humilis               +     +                 IV
Dethawia splendens                  +           +     IV
Saxifraga conifera                                   III
Euphrasia salisburgensis      +           +          III
Festuca hystrix               +     1     2     1    III
Galium pyrenaicum                   +                III
Arenaria purpurascens               +                III
Gypsophila repens             1     +     +          III
Silene acaulis                +                      III
Pedicularis pyrenaica                           +    III
  var. fallax
Globularia repens             +     1     2          III
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                                 II
Poa alpina                                            II
Silene ciliata                      +                 II
Alchemilla alpigena                       +           II
Plantago alpina                                 +     II
Gentianella campestris              +                 II
Festuca burnatii                          2     4     II
Helianthemum urrielense                               II
Releve number                33    34    35    36    Syn.
Juniperus alpina                          +           II
Viola rupestris               +                       II
Potentilla crantzii           1                       I
Gentiana occidentalis               +                 I
Seditm atratum                                        I
Eryngiitm bourgatii                                   I
Genista legionensis           +     +           +     I
Erigeron alpinus              +     +                 I
lberis carnosa                                        I
Ranunculus carinthiacus                         2     I
Agrostis schleicheri          1     1                 I
Astragalus depressus          +                 +     I
Hippocrepis comosa            +                       I
Draba dedeana                                   1     I
Ranunculus parnassiifolius          +                 I
  subsp. Favargeri
Saxifraga oppositifolia             +                 I
Carex humilis                 2     1                 I
Potentilla nivalis subsp.                             I
  asturica
Armeria cantabrica                                    I
Matthiola perennis                              1     I
Minuartia villarii                                    I
Sempervivum cantabricum                               I
Litzula pediformis                                    I
Gentiana verna                                        I
Sideritis hyssopifolia                                I
Arenaria moehringioides                               I
Reseda glauca                                         I
Festuca rubra                                         I
Festuca picoeuropeana                                 I
Lotus corniculatus            +                       I
Saxifraga paniculata                            +     I
Arenaria erinacea                                     I
Hemiaria glabra                                       I
Trinia glauca                 +     +                 I

Other species: Asperula aristata + in 1 and 34; Sechtm album
+ in 2, 1 in 25; Carex ornithopoda + in 3 and 10; Biscutella
laevigata + in 7 and 8; Arctostaphylos itvaitrsi + in 7 and
18; Glandora diffusa + in 9 and 34; Thesium pyrenaicum + in 10
and 18; Festuca glacialis + in 12 and 26; Allium fallax + in
14(+), 1 in 36; Paronychia kapela + in 18 and 30; Scilla verna
+ in 19 and 31; Sempervivum giuseppii + in 21 and 32; Merendero
montana + in 24 and 25; Erigeron itniflorus + in 29 and 30;
Helianthemum croceitm + in 33 and 34; Jasione cavaniUesii + in
1; Silene nutans + in 2; Ranunculus bulbosus + in 5; Trifoliitm
pratense +, Iris latifolia 1 in 6; Galium saxatile and Pimpinella
siifolia + in 7; Teucrium pyrenaicum + in 9; Campanula scheuchzeri
+ in 11; Pritzelago alpina 1 in 13; Selinum pyrenaeum + in 14;
Scabiosa columbaria and Hieraciitm pilosella + in 14; Seditm
sediforme + in 18; Viola pyrenaica, Sesleria caerulea and
Phyteuma orbicitlare + in 19; Leontodon taraxacoides + Kobresia
myosuroides 1 in 20; Seseli libanotis + in 21; Seseli montanum
+ in 23; Erodiitm glanditlositm + in 25; Valeriana globitlariifolia
+ in 26; Oxytropis neglecta + in 29; Festuca indigesta 1 in 33;
Avenidapratensis + in 36.

Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except 1,26-34 from
Eastern Massif and 2-7,14,15,25 from Western Massif. 1: Entorno
del Alto del Hoyo Oscuro (64); 2: Altos del Verde (89); 3,5:
Climbing Collado de les Merines (12,11); 4: Near Hoyos de Argiieyes
(96); 6: Vega Huerta, Rivas-Martinez & al. (1984): tb. 34, rel.
6 (5); 7: Hoyos del Caballo (92); 8: Near Hoyo de Los Campanarios
(111); 9: Surroundings of Las Llombas de Aliseda (42); 10: Jou Tras
el Picu (102); 11, 16: Entre el Jou de los Cabrones y el Jou de
Ceixedo (23,24); 12: Hoyo Grande Cimero (117); 13, 17, 22: Jou Sin
Tieixe (137,138,122); 14: Camino del Burro (87); 15: Between Llago
Huerta and Cuetalbo (93); 18: De Torre de Llordes a la Vega de
Liordes (175); 19: Surroundings of La Brecha de los Cazadores (127);
20: Between Llagu Bajero and Torre de Llordes (176); 21, 23: Hoyo Sin
Tierra (124,128); 24: Between La Vueltona and Hoyo Sin Tierra (123),
holotypus ass.; 25: La Pedriza Carbanal (85); 26: La Silla del Caballo
Cimero (74); 27: Campos de Valdominguero (69); 28: Surroundings of
Pico del Grajal de Arriba (72); 29: Pica del Jierru (71); 30: La Rasa
de la Inagotable (73); 31: Traviesas del Grajal de Arriba (68); 32:
Between La Collada de San Carlos and El Pico del Sagrado (63); 33:
Western slope of Samelar peak (59); 34: Collada de San Carlos (62);
35: Eastern slope of Los Cuetos del Trave (36); 36: Near Pena
Gustal (82).

Table S2(1)

Jasiono cavanillesii-Helictotrichetum sedenensis ass. nova
(Festucion burnatii, Festuco hystricis-Poetalia ligulatae,
Festuco hystricis-Ononidetea striatae)

Altitude (l=10m)            219   218   226   224   222   233   214
Area ([m.sup.2])            50    100   20    75    75    75    25
Cover (%)                   10    20    20    10    10    10    25
Aspect                      SW     S    NE    SW     w    NW     N
Releve number                1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            1     1     1     1     2     2     2
Helictotrichon sedenense     +     1     1     2     2     1     2
Saxifraga oppositifolia      1     1     +           +     +
Minuartia verna                    +           1     1           +
Jasione cavanillesii               +     +                 +     1
Silene ciliata                                 +     +     +
Helianthemum canum           1     1     +     2     1     2     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa               +     +     +     +     +           +
Anthyllis vulneraria         +     +     +                 +     +
Silene acaulis                                 +           +     +
Thymus praecox               1                 +     +     1     1
Androsace villosa            1     1     1     1     +     1     2
Potentilla nivalis           +     1     +     1
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens            +     1           +     +     +     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius    +     +     +     +     1     1     +
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens           +     +                             +
Armeria cantabrica
Koeleria vallesiana          1     +                       1     1
Salix breviserrata subsp.    +     +                 +
  fontqueri
Festuca glacialis
Dethawia splendens                 +                       +
Arenaria purpurascens
Senecio boissieri            1     1     1           2     2
Globularia repens            2     1     +     +     +
Matthiola perennis                                               +
Arenaria moehringioides                                          +
Poa alpina
Releve number                1     2     3     4     5     6     7
Festuca hystrix              1     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis     +
Helianthemum urrielense
Kobresia myosuroides
Seditm atratum
Saxifraga conifera
Oxytropis neglecta                                               +
Alchemilla alpigena
Pedicularis pyrenaica                                      +
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca
Draba dedeana
Carex ornithopoda
Pritzelago alpina
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Saxifraga paniculata
Polygonum viviparum
Carex capillaris
Carex parviflora
Veronica alpina

Altitude (l=10m)            199   210   211   209   209   222   216
Area ([m.sup.2])            20    100   100   100   75    75    75
Cover (%)                   20    10    10    10    --    20    20
Aspect                       N     W    NW     N    --    NE    SW
Releve number                8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            1     1     1     +     +     1     1
Helictotrichon sedenense     2     1     1     +     +     2     2
Saxifraga oppositifolia      +     +           1     1     2     1
Minuartia verna              +     1     1     +     +     +     +
Jasione cavanillesii         +     +     +     +     +     +
Silene ciliata                     1     +     +     +     +     +
Helianthemum canum           2     1     1                 1     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa                     +     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1           +                 2     2
Silene acaulis               +     +     1
Thymus praecox               +     +
Androsace villosa            1     1     1     +     +
Potentilla nivalis                 +
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens            +                 +     +     1     1
Ranunculusparnassiifolius    1           +     +     +
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens           +           +     +     +
Armeria cantabrica
Koeleria vallesiana          1     1     1     1     1     1
Salix breviserrata subsp.                      1     1
  fontqueri
Festuca glacialis                        +
Dethawia splendens                 +     +     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens
Senecio boissieri            1     1     1     1     1
Globularia repens                              +     +     +     +
Matthiola perennis           +                 +     +
Arenaria moehringioides
Poa alpina
Releve number                8     9    10    11    12    13    14
Festuca hystrix              1     2     1     1     1     +     2
Euphrasia salisburgensis     +           +                 +     +
Helianthemum urrielense
Kobresia myosuroides         +                             1
Seditm atratum                                             +
Saxifraga conifera
Oxytropis neglecta
Alchemilla alpigena
Pedicularis pyrenaica                          +     +
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca                                  +     +
Draba dedeana
Carex ornithopoda
Pritzelago alpina
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Saxifraga paniculata
Polygonum viviparum
Carex capillaris
Carex parviflora
Veronica alpina

Altitude (l=10m)            236   214   231   232   232    232   229
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    50    100   100    75    25
Cover (%)                   10    30    --    --    60     60    20
Aspect                       N    NE    NW     N     W      W    NE
Releve number               15    16    17    18    19     20    21

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            2     1     2     2     2      2     1
Helictotrichon sedenense     2     2     2     2     2      2     1
Saxifraga oppositifolia      1           1     1     1      1     1
Minuartia verna              1     1     +     +                  +
Jasione cavanillesii                     +     +     1      1     +
Silene ciliata               +           +     +     +      +     +
Helianthemum canum           1     2     2     2     1      1     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa                     +     +     +     1      1
Anthyllis vulneraria         2     2     2     2                  1
Silene acaulis               +           +     +                  1
Thymus praecox
Androsace villosa                                                 1
Potentilla nivalis                       +     +     +      +     1
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens            +     1                 +      +     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius                                         +
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens
Armeria cantabrica           +           +     +
Koeleria vallesiana                +                              +
Salix breviserrata subsp.                1     1     2      2
  fontqueri
Festuca glacialis
Dethawia splendens
Arenaria purpurascens                                             +
Senecio boissieri                        +     +
Globularia repens                        +     +                  1
Matthiola perennis           +     +     +     +                  +
Arenaria moehringioides                                           +
Poa alpina                   1           1     1
Releve number               15    16    17    18    19     20    21
Festuca hystrix              +
Euphrasia salisburgensis           +     1     1
Helianthemum urrielense
Kobresia myosuroides         +
Seditm atratum
Saxifraga conifera
Oxytropis neglecta                       +     +
Alchemilla alpigena
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca                                                     +
Draba dedeana                      +
Carex ornithopoda
Pritzelago alpina
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Saxifraga paniculata               +
Polygonum viviparum                      +     +
Carex capillaris
Carex parviflora
Veronica alpina

Table S2(2)

Jasiono cavanillesii-Helictotrichetum sedenensis ass. nova
(Armerion cantabricae, Seslerietalia caeruleae,
Festuco-Seslerietea)

Altitude (l=10m)            226   212   234   226   228   245   245
Area ([m.sup.2])            100   50    75    100   100   100   75
Cover (%)                   40    50    10    20    20    20    --
Aspect                      SW    NW     N     E    SW    NE    NE
Releve number.              22    23    24    25    26    27    28

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            1     1     1     1     1     1     1
Helictotrichon sedenense     1     +     1     1     1     2     2
Saxifraga oppositifolia      1                 +     1     +     +
Minuartia verna              +     +     +     1     +     1     1
Jasione cavanillesii         +     +     +     +     1     +     +
Silene ciliata               +     +     +     +     1     1     1
Helianthemum canum           1     1     1     1     1     1     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa                     +     +     +     +     +     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1     +     1     1     1     1
Silene acaulis               +           +     +     1     +     +
Thymus praecox                     1     +     1     1     +     +
Androsace villosa                  +     +     1     1
Potentilla nivalis           1     +     +     +     +     +     +
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens                  +           +           +     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius    +           +     1     1
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens                 1           +     +     +     +
Armeria cantabrica                 +     +     +           +     +
Koeleria vallesiana                +                       +     +
Salix breviserrata           1     2     2     1     1
  subsp. Fontqueri
Festuca glacialis            +     1     +     +           +     +
Dethawia splendens                 1     +     +     2
Arenaria purpurascens        +     +     +           1     +     +
Senecio boissieri                              +
Globularia repens                        +
Matthiola perennis           +                             +     +
Arenaria moehringioides      1     +                 +
Poa alpina                   +     1                 +     +     +
Festuca hystrix
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis    +     +
Helianthemum urrielense                                    1     1
Kobresia myositroides        1                             +     +
Seditm atratum                                             +     +
Saxifraga conifera                                   +
Oxytropis neglecta
Alchemilla alpigena
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca
Draba dedeana                      +     +
Carex ornithopoda            +           +           +
Pritzelago alpina
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Saxifraga paniculata
Polygonum viviparum
Carex capillaris                         +
Carex parviflora                         +
Veronica alpina                                            +     +

Altitude (l=10m)            234   230   235   233   229   229   197
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    50    75    75    75    100   50
Cover (%)                   --    20    20    20    80    80    30
Aspect                       S     W     E    NW     N     N    NW
Releve number.              29    30    31    32    33    34    35

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            1     1     2     2     3     3     +
Helictotrichon sedenense     2     2     1     1     1     1     +
Saxifraga oppositifolia      +     1     1           1     1     +
Minuartia verna              1     1     1     +     1     1     +
Jasione cavanillesii         +     +     +           1     1
Silene ciliata               +     1     1     +     1     1     +
Helianthemum canum           1     +     1     2     1     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa               +     1     +     1     +     +     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     2     2     2     2     2
Silene acaulis               +     +     +     +     1     1
Thymus praecox               1     1     2     1                 1
Androsace villosa            1     +                 1     1
Potentilla nivalis           +                 +                 +
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens                  +     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius                      +     2     2     1
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens           +     +                 +     +     +
Armeria cantabrica           1     +     1     +                 1
Koeleria vallesiana          +           +     +
Salix breviserrata           +                       1     1     1
  subsp. Fontqueri
Festuca glacialis            +     +           +     +     +     1
Dethawia splendens                 +                 1     1     1
Arenaria purpurascens              +     +     +     2     2     +
Senecio boissieri                  +                 3     3
Globularia repens                  +           +
Matthiola perennis           +           +     +
Arenaria moehringioides      +     1     1
Poa alpina                   +
Festuca hystrix                          +     +
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis          +
Helianthemum urrielense      +     +     1     +                 1
Kobresia myositroides        +     +
Seditm atratum               +           +
Saxifraga conifera           +     +     +
Oxytropis neglecta
Alchemilla alpigena          +                                   +
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca
Draba dedeana
Carex ornithopoda
Pritzelago alpina            +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus        +     +                             +
Saxifraga paniculata                                             +
Polygonum viviparum
Carex capillaris
Carex parviflora
Veronica alpina

Altitude (l=10m)            241   250   246   225   245   247   236
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    75    75    75    75    75
Cover (%)                   20    10    10    10    10    20    30
Aspect                       N     N     E    NE     w     N    NW
Releve number.              36    37    38    39    40    41    42

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            +     2     2     2     2     1     1
Helictotrichon sedenense     +     2     2     2     1     1     2
Saxifraga oppositifolia      1     2     1     +     +     2     1
Minuartia verna                    1     1     +     1     +
Jasione cavanillesii         +     +     +     2     1     2     1
Silene ciliata                     1     1     1     1     1
Helianthemum canum
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa                     +     +     1     1     +
Anthyllis vulneraria                     1                 +     +
Silene acaulis               2     +     1     1     +     2
Thymus praecox               1           +     +     1     +     +
Androsace villosa                  +                 +
Potentilla nivalis           +                       +     +
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens
Ranunculusparnassiifolius                2
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens           +                 +
Armeria cantabrica           +           +     1     +     +     1
Koeleria vallesiana
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Festuca glacialis                        +     +     +     +     1
Dethawia splendens                       +     1           +
Arenaria purpurascens                    +     1           1     +
Senecio boissieri
Globularia repens                                    +
Matthiola perennis
Arenaria moehringioides            +     1     +     1     +     1
Poa alpina                         +           +           +     1
Festuca hystrix
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis                +
Helianthemum urrielense
Kobresia myositroides
Seditm atratum                                 +
Saxifraga conifera                       +     +     +
Oxytropis neglecta                       +                 +
Alchemilla alpigena          +                             +
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca
Draba dedeana
Carex ornithopoda
Pritzelago alpina                              +     +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Saxifraga paniculata
Polygonum viviparum
Carex capillaris             1
Carex parviflora             +
Veronica alpina

Altitude (l=10m)
Area ([m.sup.2])
Cover (%)
Aspect
Releve number.              Syn.

Characteristics

Galium pyrenaicum            V
Helictotrichon sedenense     V
Saxifraga oppositifolia      V
Minuartia verna              V
Jasione cavanillesii         V
Silene ciliata               V
Helianthemum canum           IV
  subsp. Cantabricum
lberis carnosa               IV
Anthyllis vulneraria         IV
Silene acaulis               IV
Thymus praecox              III
Androsace villosa           III
Potentilla nivalis          III
  subsp. Asturica
Gypsophila repens           III
Ranunculusparnassiifolius   III
  subsp. Favargeri
Carex sempen'irens          III
Armeria cantabrica          III
Koeleria vallesiana         III
Salix breviserrata          III
  subsp. Fontqueri
Festuca glacialis           III
Dethawia splendens          III
Arenaria purpurascens       III
Senecio boissieri            II
Globularia repens            II
Matthiola perennis           II
Arenaria moehringioides      II
Poa alpina                   II
Festuca hystrix              II
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis    II
Helianthemum urrielense      II
Kobresia myositroides        I
Seditm atratum               I
Saxifraga conifera           I
Oxytropis neglecta           I
Alchemilla alpigena          I
Pedicularis pyrenaica        I
  var. fallax
Reseda glauca                I
Draba dedeana                I
Carex ornithopoda            I
Pritzelago alpina            I
Euphorbia chamaebuxus        I
Saxifraga paniculata         I
Polygonum viviparum          I
Carex capillaris             I
Carex parviflora             I
Veronica alpina              I

Other species: Oxytropis halleri + in 6; Gentiana verna
+ in 7; Sideritis hyssopifolia + in 9; Gentianella campestris
+ in 10; Arenaria serpyllifolia + in 14; Oreochloa
confusa + in 14; Arenaria erinacea 1 in 15; Silene
nutans and Festuca burnatii + in 16; Agrostis schleicheri
1 in 23; Arenaria grandiflora + in 24; Aspenila hirta + in
25; Gentiana nivalis + in 26; Omalotheca hoppeana + in 30;
Hieraciitm mixtion and Erigeron uniflorus + in 31; Festuca
picoeuropeana + in 41; Veronica nummularia 1 in 42.

Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except 9 and
10 from Eastern Massif and 16 from Western Massif. 1, 2,
23: Between Garganta del Jou Sin Tieixe and La Canal del
Lebaniego (51,52,49); 3,21,22,25,26: Jou de Cerredo
(29,33,39,30,34); 4,5: Jou Tras el Picu (100,101); 6:
Near Pena Castil (187), holotypus ass.; 7: Jou de
los Boches (135); 8: Jou Sin Tieixe (126); 9,10: Around
the Alto del Hoyo Oscuro (66,65); 11: Around La Garganta
del Jou Sin Tieixe (54); 12: Picos de Europa (197); 13:
Surroundings of Hoyo Bajero (144); 14: Between Mountain
hut J.D.Ubeda and Torre de la Pardida (106); 15: Top of
La Canal del Vidrio (110); 16: Los Moledizos (95); 17:
Near Jou Negro (79); 18: Plains between Jou Negro and
Cerredo (192); 19, 20: To Horcada de San Carlos (209,163);
24: From Pico Arenizas to Jou de los Boches (165); 27,28:
Aroud the Collada de La Canalona (58,195); 29: Horcados
Rojos (194); 30,42: Surroundings of Cabana Veronica
(57,148); 31, 32: From Collada Blanca to Hoyo Bajero
(140,141); 33: Between Jou Negro and Jou de la Pardida
(162); 34: Range between Jou Cerredo and Jou de los
Cabrones (211); 35: Surroundings of Mountain hut J.D.Ubeda
(47); 36: Near Torre Coello (151); 37: Santa Ana Coll
(108); 38: From Torre de la Palanca to Hoyo Bajero (145);
39: From Collada Blanca to Hoyo Bajero (143); 40: From
Torre de la Pardida to Jou Negro (169); 41: Near Torre
de la Pardida (168).

Table S3

Ranunculo carinthiaco-Poetum alpinae ass. nova
(Armerion cantabricae, Seslerietalia caeruleae,
Festuco-Seslerietea)

Altitude (l=10m)            208   204   196   214   197   202   202
Area ([m.sup.2])            50    25     0    10    100   10    10
Cover (%)                   30    50    40    40    70    --    60
Aspect                       S    NW    SE     E    NW    NE    NE
Releve number                1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Armeria cantabrica                 2           +     2     2     2
Plantago alpina                    1                       2     2
Silene acaulis                     +           3     3     3     3
Ranunculus carinthiacus                  +           +     1
Poa alpina                                                 +     +
Alchemilla alpigena                +                 3     1     1
Thymus praecox               2                 1           +     +
Carex sempen'irens                                   1     2     2
Anthyllis vulneraria               1     2     3           +
Helianthemum urrielense                        1     +
Carex parviflora
Trifolium thalii                   +
Gentiana vertia                                      1     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens        3     1     +
Pritzelago alpina                                          +     +
Festuca rubra                                              2
Saxifraga conifera
Phleum alpinum                     2
Carex macrostylon                  +     1
Luzula pediformis                                                +
Festuca nigrescens                       +                       2
Omalotheca hoppeana
Euphrasia salisburgensis
Dethawia splendens           +                       1
Helictotrichon sedenense     2
Gentianella campestris                   1
Festuca glacialis                                    1
Releve number                1     2     3     4     5     6     7
Biscutella laevigata         +
Helianthemum canum subsp.          1           1     2
  cantabricum
Botrychium lunaria
Erigeron uniflorus
Galium estebanii
Gentiana nivalis
lberis carnosa               1                 2     1
Ranunculuspamassiifblius     3                 2     2
  subsp. Favargeri
Merendero montana                                          +     +
Silene ciliata                                 1
Seditm atratum                                 +
Nardus stricta
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Koeleria vallesiana                1
Silene nutans                      1
Helianthemum croceitm              +     +
Sempervivum cantabricum            2
Oxytropis neglecta                 1     +
Hippocrepis comosa                       +
Galium saxatile                          +
Saxifraga oppositifolia                        +     +
Linaria alpina                                 +     +
Soldanella alpina
Hieraciitm pilosella
Acinos alpinus
Arenaria moehringioides
Arabis ciliata
Lotus corniculatus

Altitude (l=10m)            197   213   203   209   228   203   217
Area ([m.sup.2])            10    75    75    75    50    75    75
Cover (%)                   --    80    90    100   95    90    100
Aspect                      NW    SE    NW     E     W    NW    --
Releve number                8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Armeria cantabrica           2     1     1           1     1     2
Plantago alpina              1     3     2     4     2     2     2
Silene acaulis               1     1     1           +     3     2
Ranunculus carinthiacus            1     2     1     1           1
Poa alpina                         2     2     1     1     1     2
Alchemilla alpigena          +                 +     +           2
Thymus praecox                           +           +     +
Carex sempen'irens           +     +     1
Anthyllis vulneraria               1     1                       1
Helianthemum urrielense      4     2     1     +
Carex parviflora                         1     +     1     2     2
Trifolium thalii                         3           +
Gentiana vertia              1     +     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens                                            1
Pritzelago alpina            +     1     2
Festuca rubra                1                                   1
Saxifraga conifera                 1     +     +     +     1
Phleum alpinum                                                   +
Carex macrostylon                        +                       2
Luzula pediformis                                                1
Festuca nigrescens                 2     2     1
Omalotheca hoppeana                      1           +     1     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis                                   +     +
Dethawia splendens
Helictotrichon sedenense                             +
Gentianella campestris                                           1
Festuca glacialis                        1     +     3     1
Releve number                8     9    10    11    12    13    14
Biscutella laevigata                                             +
Helianthemum canum subsp.
  cantabricum
Botrychium lunaria                             +     +
Erigeron uniflorus                             1
Galium estebanii                                     +
Gentiana nivalis                                     +
lberis carnosa
Ranunculuspamassiifblius
  subsp. Favargeri
Merendero montana
Silene ciliata
Seditm atratum
Nardus stricta
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Koeleria vallesiana
Silene nutans
Helianthemum croceitm
Sempervivum cantabricum
Oxytropis neglecta
Hippocrepis comosa                             +
Galium saxatile
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Linaria alpina
Soldanella alpina
Hieraciitm pilosella                     +     +
Acinos alpinus                                 +
Arenaria moehringioides
Arabis ciliata
Lotus corniculatus

Altitude (l=10m)            207   214   214   210   211   221   203
Area ([m.sup.2])            10    15    100   20    50    50    20
Cover (%)                   100   100   90    100   95    70    100
Aspect                       N     N     N     N    NW    NW    SE
Releve number               15    16    17    18    19    20    21

Characteristics

Armeria cantabrica           2     2     1     1     +     1     +
Plantago alpina              2     2     1     2     1     1
Silene acaulis               2     2     3     2     2     2
Ranunculus carinthiacus      2     1     1     1     1     1     1
Poa alpina                   2     1     1     1     1     1     1
Alchemilla alpigena          2     +     +     1     1     1     1
Thymus praecox                     1           +     +     +     1
Carex sempen'irens                 +     1     +     3     2     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1     +           1     +
Helianthemum urrielense      1     1     1                 +     +
Carex parviflora             1     1     1     +     1     1
Trifolium thalii             +     +     +           +     1     2
Gentiana vertia              1
Arenaria purpurascens        +     1           1     +     +
Pritzelago alpina            +           +                       +
Festuca rubra                            2     3     2     2     3
Saxifraga conifera                       +     +     +     2
Phleum alpinum               1           +     1           +     +
Carex macrostylon            1     1           1
Luzula pediformis            +     1     +     1           +
Festuca nigrescens           3
Omalotheca hoppeana          1     1
Euphrasia salisburgensis                       +     2     +     +
Dethawia splendens           +                                   +
Helictotrichon sedenense           +                 +     1
Gentianella campestris       +                       1     +
Festuca glacialis
Releve number               15    16    17    18    19    20    21
Biscutella laevigata                                 +     +
Helianthemum canum subsp.                                  +
  cantabricum
Botrychium lunaria                                   +
Erigeron uniflorus                 +                       +     +
Galium estebanii                               +                 1
Gentiana nivalis                         +     +     +
lberis carnosa
Ranunculuspamassiifblius
  subsp. Favargeri
Merendero montana
Silene ciliata               +                             +
Seditm atratum                                             +
Nardus stricta
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica             1                 +     +
  var. fallax
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                                      +
Koeleria vallesiana                                        +
Silene nutans                      +
Helianthemum croceitm
Sempervivum cantabricum                                    +
Oxytropis neglecta
Hippocrepis comosa
Galium saxatile                    +
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Linaria alpina
Soldanella alpina
Hieraciitm pilosella
Acinos alpinus                                                   +
Arenaria moehringioides                              +
Arabis ciliata                                                   +
Lotus corniculatus                                               1

Altitude (l=10m)            205
Area ([m.sup.2])            50
Cover (%)                   90
Aspect                      NE
Releve number               22    Syn.

Characteristics

Armeria cantabrica                 V
Plantago alpina              1     IV
Silene acaulis                     IV
Ranunculus carinthiacus      2     IV
Poa alpina                   1     IV
Alchemilla alpigena                IV
Thymus praecox               +    III
Carex sempen'irens           1    III
Anthyllis vulneraria              III
Helianthemum urrielense           III
Carex parviflora                  III
Trifolium thalii             2    III
Gentiana vertia              1    III
Arenaria purpurascens             III
Pritzelago alpina            +    III
Festuca rubra                3    III
Saxifraga conifera                III
Phleum alpinum               +     II
Carex macrostylon            +     II
Luzula pediformis                  II
Festuca nigrescens                 II
Omalotheca hoppeana                II
Euphrasia salisburgensis           II
Dethawia splendens           +     II
Helictotrichon sedenense           II
Gentianella campestris             II
Festuca glacialis                  II
Releve number               22    Syn.
Biscutella laevigata               I
Helianthemum canum subsp.          I
  cantabricum
Botrychium lunaria                 I
Erigeron uniflorus                 I
Galium estebanii                   I
Gentiana nivalis                   I
lberis carnosa                     I
Ranunculuspamassiifblius           I
  subsp. Favargeri
Merendero montana                  I
Silene ciliata                     I
Seditm atratum                     I
Nardus stricta               +     I
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica             I
  var. fallax
Euphorbia chamaebuxus              I
Koeleria vallesiana                I
Silene nutans                      I
Helianthemum croceitm              I
Sempervivum cantabricum            I
Oxytropis neglecta                 I
Hippocrepis comosa                 I
Galium saxatile                    I
Saxifraga oppositifolia            I
Linaria alpina                     I
Soldanella alpina                  I
Hieraciitm pilosella               I
Acinos alpinus                     I
Arenaria moehringioides            I
Arabis ciliata               +     I
Lotus corniculatus           1     I

Other species: Campanula rotimdifolia and Campanula arvatica
+, Sideritis hyssopifolia and Pimpinella siifolia 1,
Crepispygmaea 2 in 1; Digitalis pannflora, Festuca
rivas-martinezii and Scabiosa columbaria +, Carex
asturica, Potentilla neumanniana and Calluna vulgaris
1 in 2; Matthiola perennis. Iris latifolia, Crepis albida
and Erodium glandulosum +, Androsace villosa 1, Jurinea
humilis 2, Geranium subargenteum 3 in 3; Salix breviserrata
s. fontqueri r, Galium pyrenaicum 1 in 4; Sesleria caerulea
and Viola rupestris +, Carex ornithopoda 1 in 5; Carex
humilis + in 6; Daphne laureola + in 8; Astragalus depressus
+, Hemiaria glabra 1, Ranunculus amplexicaulis and Draba
cantabriae 2 in 9; Poly gala edmundii + in 10; Lotus alpinus
and Euphrasia hirtella 1, Carex pulicaris 2 in 11; Jasione
laevis + in 12; Trifolium alpinum 3 in 13; Oxytropis foucaudii
+ in 14; Seditm album + in 16; Sagina nevadensis. Linaria
supina, Pinguecula grandiflora and Veronica aphylla + in
17; Myosotis alpestris + in 18; Allium schoenoprasum + in
19; Minuartia verna + in 20; Scilla verna, Conopodium pyrenaeum,
Eryngium bourgatii. Vicia pyrenaica and Campanula scheuchzeri
+ in 21; Trifoliitm pratense +, Phyteuma orbiculare 1 in 22.

Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except 6-8 from
Eastern Massif and 2, 12, 15-20 from Western Massif. 1: Collado
Jemioso (199); 2: Muntain hut Llago Huerta (84); 3: Alto de la
Begerina (83); 4, 9: Jou de los Boches (212,133); 5: Vega de
Uixiellu (203); 6, 7: Collado San Carlos (202,200); 8: Fuente
La Escalera (198); 10: Near mountain hut Jou de los Cabrones
(75) holotypus ass.; 11: Bajo Cuchalon de Villasobrada (112);
12: Horcada de Santa Maria (18); 13: Hoyo Grande Cimero
(116); 14: Picos de Europa (94); 15: Torre Bermeja (90);
16: Altos del Verde (88); 17: Northern slope of Pico de los
Asturianos (15); 18: Northeastern slope of Cumbre Cebolleda,
Las Barrastrosa (16); 19: Jou Santo (41); 20: Surroundings
of Torre de los Cabrones (43); 21, 22: Surroundings of
mountain hut J.R. Lueje. Jou de los Cabrones (20,19).

Table S4(1)

Pediculari fallacis-Armerietum cantabricae Rivas-Martinez,
T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (Armerion cantabricae,
Seslerietalia caeruleae, Festuco-Seslerietea)

Altitude (l=10m)           196   201   200   189   209   196   194
Area ([m.sup.2])           75    75    30    30    75    75    75
Cover (%)                  70    70    80    60    70    70    70
Aspect                      E     E     N     W     S     W     W
Releve number               1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens          +     +                 3     4     4
Anthyllis vulneraria        1     1     1     1     2     1     1
Thymus praecox              1     2     1     2     2           1
Alchemilla alpigena               +                 1     +
Arenaria purpurascens       2     1           +                 1
Koeleria vallesiana         2     1     2     2     +
Poa alpina                  1     1           1           1
Helianthemum urrielense     2     3     2           3     2     3
Dethawia splendens          +     +                 +     1     1
Silene acaulis              +           +
Litzula pediformis          +     1                 1
Armeria cantabrica                      1     +           1     +
Minuartia verna                         1                       1
Saxifraga conifera          3     2     1     +     +     +     1
Androsace villosa           +           +                       1
Helianthemum canum                            +     1           3
  subsp. Cantabricum
Plantago alpina             +     +     1     1     1     2     +
Festuca rubra                     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis                      1
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense          1                 1
Gentiana verna                          +     +           +
Ranunculus carinthiacus                             +     +
Sesleria caerulea
Polygonum viviparum
Silene ciliata                    +     +
Gentianella campestris
Biscutella laevigata        +     1     1     +                 +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus             +                 +     +     1
Sedum atratum               +
Gypsophila repens                                   +
Gentiana occidentalis                               +
Scilla verna                +                       1     1
Potentilla crantzii                           +
Sempervivum cantabricum
Phyteuma orbiculare
Lotus corniculatus                +                       +
Jurinea humilis                         +
Paronychia kapela           +     +     2           +     +     +
Eryngium bourgatii          1     3     1           2     2     +
Pritzelago alpina                                   1     +     +
Carex humilis
Agrostis schleicheri
Saxifraga paniculata
Leontodon taraxacoides      +     +
Erigeron uniflorus          +     1     +
Hippocrepis comosa                1     1     +           +
Arenaria moehringioides                 1
Arenaria grandiflora
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Oxytropis halleri
Teucrium pyrenaicum         +                 +     2
Matthiola perennis                                        +     +
Viola rupestris                                                 +
Sedum anglicum
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Myosotis alpestris
Viola riviniana
Kobresia myosuroides
Sideritis hyssopifolia      1                             1
Hieracium pilosella                           +           +
Ranunculus alpestris                                +
Linaria supina                                            +     +
Draba cantabriae
Phyteuma spicatum
Polygala edmundii
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Galium pyrenaicum
Festuca glacialis
Primula integrifolia
Galium marchandii
Acinos alpinus              +     +     +
Merendero montana           +                 +
Bronnts erectus             1     +
Festuca nigrescens
Campanula scheuchzeri                                           +
lberis carnosa                                                  +
Conopodium pyrenaeum
Festuca hystrix
Hemiaria glabra
Festuca burnatii
Jasione cavanillesii
Anemone pavoniana
Globularia repens
Androsace lactea
Bupleurum ranunculoides
Thesium pyrenaicum
Selaginella selaginoides
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria
Trifolium thalii
Cruciata glabra
Helianthemum croceum              1           2
Festuca gautieri                        2     3
Oxytropis neglecta                                  +
Pimpinella siifolia                                 +
Arabis ciliata                                            +
Draba dedeana                                             +
Alyssum montamtm                                                +
Ranunculus amplexicaulis
Seseli namtm
Seseli montamtm
Lotus alpinus
Seseli libanotis
Avenida pratensis
Potentilla nivalis
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus
Ranunculus thora
Rhinanthus minor
Pinguicula grandiflora
Viola biflora
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Campanula rotundifolia
Omalotheca hoppeana
Nardus stricta
Thalictrum minus

Altitude (l=10m)           193   193   204   204   210   197   211
Area ([m.sup.2])           75    75    50    75    75    25    75
Cover (%)                  --    90    --    --    95    90    50
Aspect                     SE    NW     E    NW    NE    NE     E
Releve number               8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens                3     3     3     4     2     2
Anthyllis vulneraria        1     1     1     1     1     +     1
Thymus praecox              2     2     1     1     1           1
Alchemilla alpigena               +     +     +     1     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens             +     1     1     1     +
Koeleria vallesiana         +     +     2     2     +     +     1
Poa alpina                  +           1     1     1
Helianthemum urrielense     2     2     1     1     2     1     3
Dethawia splendens          1     1                       1     +
Silene acaulis                    +                 1           +
Litzula pediformis                                  1     +
Armeria cantabrica          2     3     1     1     2           +
Minuartia verna             +                       +     +     +
Saxifraga conifera          1     1     2     2     +     +     +
Androsace villosa           +           1     1     +     +     2
Helianthemum canum          +     1     2     2     +     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Plantago alpina             2     1     2     2     3     1
Festuca rubra                                       2     1     1
Euphrasia salisburgensis                                  1
Pedicularis pyrenaica                               +     +
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense    1     +
Gentiana verna                    1
Ranunculus carinthiacus     +     +
Sesleria caerulea                                   1           +
Polygonum viviparum
Silene ciliata                          +     +           +
Gentianella campestris                                          +
Biscutella laevigata        +           +     +     +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                               +           1
Sedum atratum                           1     1
Gypsophila repens                       1     1     +           1
Gentiana occidentalis                               1           1
Scilla verna                      1                 1
Potentilla crantzii         1     2
Sempervivum cantabricum           +
Phyteuma orbiculare                                             +
Lotus corniculatus          1     1                 1
Jurinea humilis             1     +     2     2     +     +
Paronychia kapela                       +     +
Eryngium bourgatii          2
Pritzelago alpina                 +
Carex humilis                     3
Agrostis schleicheri
Saxifraga paniculata
Leontodon taraxacoides                        +
Erigeron uniflorus                                              +
Hippocrepis comosa          +                                   +
Arenaria moehringioides                 1     1     +           +
Arenaria grandiflora        +
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Oxytropis halleri
Teucrium pyrenaicum
Matthiola perennis                      1     1
Viola rupestris
Sedum anglicum              +           +     +
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Myosotis alpestris
Viola riviniana
Kobresia myosuroides
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Hieracium pilosella         +
Ranunculus alpestris
Linaria supina              +     +
Draba cantabriae                        +     +
Phyteuma spicatum                                         +
Polygala edmundii                                         +
Arenaria serpyllifolia                                          +
Galium pyrenaicum
Festuca glacialis
Primula integrifolia
Galium marchandii
Acinos alpinus
Merendero montana
Bronnts erectus
Festuca nigrescens                2
Campanula scheuchzeri
lberis carnosa                          +     +
Conopodium pyrenaeum        1     2
Festuca hystrix             +     +
Hemiaria glabra                   +
Festuca burnatii
Jasione cavanillesii
Anemone pavoniana
Globularia repens
Androsace lactea
Bupleurum ranunculoides
Thesium pyrenaicum
Selaginella selaginoides
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria
Trifolium thalii
Cruciata glabra
Helianthemum croceum
Festuca gautieri
Oxytropis neglecta
Pimpinella siifolia
Arabis ciliata
Draba dedeana
Alyssum montamtm            +
Ranunculus amplexicaulis    +     1
Seseli namtm
Seseli montamtm
Lotus alpinus                                                   +
Seseli libanotis
Avenida pratensis
Potentilla nivalis
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus
Ranunculus thora
Rhinanthus minor
Pinguicula grandiflora
Viola biflora
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Campanula rotundifolia
Omalotheca hoppeana
Nardus stricta
Thalictrum minus

Altitude (l=10m)           196   190   208   207   200   190
Area ([m.sup.2])           100   100   75    75    50    100
Cover (%)                  --    80    --    60    70    70
Aspect                     SE    NE     N     W    NW    NE
Releve number              15    16    17    18    19    20

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens          3     3     4     4     3     3
Anthyllis vulneraria        1     1     1     1           +
Thymus praecox              1           1     1     +     +
Alchemilla alpigena         +     1     1     1     2     1
Arenaria purpurascens                   2     2     1     2
Koeleria vallesiana         1     1     +     +
Poa alpina                              1     1     1     1
Helianthemum urrielense           1     1     1
Dethawia splendens                      1     1     2     1
Silene acaulis              2     1     1     1     1
Litzula pediformis                      +     +     1     1
Armeria cantabrica          1                       2     2
Minuartia verna             2     +     1     1     +     1
Saxifraga conifera          +     +     1     1
Androsace villosa           2     2     1     1           +
Helianthemum canum          1           2     2     +     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Plantago alpina                         1     1
Festuca rubra                           1     1
Euphrasia salisburgensis          +     1     1
Pedicularis pyrenaica       1     +     1     1     1     1
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense    +                       1
Gentiana verna                                      1
Ranunculus carinthiacus           +
Sesleria caerulea                       1
Polygonum viviparum                                 1     2
Silene ciliata              +           +     +     +     1
Gentianella campestris
Biscutella laevigata
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                   +     +
Sedum atratum               +           +     +           +
Gypsophila repens                 +     +     +
Gentiana occidentalis             +     +     +
Scilla verna                +     +
Potentilla crantzii
Sempervivum cantabricum                 +     +           +
Phyteuma orbiculare                                       +
Lotus corniculatus
Jurinea humilis
Paronychia kapela
Eryngium bourgatii
Pritzelago alpina                                   +     +
Carex humilis
Agrostis schleicheri                                1     +
Saxifraga paniculata                                1
Leontodon taraxacoides
Erigeron uniflorus
Hippocrepis comosa
Arenaria moehringioides           +
Arenaria grandiflora
Campanula arvatica          +           +     +
Veronica aphylla
Oxytropis halleri
Teucrium pyrenaicum
Matthiola perennis          +
Viola rupestris
Sedum anglicum                          +     +
Saxifraga oppositifolia                 +     +     +
Myosotis alpestris
Viola riviniana
Kobresia myosuroides
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Hieracium pilosella
Ranunculus alpestris                                      1
Linaria supina
Draba cantabriae                        +     +
Phyteuma spicatum
Polygala edmundii           +
Arenaria serpyllifolia                  1     1
Galium pyrenaicum                       1     1
Festuca glacialis                       +     +
Primula integrifolia
Galium marchandii
Acinos alpinus
Merendero montana
Bronnts erectus
Festuca nigrescens
Campanula scheuchzeri                               +
lberis carnosa
Conopodium pyrenaeum
Festuca hystrix
Hemiaria glabra
Festuca burnatii            +           +     +
Jasione cavanillesii        +           +     +
Anemone pavoniana           +     +
Globularia repens                       +     +
Androsace lactea
Bupleurum ranunculoides
Thesium pyrenaicum
Selaginella selaginoides
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria
Trifolium thalii
Cruciata glabra
Helianthemum croceum
Festuca gautieri
Oxytropis neglecta
Pimpinella siifolia
Arabis ciliata
Draba dedeana
Alyssum montamtm
Ranunculus amplexicaulis
Seseli namtm                                  +
Seseli montamtm                         +
Lotus alpinus
Seseli libanotis            +
Avenida pratensis           +
Potentilla nivalis                      +     +
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus                        +     +
Ranunculus thora                                          +
Rhinanthus minor
Pinguicula grandiflora
Viola biflora
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi
Campanula rotundifolia
Omalotheca hoppeana
Nardus stricta
Thalictrum minus

Table S4(2)

Pedicitlari fallacis-Armerietum cantabricae Rivas-Martinez,
T.E. Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984 (Armerion cantabricae,
Seslerietalia caeruleae, Festuco-Seslerietea)

Altitude (l=10m)            222   224   210   198   206   193   203
Area ([m.sup.2])            30    50    30    50    50    10    75
Cover (%)                   --    --    --    70    70    100   100
Aspect                      NW     W     N    NE     N     N     N
Releve number               21    22    23    24    25    26    27

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens           2     2     2     3     3     3     4
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1           1           1     2
Thymus praecox               1     1           1     +     1     +
Alchemilla alpigena          3     2     2     1     +     1     1
Arenaria purpurascens        2     2     2           +           1
Koeleria vallesiana                            +     1
Poa alpina                   2     +     1                 +     1
Helianthemum urrielense            1           1
Dethawia splendens           +     1           +           +
Silene acaulis                     1     2     1     2     +     1
Litzula pediformis           2     2     1                 1     1
Armeria cantabrica           2     2     1                       3
Minuartia verna              1     1     1                 +
Saxifraga conifera
Androsace villosa
Helianthemum canum subsp.                            1
  cantabricitm
Plantago alpina                          1
Festuca rubra                +     1           1           1     2
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis                1     +           1
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica       +     +     1     +           +
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense     1     2                 +     +     +
Gentiana verna               +           +     +                 +
Ranunculus carinthiacus                        +     +     +
Sesleria caerulea                                                3
Polygonum viviparum          1           1     +     +           1
Silene ciliata                           +                       1
Gentianella campestris                   1     1           +     1
Biscutella laevigata                                             1
Euphorbia chamaebuxus              +                       +
Seditm atratum                     +           +     +
Gypsophila repens                                          +
Gentiana occidentales                          +
Scilla venia
Potentilla crantzii                1                             +
Sempervivum cantabricum            +
Phyteuma orbiculare
Lotus corniculatus
Jurinea humilis
Paronychia kapela
Eryngium bourgatii
Pritzelago alpina            1
Carex humilis
Agrostis schleicheri         1     +           1     1
Saxifraga paniculata         +                 +     +
Leontodon taraxacoides
Erigeron uniflorus
Hippocrepis comosa
Arenaria moehringioides
Arenaria grandiflora
Campanula arvatica           2
Veronica aphylla
Oxytropis halleri
Teucrium pyrenaicum
Matthiola perennis
Viola rupestris                                +     +
Sedum anglicum
Saxifraga oppositifolia                              +
Myosotis alpestris                       +                       +
Viola riviniana
Kobresia myosuroides
Sideritis hyssopifolia
Hieraciitm pilosella
Ranunculus alpestris         2     1
Linaria supina
Draba cantabriae
Phyteuma spicatum                                          +
Polygala edmundii
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Galium pyrenaicum
Festuca glacialis
Primula elatior                                            1
Galium marchandii
Acinos alpinus
Merendero montana
Bronnts erectus
Festuca nigrescens
Campanula scheuchzeri                          +
lberis carnosa
Conopodium pyrenaeum
Festuca hystrix
Hemiaria glabra
Festuca burnatii
Jasione cavanillesii
Anemone pavoniana
Globularia repens
Androsace lactea             2           1
Bupleurum ranunculoides                  +
Thesium pyrenaicum                             +                 +
Selaginella selaginoides                       +
Salix breviserrata                                   2
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria                                         +
Trifolium thalii
Cruciata glabra
Helianthemum croceum
Festuca gautieri
Oxytropis neglecta
Pimpinella siifolia
Arabis ciliata                                 +
Draba dedeana
Alyssitm montanum
Ranunculus amplexicaitlis
Seseli nanum
Seseli montanum
Lotus alpinus
Seseli libanotis                                           +
Avenida pratensis
Potentilla nivalis
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus
Ranunculus thora
Rhinanthus minor             +
Pingiticitla grandiflora                       1     +
Viola biflora                                  +           +
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi                              +
Campanula rotundifolia                                     1
Omalotheca hoppeana
Nardus stricta
Thalictrum minus

Altitude (l=10m)            221   196   205   209   200   204   219
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    75    75    75    75    75
Cover (%)                   90    80    80    95    100   90    100
Aspect                       N    NE     N     N     N    NW    NW
Releve number               28    29    30    31    32    33    34

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens           5     4     4     4     4     3     4
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1     1     1     1     1     1
Thymus praecox               1     1     1     1     2     1     1
Alchemilla alpigena          1     2     2     2     3     2     1
Arenaria purpurascens        1     +     1     1     1     1     1
Koeleria vallesiana                1     +     +           1     +
Poa alpina                   1     1     1     1           1     2
Helianthemum urrielense            2     2     +     1     1     1
Dethawia splendens           2     +     1     1           +     1
Silene acaulis               1     1     1     +     1     +
Litzula pediformis           1     +     +     +     1     +     +
Armeria cantabrica           2     +                       +     +
Minuartia verna                          +     +     +     +     +
Saxifraga conifera                                   +     +
Androsace villosa                        +     +     +     +     +
Helianthemum canum subsp.                1     1     1     +     1
  cantabricitm
Plantago alpina              +     1     1           1     +
Festuca rubra                1     2     1     1     1     2     1
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis    +           +     +     +     +     +
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica       +           1     1     +
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense     +                 +                 +
Gentiana verna               1           +                 +     +
Ranunculus carinthiacus      1     1     +     +     +     +     +
Sesleria caerulea            2     2     2     2     2     2     1
Polygonum viviparum                1     1     1     1           1
Silene ciliata               1                                   +
Gentianella campestris       1     1     1     +     1     1     +
Biscutella laevigata         +     +                             +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                                +
Seditm atratum
Gypsophila repens
Gentiana occidentales                          +
Scilla venia                             +           +
Potentilla crantzii                      +           1     +
Sempervivum cantabricum                        +
Phyteuma orbiculare                      1     +     +     1
Lotus corniculatus                                   1     1
Jurinea humilis
Paronychia kapela
Eryngium bourgatii
Pritzelago alpina
Carex humilis                                  1     1
Agrostis schleicheri
Saxifraga paniculata                     +     +
Leontodon taraxacoides       +                       +
Erigeron uniflorus                                   +
Hippocrepis comosa
Arenaria moehringioides
Arenaria grandiflora                           1     1
Campanula arvatica                                         +
Veronica aphylla                                     +
Oxytropis halleri                        +     +
Teucrium pyrenaicum
Matthiola perennis
Viola rupestris
Sedum anglicum
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Myosotis alpestris           +                 +
Viola riviniana                          +     +           +
Kobresia myosuroides                                             2
Sideritis hyssopifolia                   +
Hieraciitm pilosella
Ranunculus alpestris
Linaria supina
Draba cantabriae
Phyteuma spicatum
Polygala edmundii                              +
Arenaria serpyllifolia             +
Galium pyrenaicum
Festuca glacialis                        +     +
Primula elatior
Galium marchandii            +           +                 +     +
Acinos alpinus
Merendero montana                              +
Bronnts erectus                                            +
Festuca nigrescens
Campanula scheuchzeri
lberis carnosa
Conopodium pyrenaeum
Festuca hystrix
Hemiaria glabra
Festuca burnatii
Jasione cavanillesii
Anemone pavoniana
Globularia repens
Androsace lactea
Bupleurum ranunculoides                  +                       +
Thesium pyrenaicum
Selaginella selaginoides     +
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria                 +
Trifolium thalii                                     +     1
Cruciata glabra                                            +     +
Helianthemum croceum
Festuca gautieri
Oxytropis neglecta
Pimpinella siifolia
Arabis ciliata
Draba dedeana
Alyssitm montanum
Ranunculus amplexicaitlis
Seseli nanum
Seseli montanum
Lotus alpinus                      +
Seseli libanotis
Avenida pratensis
Potentilla nivalis
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus
Ranunculus thora                   +
Rhinanthus minor                                           +
Pingiticitla grandiflora
Viola biflora
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi                                          1
Campanula rotundifolia                                           +
Omalotheca hoppeana                            +
Nardus stricta                                 +
Thalictrum minus                                           +

Altitude (l=10m)            215   211   205   211   213
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    75    75    75
Cover (%)                   90    70    90    90    90
Aspect                       N    NW    NE    NE    NE
Releve number               35    36    37    38    39    Syn.

Characteristics

Carex sempervirens           3     3     3     3     2     V
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     2     1     +     1     V
Thymus praecox               1     1     1     1     1     V
Alchemilla alpigena          1     1           1     1     V
Arenaria purpurascens        2     1     1     1     1     IV
Koeleria vallesiana          2     +           1     1     IV
Poa alpina                   2     1     1     1     1     IV
Helianthemum urrielense            2     1     1           IV
Dethawia splendens           +     1                       IV
Silene acaulis               1     1     1           1     IV
Litzula pediformis           1     1     +     1           IV
Armeria cantabrica           +     2     +     +           IV
Minuartia verna              +           +     +     +     IV
Saxifraga conifera           +     +           +     +     IV
Androsace villosa            +     1     +     +     +     IV
Helianthemum canum subsp.    2     1     1           1     IV
  cantabricitm
Plantago alpina                                1     +    III
Festuca rubra                1     1     +     2          III
Euphrasia salisbitrgensis    1     +     1     +     +    III
Pedicitlaris pyrenaica             +     1                III
  var. fallax
Helictotrichon sedenense                       1     +    III
Gentiana verna               +     1     +     +          III
Ranunculus carinthiacus      +                       +    III
Sesleria caerulea            3     2     2     2     1    III
Polygonum viviparum          1     1     1     1          III
Silene ciliata               1                             II
Gentianella campestris                   1     +     +     II
Biscutella laevigata                     +                 II
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                                +     II
Seditm atratum                                 +     +     II
Gypsophila repens            +     +                       II
Gentiana occidentales                          +     +     II
Scilla venia                                               II
Potentilla crantzii                            +     +     II
Sempervivum cantabricum                  +     +     +     II
Phyteuma orbiculare                                  1     II
Lotus corniculatus                                   +     II
Jurinea humilis                          +           +     II
Paronychia kapela                                          II
Eryngium bourgatii                                         II
Pritzelago alpina                                          II
Carex humilis                +           2     2     4     II
Agrostis schleicheri                                       II
Saxifraga paniculata                     +     +           II
Leontodon taraxacoides                   +                 I
Erigeron uniflorus                                   +     I
Hippocrepis comosa                                         I
Arenaria moehringioides                                    I
Arenaria grandiflora                     +                 I
Campanula arvatica                                         I
Veronica aphylla                         1     1           I
Oxytropis halleri            +           1     +     1     I
Teucrium pyrenaicum                                        I
Matthiola perennis                                         I
Viola rupestris                                1           I
Sedum anglicum                                             I
Saxifraga oppositifolia            +                       I
Myosotis alpestris                                         I
Viola riviniana                                      +     I
Kobresia myosuroides                     +     2     2     I
Sideritis hyssopifolia                                     I
Hieraciitm pilosella                                 1     I
Ranunculus alpestris                                       I
Linaria supina                                             I
Draba cantabriae                                           I
Phyteuma spicatum                                          I
Polygala edmundii                        +                 I
Arenaria serpyllifolia                                     I
Galium pyrenaicum            +     +                       I
Festuca glacialis                                          I
Primula elatior                                            I
Galium marchandii                                          I
Acinos alpinus                                             I
Merendero montana                                          I
Bronnts erectus                                            I
Festuca nigrescens                                         I
Campanula scheuchzeri                                      I
lberis carnosa                                             I
Conopodium pyrenaeum                                       I
Festuca hystrix                                            I
Hemiaria glabra                                            I
Festuca burnatii                                           I
Jasione cavanillesii                                       I
Anemone pavoniana                                          I
Globularia repens            +                             I
Androsace lactea                                           I
Bupleurum ranunculoides                                    I
Thesium pyrenaicum                                   +     I
Selaginella selaginoides                       +           I
Salix breviserrata                       +     +           I
  subsp. Fontqueri
Botrychium lunaria                                         I
Trifolium thalii                                     1     I
Cruciata glabra                                      +     I
Helianthemum croceum                                       I
Festuca gautieri                                           I
Oxytropis neglecta                                         I
Pimpinella siifolia                                        I
Arabis ciliata                                             I
Draba dedeana                                  +           I
Alyssitm montanum                                          I
Ranunculus amplexicaitlis                                  I
Seseli nanum                                               I
Seseli montanum                                            I
Lotus alpinus                                              I
Seseli libanotis                                           I
Avenida pratensis                                          I
Potentilla nivalis                                         I
  subsp. Asturica
Erigeron alpinus                                           I
Ranunculus thora                                           I
Rhinanthus minor                                           I
Pingiticitla grandiflora                                   I
Viola biflora                                              I
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi                                    I
Campanula rotundifolia                                     I
Omalotheca hoppeana                                  +     I
Nardus stricta                                       +     I
Thalictrum minus                                     +     I

Other species: Sedum sediforme + in 2; Daphne laureola and
Leucanthemum gaudmu + in 3; Planta go lanceolata, Sehnum
pyrenaeum, Digitalis parviflora, Silene nutans, Iris
latifolia and Geranium subargenteum +, Sedum album and
Sanguisorba minor 1 in 4; Genista legionensis, Erodium
glandulosum, Hieraciitm mixtion and Festucapicoeuropeana
+ in 5; Linum salsoloides + in 7; Gentiana nivalis +,
Carex brevicollis 3 in 8; Leontodon hispidits + in 10;
Ranunculus bitlbosits 1 in 12; Scabiosa columbaria + in
14; Brachypodium rupestre + in 19; Festuca scoparia +,
Euphorbia flavicoma 1 in 21; Carex parviflora + in 22;
Cerastium arvense + in 23; Linum bienne + in 24; Galium
estebanii, Aquilegia pyrenaica, Stachys alopecuros and
Hypericum nummularium + in 26; Stellaria holostea,
Helianthemum niimmularium and Saxifl-aga granulata +,
Rhinanthus angustifolius 2 in 27; Knautia arvensis +
in 29; Trifolium pratense + in 32; Juniperus alpina
1 in 34; Sedum acre 1 in 35; Saxifraga aizoides + in
36; Vicia pyrenaica + in 37.

Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except 19,
21, 23 and 25 from Eastern Massif and 3 and 4 from
Western Massif. 1, 2: From Torre de Llordes to Vega de
Liordes (173,174); 3: Hoyos Cavaos (91); 4: Puertos de
Cuba (86); 5: Jou Sin Tieixe (136); 6-9: Hoyo Sin Tierra
(129-132); 10, 11: Near mountain hut Jou de los Cabrones
(76,189); 12: Surroundings of La Brecha de los Cazadores
(150); 13: Eastern slope of Los Cuetos del Trave (38);
14: Between mountain hut J.D.Ubeda and Torre de la
Pardida (105); 15: Toixe Altaiz, Rivas-Martinez et al.
(1984): tb. 34, rel. 7 (6); 16, 24, 29: Entorno del
Refugio J.D.Ubeda (45,48,104); 17, 18: Towards the
Jou del Agua (193,81); 19: El Jisu, Rivas-Martinez et
al. (1984): tb. 34, rei. 4 (3); 20: Horcadina de
Cobaixobres, Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984): tb. 34, rei.
2 (1); 21: Prao Cortes, Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984):
tb. 34, rei. 13 (7); 22: Colladina de las Nieves,
Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984): tb. 34, rei. 3 (2); 23:
El Jisu, Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984): tb. 34, rei.
5 (4); 25: Entorno del Alto del Hoyo Oscuro (67); 26:
Ladera este de Los Cuetos del Trave (37); 27: Tiro
Pedavejo (172); 28: From Llagu Bajero to Torre de
Llordes (177); 30, 32: From Cabeza de los Tortorios to
Majada de las Monas (184,183); 31, 35, 39: Cabeza de los
Tortorios (181,179,180); 33: Cabeza de las Monas (182);
34: Near Collado de las Monetas (188); 36: From Llagu
Bajero to Toixe de Llordes (178); 37, 38: Majada del
Carbonal (185,186).

Table S5(1)

Saxifago coniferae-Helianthemetum urrielense ass. Nova
(Armerion cantabricae, Seslerietalia caeruleae,
Festnco-Seslerietea

Altitude (l=10m)            217   208   222   207   213   206   197
Area ([m.sup.2])            50    50    25    75    80    75    75
Cover (%)                   --    70    90    70    80    60    70
Aspect                       N    SE    NE    NE     E    NE     N
Releve number                1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               1     +     1           1     +     1
Silene acaulis               2     2     2     1     +     1     1
Armeria cantabrica                 1     +     1     +     1     1
Saxifi-aga conifera          1     2     1     1     1     1     1
Festuca glacialis            +           1           +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1     1     1     1     2     2
Helianthemum urrielense      1     2     2     2     2     2     3
Carex sempervirens           1     +     +     4     4     3     3
Minuartia verna                    1           +     +     1     +
Arenaria purpurascens                    1     1           1     +
Poa alpina                   1     +     1     +           1     +
Plantago alpina              1     1     3     +     2     +     2
Alchemilla alpigena                +     +     1     1     +     1
Sedum atratum                      +           +
Silene ciliata               +
Arenaria moehringioides                        +     1
Omalotlwca hoppeana
Helictotrichon sedenense     +     1           1     +     +     +
Dethawia splendens           +     +     +     +     +     1     +
Galium pyrenaicum            +     +
Ranunculus carinthiacus      +                       +
Helianthemum cartum          +     3     +           1     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis     +           1     1     +     +
Festuca picoeuropeana              +     3           +           +
Iberis carnosa
Jasione cavanillesii               1
Gentianella campestris                         +     +     1     +
Veronica nummularia
Koeleria vallesiana          +     +     +           +     +     1
Gentiana verna               +     +     +           +     +
Saxifi-aga oppositifolia
Salix breviserrata subs
  p.fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda
Erigeron uniflorus                       +           +
Festuca rubra                                              1
Luzula pediformis                              +     +     +     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus        +                             +
Matthiola perennis           1
Pedicularis pyrenaica              +                       +
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus                                           +     +
Viola rupestris
Agrostis schleicheri
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata                           +     +     +
Carex parviflora
Hieracium mixtum
Pritzelago alpina                  +           1
Gypsophila repens                                    +
Scilla verna                       1
Potentilla crantzii                      +                       1
Botrychium lunaria
Paronychia kapela
Androsace villosa                        +           1
Galium estebanii
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Arenaria grandiflora                     +
Festuca nigrescens                             1     1           1
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina
Draba dedeana
Poa minor

Altitude (l=10m)            203   203   213   216   227   209   236
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    75    50    20    75    75
Cover (%)                   --    70    60    70    80    60    80
Aspect                      NW    NE     E     E     E    NW    SE
Releve number                8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               1     1     1     1     1     1     2
Silene acaulis               1     1           3     3     2
Armeria cantabrica           1     1     1     +     1           1
Saxifi-aga conifera          +     +     +           +     2     +
Festuca glacialis            +     +     1     1     1     1     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         2     2     2           1     1     2
Helianthemum urrielense      2     2     2     1     1     2     3
Carex sempervirens           4     4     +     2     1     3
Minuartia verna              +     +     1     +
Arenaria purpurascens        1     1     +     1     1           1
Poa alpina                   1     1
Plantago alpina              2     2     2     2     +     2     +
Alchemilla alpigena          1     1           1     1     +
Sedum atratum                +     +           +           +
Silene ciliata                           1
Arenaria moehringioides      1     1           +     +     +     1
Omalotlwca hoppeana                      1           +
Helictotrichon sedenense
Dethawia splendens           1     1     +           +     +
Galium pyrenaicum                                                1
Ranunculus carinthiacus                  +     1     +
Helianthemum cartum          2     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis     +     +
Festuca picoeuropeana                    +     +     1
Iberis carnosa                           +
Jasione cavanillesii                                             1
Gentianella campestris
Veronica nummularia          +     +
Koeleria vallesiana          +     +
Gentiana verna               +     +     +     +     +
Saxifi-aga oppositifolia                                         2
Salix breviserrata subs
  p.fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda                        1     +     +
Erigeron uniflorus           1     1
Festuca rubra                1     1           1
Luzula pediformis                        +     +     1     +
Ranunculusparnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                          +                 +
Matthiola perennis
Pedicularis pyrenaica                                +
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus                         +     +
Viola rupestris                          1
Agrostis schleicheri                           +
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata                     +
Carex parviflora                                     1
Hieracium mixtum                                                 +
Pritzelago alpina            +     +
Gypsophila repens            1     1
Scilla verna                                   +
Potentilla crantzii
Botrychium lunaria                                   +
Paronychia kapela
Androsace villosa
Galium estebanii                               +     1
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Arenaria grandiflora
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina                                      +
Draba dedeana
Poa minor

Altitude (l=10m)            235   223   235   231   226   234   231
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    75    75    75    75    75    90
Cover (%)                   40    60    65    50    70    30    90
Aspect                       W     W    SW    SE    NW     E     E
Releve number               15    16    17    18    19    20    21

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               +     1     1     1     1     2     2
Silene acaulis                     2     2     +     3     1     1
Armeria cantabrica           1     1     2     2     2     1     1
Saxifi-aga conifera                1     1     3     +           +
Festuca glacialis            1     +     +     +     1
Anthyllis vulneraria         3     2     2     1                 1
Helianthemum urrielense      3     3     3     3     3     2     2
Carex sempervirens                 1     +     2     +           +
Minuartia verna              1     +     +     +     1
Arenaria purpurascens        2     2     2     2     2     2     2
Poa alpina                   +                 +     +
Plantago alpina                          +     1           1     3
Alchemilla alpigena                +           +
Sedum atratum                      +     +     +
Silene ciliata               1     1     1     1           1
Arenaria moehringioides      1     1     1     +     +     +
Omalotlwca hoppeana                      1     +     1
Helictotrichon sedenense                       +           2     1
Dethawia splendens                 2           +
Galium pyrenaicum            1     +                       2
Ranunculus carinthiacus            1           +
Helianthemum cartum                            1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis           1           1     +     +
Festuca picoeuropeana        +     +
Iberis carnosa               +     +           +
Jasione cavanillesii                     +           +
Gentianella campestris                         +
Veronica nummularia
Koeleria vallesiana
Gentiana verna
Saxifi-aga oppositifolia                                   1
Salix breviserrata subs                              1
  p.fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda                              +     +
Erigeron uniflorus                 +     +     1           +
Festuca rubra                                                    3
Luzula pediformis                                                1
Ranunculusparnassiifolius          +     +     1
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus        +     1           +
Matthiola perennis
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus
Viola rupestris                    +     1
Agrostis schleicheri
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata                                             +
Carex parviflora                               +           +
Hieracium mixtum             +     +     +     +     +     +
Pritzelago alpina
Gypsophila repens                                          +
Scilla verna
Potentilla crantzii                            +                 +
Botrychium lunaria                             +
Paronychia kapela                        +
Androsace villosa
Galium estebanii
Campanula arvatica                             +
Veronica aphylla
Arenaria grandiflora
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina
Draba dedeana
Poa minor

Altitude (l=10m)            222   216   222   233   227
Area ([m.sup.2])            25    100   75    100   25
Cover (%)                   50    30    70    60    60
Aspect                       N     N    NE     N    NE
Releve number               22    23    24    25    26

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               +     1     1     +     1
Silene acaulis               2     1     2     1
Armeria cantabrica           1     1     2     +     1
Saxifi-aga conifera                1           1     1
Festuca glacialis            2     1     1     +     1
Anthyllis vulneraria         2     +     +     1     2
Helianthemum urrielense                              1
Carex sempervirens           1     +     2     2
Minuartia verna              +     +     1           +
Arenaria purpurascens              +     1     +     +
Poa alpina                               +           1
Plantago alpina              1           +     1
Alchemilla alpigena          2     +     +     1
Sedum atratum                +     +           +     +
Silene ciliata               +     +     +     +     +
Arenaria moehringioides                        +
Omalotlwca hoppeana                            +
Helictotrichon sedenense                 +           +
Dethawia splendens                             +
Galium pyrenaicum                  +     +     1
Ranunculus carinthiacus                        1
Helianthemum cartum                                  +
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis
Festuca picoeuropeana                    +     +
Iberis carnosa                     1     +     +
Jasione cavanillesii               +     +
Gentianella campestris       +           +     1
Veronica nummularia
Koeleria vallesiana                +
Gentiana verna
Saxifi-aga oppositifolia     +     1
Salix breviserrata subs      2     2     3     2     2
  p.fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda                  +                 +
Erigeron uniflorus                       +     +
Festuca rubra                            +     +
Luzula pediformis
Ranunculusparnassiifolius          +
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Matthiola perennis
Pedicularis pyrenaica                          1
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus
Viola rupestris
Agrostis schleicheri                           +
Polygonum viviparum                +           +
Biscutella laevigata
Carex parviflora                         +     +
Hieracium mixtum
Pritzelago alpina
Gypsophila repens
Scilla verna
Potentilla crantzii
Botrychium lunaria                                   +
Paronychia kapela
Androsace villosa
Galium estebanii
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla                               +
Arenaria grandiflora
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia                   +
Veronica alpina
Draba dedeana                                  +
Poa minor

Table S5(2)

Saxifrago coniferae-Helianthemetum itrrielensis ass. nova
(Armerion cantabricae, Seslerietalia caeruleae, Festuco-Seslerietea)

Altitude (l=10m)            230   231   214   233   221   217   214
Area ([m.sup.2])            20    16    75    75    75    75    50
Cover (%)                   70    45    70    40    50    40    --
Aspect                      NW     N    NW     N     E    NW     W
Releve number               27    28    29    30    31    32    33

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               +     1     1     2     2     1     1
Silene acaulis               2     2     2     3     3     3     2
Armeria cantabrica           +     1     1     +     3     1     1
Saxifraga conifera           2     +     +     1     2     1     1
Festuca glacialis            1     1     +     1     3     2     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         2     2     2     1     1     +
Helianthemum urrielense            2     3           +           1
Carex sempen'irens                 +                       3     1
Minuartia verna                    +     +     1           1     +
Arenaria purpurascens        +     1           2     +           1
Poa alpina                   2           1     2     1           +
Plantago alpina                          1     +           +     1
Alchemilla alpigena                            1           1     +
Sedum atratum                            +                 +
Silene ciliata                                 2     1     1     +
Arenaria moehringioides                  +           +     1     +
Omalotheca hoppeana                +                       +     +
Helictotrichon sedenense                 2     4           1     +
Dethawia splendens                                         1     1
Galium pyrenaicum                  +     +     1
Ranunculus carinthiacus                  2     +                 +
Helianthemum canum                       1                       1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis                                   +
Festuca picoeuropeana                    1
lberis carnosa                           +     +
Jasione cavanillesii               +     1           2     +
Gentianella campestris                                     +
Veronica nummularia                +     +                 +     +
Koeleria vallesiana
Gentiana verna                           +
Saxifraga oppositifolia      1                             +
Salix breviserrata           3     3     2
  subsp. Fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda            1           1                       +
Erigeron uniflorus
Festuca rubra
Litzula pediformis
Ranunculusparnassiifolius          +     +                 +
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Matthiola perennis
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus                                           1
Viola rupestris
Agrostis schleicheri                                             1
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata
Carex parviflora                   +
Hieraciitm mixtion
Pritzelago alpina
Gypsophila repens                                                +
Scilla verna
Potentilla crantzii
Botrychium lunaria                       +
Paronychia kapela
Androsace villosa
Galium estebanii
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Arenaria grandiflora
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina
Draba dedeana
Poa minor

Altitude (l=10m)            220   224   220   196   203   225   223
Area ([m.sup.2])            75    50    20    75    25    25    25
Cover (%)                   50    70    40    --    50    40    40
Aspect                       N    SE    NE    NW     W    NW     N
Releve number               34    35    36    37    38    39    40

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               2     2     2     2     1     1     1
Silene acaulis               2     1     2     2     1     +     2
Armeria cantabrica           1     +     2     2     1     2     2
Saxifraga conifera           2     1     1     1     2     2     1
Festuca glacialis            +           2     2     2     2     2
Anthyllis vulneraria         2     1     2     2     1     1
Helianthemum urrielense      +     1     2     2     +     +     +
Carex sempen'irens           3     3     +     +
Minuartia verna              1     +     1     1           1
Arenaria purpurascens        +     +     +     +
Poa alpina                   1     1     1     1     1     1     1
Plantago alpina
Alchemilla alpigena          +                       +
Sedum atratum                +     +     1     1     +     +     +
Silene ciliata               +           +     +           +     1
Arenaria moehringioides      +                             1
Omalotheca hoppeana                      2     2     +     +     +
Helictotrichon sedenense     1     2                 1     +     +
Dethawia splendens                 1
Galium pyrenaicum                        +     +     +     1     +
Ranunculus carinthiacus            +
Helianthemum canum                 2                       +
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis
Festuca picoeuropeana                    1     1
lberis carnosa                           +     +     +     +     +
Jasione cavanillesii         +           +     +           +
Gentianella campestris
Veronica nummularia                      1     1     1     +     1
Koeleria vallesiana
Gentiana verna                     +
Saxifraga oppositifolia                  +     +
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda                        1     1
Erigeron uniflorus
Festuca rubra
Litzula pediformis
Ranunculusparnassiifolius                                        +
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Matthiola perennis                       +     +     +
Pedicularis pyrenaica              +                 +
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus             +
Viola rupestris
Agrostis schleicheri
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata
Carex parviflora
Hieraciitm mixtion
Pritzelago alpina                                    +
Gypsophila repens
Scilla verna
Potentilla crantzii
Botrychium lunaria                                         +
Paronychia kapela                        +     +
Androsace villosa
Galium estebanii
Campanula arvatica
Veronica aphylla
Arenaria grandiflora                     +     +
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina
Draba dedeana                      +
Poa minor                                                  +     +

Altitude (l=10m)            227   219   203   236   204   204   203
Area ([m.sup.2])            25    75    50    75    50    75    100
Cover (%)                   --    40    70    40    70    --    80
Aspect                       N    NW    NE    NW    NE    NE    NE
Releve number               41    42    43    44    45    46    47

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               1     1     1     1     1     1     1
Silene acaulis               1     1     1     1     2     2     1
Armeria cantabrica           1     1     1     2     1     1     +
Saxifraga conifera           2     2     2     1     1     1     +
Festuca glacialis            1     1     +     2     1     1     +
Anthyllis vulneraria         1     1     2     2
Helianthemum urrielense      1     2     2     3     1     1     +
Carex sempen'irens           +     +     +     +     2     2     1
Minuartia verna              +     +     +     1     +     +     +
Arenaria purpurascens        1           +                       1
Poa alpina                   1     1           1     +     +     1
Plantago alpina                    1     1     +                 +
Alchemilla alpigena          +           +           1     1     +
Sedum atratum                +     +     +     +     +     +     +
Silene ciliata               +     1     +     1     +     +     +
Arenaria moehringioides      +           +           +     +     +
Omalotheca hoppeana          1     +     1           +     +     +
Helictotrichon sedenense           +
Dethawia splendens
Galium pyrenaicum
Ranunculus carinthiacus            +                 +     +     1
Helianthemum canum                       +
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis     1                                   +
Festuca picoeuropeana                                +     +     +
lberis carnosa               +     +     +
Jasione cavanillesii               +
Gentianella campestris                                           +
Veronica nummularia          +     +     +
Koeleria vallesiana                            +
Gentiana verna
Saxifraga oppositifolia            +                 +     +
Salix breviserrata                                   +     +
  subsp. Fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda
Erigeron uniflorus           1
Festuca rubra                            +     +                 1
Litzula pediformis
Ranunculusparnassiifolius
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Matthiola perennis           +                 +
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus
Viola rupestris              +                       +     +
Agrostis schleicheri                                             1
Polygonum viviparum
Biscutella laevigata                     +
Carex parviflora                         +
Hieraciitm mixtion
Pritzelago alpina                        +
Gypsophila repens
Scilla verna                                         +     +
Potentilla crantzii                                              +
Botrychium lunaria
Paronychia kapela            +           +
Androsace villosa                        +
Galium estebanii                                                 +
Campanula arvatica                                   +     +
Veronica aphylla                                     +     +     +
Arenaria grandiflora
Festuca nigrescens
Arenaria serpyllifolia
Veronica alpina                                      +     +
Draba dedeana
Poa minor                                1

Altitude (l=10m)            212   205    212  196
Area ([m.sup.2])            100   100    100  100
Cover (%)                   80    60     80   70
Aspect                       W    SW      E   NW
Releve number               48    49     50   51    Syn.

Characteristics

Thymus praecox               1     +      +    +     V
Silene acaulis               +     1      2    2     V
Armeria cantabrica                        +    +     V
Saxifraga conifera           1     +      +    +     V
Festuca glacialis            +     +           1     V
Anthyllis vulneraria         +     +           +     V
Helianthemum urrielense                        1     V
Carex sempen'irens           2     2      3    2     IV
Minuartia verna              +     +      +    +     IV
Arenaria purpurascens              +      +          IV
Poa alpina                   +     1      +          IV
Plantago alpina                    +      +    +     IV
Alchemilla alpigena          1     +      1    1     IV
Sedum atratum                +                      III
Silene ciliata                     +                III
Arenaria moehringioides      +     +           +    III
Omalotheca hoppeana                +      +    +    III
Helictotrichon sedenense                            III
Dethawia splendens           1     1      +         III
Galium pyrenaicum                  1                III
Ranunculus carinthiacus      1     +      1    1     II
Helianthemum canum           1     1      1          II
  subsp. Cantabricum
Euphrasia salisburgensis     +     +      +    +     II
Festuca picoeuropeana              +                 II
lberis carnosa                                       II
Jasione cavanillesii                                 II
Gentianella campestris       +     +      +    1     II
Veronica nummularia                                  II
Koeleria vallesiana          +     1           +     II
Gentiana verna                                       II
Saxifraga oppositifolia            +                 II
Salix breviserrata           +            +          II
  subsp. Fontqueri
Carex ornithopoda                                    II
Erigeron uniflorus                                   II
Festuca rubra                      +                 II
Litzula pediformis                                   I
Ranunculusparnassiifolius    +                       I
  subsp. Favargeri
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                     +          I
Matthiola perennis                                   I
Pedicularis pyrenaica        1            +          I
  var. fallax
Erigeron alpinus                   +                 I
Viola rupestris              +     +                 I
Agrostis schleicheri         +     1      1    2     I
Polygonum viviparum          +     +      +    1     I
Biscutella laevigata               +                 I
Carex parviflora                                     I
Hieraciitm mixtion                                   I
Pritzelago alpina                                    I
Gypsophila repens                         +          I
Scilla verna                              +          I
Potentilla crantzii                                  I
Botrychium lunaria                                   I
Paronychia kapela                                    I
Androsace villosa                              +     I
Galium estebanii                          +          I
Campanula arvatica           +                       I
Veronica aphylla                                     I
Arenaria grandiflora                                 I
Festuca nigrescens                                   I
Arenaria serpyllifolia                               I
Veronica alpina                                      I
Draba dedeana                      +                 I
Poa minor                                            I

Other species: Festuca hystrix + in 1 and 49; Viola
biflora + in 3 and 11; Lotus alpinus 2 in 3, 1 in 21;
Viola pyrenaica + in 6 and 7; Thesium pyrenaicitm 1 in
17, + in 41; Oxytropis neglecta + in 18, 1 in 41; Reseda
glauca + in 22 and 23; Minuartia villarii 1 in 25, + in
47; Gentiana nivalis + in 25 and 41; Kobresia myositroides
+ in 26 and 48; Festuca burnatii + in 32 and 33; Saxifraga
hirsuta 2 in 36 and 37; Epilobium anagallidifolium, Myosotis
alpestris, Helianthemum nummularium and Arabis alpina + in
36 and 37; Saxifl-agapaniculata + in 45 and 50; Allium
schoenoprasum and Trifolium thalii + in 2; Sempervivum
cantabricum + in 3; Phyteuma orbiculare + in 7; Hieracium
pilosella + in 10; Lotus corniculatus 1 in 11; Oxytropis
halleri and Carduus defloratus 1 in 14(1); Galium marchandii
+ in 16; Astragalus depressus + in 17; Asplenium viride +
in 19; Ranunculus alpestris + in 22; Selaginella selaginoides
+ in 25; Viola riviniana + in 29; Campanula rotundifolia + in
30; Sedum anglicum 1 in 31; Sempervivum giuseppii + in 33;
Linaria alpina and Arabis ciliata + in 38; Oxytropis foucaudii
+ in 41; Soldanella alpina, Carex macrostylon, Linaria supina,
Saxifraga granulata and Hemiaria glabra +, Sagina nevadensis l,
Horminitm pyrenaicitm 2 in 47; Gentiana occidentalis + in 49.

Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except 2, 25 and
35 from Western Massif and 47 and 49 from Eastern Massif. 1,
33, 40: Between the Jou de los Cabrones and the Jou de Cerredo
(26,25,27); 2: Boca del Jou Santo (13); 3: Near Jorcada Arenera
(80); 4, 13: Hoyo Grande Cimero (118,115); 5, 45, 46: Near Jou
Sin Tierre (107,55,196); 6: Jou Sin Tieixe (121); 7: Hoyo Sin
Tieixa (125); 8,9: Near Mountain hut Jou de los Cabrones (190,77);
10: Above the Llago de las Monetas to Santa Ana (113); 11:
surroundings of La Brecha de los Cazadores (40); 12, 26, 39, 41:
Jou de Cerredo (35,32,28,31); 14, 20, 21, 30: Surroundings of
Cabana Veronica (146,149,98,147); 15: From Torre de la Pardida
to Jou Negro (170); 16: Near Torres Areneras (166); 17: Neveron
de Uixiello (167); 18: From Collada Blanca to Hoyo Bajero (139);
19: Jou de la Pardida (171); 22: Under the Diente de Urriellu
(206); 23: Between La Garganta del Jou sin Tierre y la Canal del
Lebaniego (50); 24: Jou Tras el Picu (103); 25: Climbing the
Jieixu peak (70); 27: Range between Jou Cerredo and Jou de los
Cabrones (201); 28: Plains northern Jou Cerredo (205); 29: Jou de
los Boches (134); 31: Near Jou Tras el Picu (99); 32: From
Collada Blanca to Hoyo Grande (114); 34: Surroundings of Jou de
los Boches (119); 35: Between la Torre de la Canal Parda y la
Torre del Alba (14); 36: Trail to Jou de los Cabrones (78); 37:
Jou del Agua (191); 38: Surroundings of Mountain hut J.R.Lueje.
Jou de los Cabrones (21); 42: Surroundings of Hoyo Bajero (142),
holotypus ass.; 43: Surroundings of the vernal pool near mountain
hut J.R Lueje, Jou de los Cabrones (22); 44: Top of La Canal del
Vidrio (109); 47, 49: Western slope of Samelar peak (61,60); 48, 50:
Surroundings of la Garganta del Jou Sin Tieixe (53,56); 51:
Surroundings of mountain hut J.D. Ubeda (46).

Table S6

Oxytropidopyrenaicae-Elynetum myosuroidis Rivas-Martinez, T.E.
Diaz, F. Prieto, Loidi & Penas 1984
(Oxytropido-Elynion, Elynetalia myosuroidis,
Cariei rupestris-Kobresietea bellardii)

Altitude (l=10m)              238   238   230   238   234   239   223
Area ([m.sup.2])              25    75    20    75    75    20    75
Cover (%)                     80    80    80    80    60    --    50
Aspect                        NE    NE    NW    NW     E    SE    NE
Releve number                  1     2     3     4     5     6     7

Characteristics

Anthyllis vulneraria           2     2     2     +     1     +     1
Kobresia myositroides          2     2     4     4     2     2     2
Arenaria purpurascens          1     1           1     2     1
Helictotrichon sedenense       +     +     1     2     +     +     1
Helianthemum canitm            +     +     1           2     2     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Thym us praecox                1     1     +     1     +
Carex sempen'irens             4     4                 2     3     2
Silene acaitlis                2     2     3     3     3     2     2
Armeria cantabrica             1     1           +
Minuartia verna                +     +                 +     +     +
Poa alpina                                 1           +
Galium pyrenaicitm             +     +     +     +     +     +
Helianthemum urrielense        +     +           1
Silene ciliata                 +     +           1     +     +     +
Androsace villosa                          +           2     +
Oxytropis neglecta                               +           +     +
Dethawia splendens                         1     1     +     1     +
Carex ornithopoda              1     1     1                 1
Gentiana verna                             1     +     +     1
Euphrasia salisburgensis                   1
Carex parviflora                                 1     1     +
Arenaria grandiflora           +     +           +
Ranunculus parnassiifoliits    +     +     +     1           +
  subsp. Favargeri
Koeleria vallesiana
Festuca glacialis              +     +                 +
Salix breviserrata             3     3     1
  subsp. Fontqueri
Sedum atratum                                    +
Alchemilla alpigena
Jasione cavanillesii                       1     +
Festuca picoeuropeana                            +
Saxifraga conifera                                     +
Euphorbia chamaebuxus          +     +
Seseli montamtm                +     +
Luzula pediformis              +     +
Draba dedeana                                          1     +
Sempervivum cantabricum
Erigeron uniflorus
Biscutella laevigata
Carex capillaris               +     +
Festuca hystrix                +     +                       +
Saxifraga paniculata                                   +
Saxifraga oppositifolia                                1           +
Arenaria moehringioides                                      1     +
Phyteuma orbiculare
Jurinea humilis
Festuca rivas-martinezii
Trifolium thalii
Planta go alpina
Matthiola perennis
Carex lepidocarpa              +     +
Pinguicula grandiflora         +     +
Festuca burnatii               +     +
Gentianella campestris         +     +
Asplenium viride               +     +
Sesleria caerulea              1     1
Polygonum viviparum            2     2
Euphrasia hirtella                                     +
Potentilla crantzii                                    +
Poa minor                                                    +
Agrostis schleicheri
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Ranunculus alpestris
Erigeron alpinus
Paronychia kapela
Carduus defloratus

Altitude (l=10m)              223   219   223   231   223   225   223
Area ([m.sup.2])              60    75    10    100   75    75    75
Cover (%)                     60    70    --    --    70    70    95
Aspect                         W     N     W    NE     W     N    NE
Releve number                  8     9    10    11    12    13    14

Characteristics

Anthyllis vulneraria           2     1     2     2     3     3     2
Kobresia myositroides          2     3     3     3     2     1     3
Arenaria purpurascens          1     1     1     1     +     +     1
Helictotrichon sedenense       1     1     1     +     2     2     1
Helianthemum canitm            2     1     2     2     2     3     1
  subsp. Cantabricum
Thym us praecox                      +     2     +     +     1     1
Carex sempen'irens             3     3     2     3     +     3     2
Silene acaitlis                2     2     1     2     +           +
Armeria cantabrica             1           +     +           +     +
Minuartia verna                1     +     1     1     +
Poa alpina                     +     1                 1     +     1
Galium pyrenaicitm                               +     +
Helianthemum urrielense        1                       +     +
Silene ciliata                 1           1           +
Androsace villosa              +     +     1     1     +     2     +
Oxytropis neglecta                         1     1     2     +     2
Dethawia splendens                   +     1     +     +
Carex ornithopoda
Gentiana verna                       +           1     +     +
Euphrasia salisburgensis       +           +     +
Carex parviflora                           1     +     +           +
Arenaria grandiflora                                   +     1     1
Ranunculus parnassiifoliits          +                 +
  subsp. Favargeri
Koeleria vallesiana            +     1     1           2     2     +
Festuca glacialis
Salix breviserrata
  subsp. Fontqueri
Sedum atratum                        +           1     +
Alchemilla alpigena                        1     +           +     +
Jasione cavanillesii
Festuca picoeuropeana                                        1     1
Saxifraga conifera             +                       +     1
Euphorbia chamaebuxus
Seseli montamtm                      1                 +
Luzula pediformis                                +
Draba dedeana                                    2     +
Sempervivum cantabricum              +           +                 1
Erigeron uniflorus                         +     +
Biscutella laevigata
Carex capillaris
Festuca hystrix
Saxifraga paniculata                 +                             +
Saxifraga oppositifolia                                      +
Arenaria moehringioides              +
Phyteuma orbiculare                        +                 +     1
Jurinea humilis                                        1     2     +
Festuca rivas-martinezii                               +     +     +
Trifolium thalii                                                   1
Planta go alpina
Matthiola perennis
Carex lepidocarpa
Pinguicula grandiflora
Festuca burnatii
Gentianella campestris
Asplenium viride
Sesleria caerulea
Polygonum viviparum
Euphrasia hirtella
Potentilla crantzii                        1
Poa minor                                        +
Agrostis schleicheri                 1     1
Pedicularis pyrenaica                1     1
  var. fallax
Ranunculus alpestris                 +
Erigeron alpinus                                             +
Paronychia kapela                                            +
Carduus defloratus

Altitude (l=10m)              217   228   235   225   231   231   231
Area ([m.sup.2])              75    75    20    25    75    100   70
Cover (%)                     100   90    --    --    70    70    70
Aspect                         E    SE    NW     W     W     W     W
Releve number                 15    16    17    18    19    20    21

Characteristics

Anthyllis vulneraria           2     3           +     3     3     3
Kobresia myositroides          3     5                 2     2     2
Arenaria purpurascens          1     1     +     +     2     2     2
Helictotrichon sedenense       1           2           1     1     1
Helianthemum canitm                  +     1     +     2     2     2
  subsp. Cantabricum
Thym us praecox                1     1     1     1     +     +     +
Carex sempen'irens             3     +     +     +
Silene acaitlis                1           +     +
Armeria cantabrica             1     1     +     +     1     1     1
Minuartia verna                      +                 +     +     +
Poa alpina                     2     1     1     1     1     1     1
Galium pyrenaicitm                         +           2     2     2
Helianthemum urrielense        1     3           +     1     1     1
Silene ciliata                 +           1
Androsace villosa                    2
Oxytropis neglecta             1     1     +
Dethawia splendens
Carex ornithopoda                    +                 1     1     1
Gentiana verna
Euphrasia salisburgensis                               +     +     +
Carex parviflora                     +
Arenaria grandiflora                 +
Ranunculus parnassiifoliits
  subsp. Favargeri
Koeleria vallesiana
Festuca glacialis                                      1     1     1
Salix breviserrata                                     1     1     1
  subsp. Fontqueri
Sedum atratum                              +     1
Alchemilla alpigena            +           1
Jasione cavanillesii                                   +     +     +
Festuca picoeuropeana          1                 3
Saxifraga conifera                               1
Euphorbia chamaebuxus                +     +
Seseli montamtm
Luzula pediformis                                +
Draba dedeana
Sempervivum cantabricum
Erigeron uniflorus             +     +
Biscutella laevigata           1     1     +     1
Carex capillaris
Festuca hystrix
Saxifraga paniculata
Saxifraga oppositifolia
Arenaria moehringioides
Phyteuma orbiculare
Jurinea humilis
Festuca rivas-martinezii
Trifolium thalii                           +     +
Planta go alpina               2                 1
Matthiola perennis                                     +     +     +
Carex lepidocarpa
Pinguicula grandiflora
Festuca burnatii
Gentianella campestris
Asplenium viride
Sesleria caerulea
Polygonum viviparum
Euphrasia hirtella                   +
Potentilla crantzii
Poa minor
Agrostis schleicheri
Pedicularis pyrenaica
  var. fallax
Ranunculus alpestris
Erigeron alpinus
Paronychia kapela                                +
Carduus defloratus                         +     1

Altitude (l=10m)
Area ([m.sup.2])
Cover (%)
Aspect
Releve number                 Syn.

Characteristics

Anthyllis vulneraria           V
Kobresia myositroides          V
Arenaria purpurascens          V
Helictotrichon sedenense       V
Helianthemum canitm            V
  subsp. Cantabricum
Thym us praecox                V
Carex sempen'irens             IV
Silene acaitlis                IV
Armeria cantabrica             IV
Minuartia verna                IV
Poa alpina                     IV
Galium pyrenaicitm            III
Helianthemum urrielense       III
Silene ciliata                III
Androsace villosa             III
Oxytropis neglecta            III
Dethawia splendens            III
Carex ornithopoda              II
Gentiana verna                 II
Euphrasia salisburgensis       II
Carex parviflora               II
Arenaria grandiflora           II
Ranunculus parnassiifoliits    II
  subsp. Favargeri
Koeleria vallesiana            II
Festuca glacialis              II
Salix breviserrata             II
  subsp. Fontqueri
Sedum atratum                  II
Alchemilla alpigena            II
Jasione cavanillesii           II
Festuca picoeuropeana          II
Saxifraga conifera             II
Euphorbia chamaebuxus          I
Seseli montamtm                I
Luzula pediformis              I
Draba dedeana                  I
Sempervivum cantabricum        I
Erigeron uniflorus             I
Biscutella laevigata           I
Carex capillaris               I
Festuca hystrix                I
Saxifraga paniculata           I
Saxifraga oppositifolia        I
Arenaria moehringioides        I
Phyteuma orbiculare            I
Jurinea humilis                I
Festuca rivas-martinezii       I
Trifolium thalii               I
Planta go alpina               I
Matthiola perennis             I
Carex lepidocarpa              I
Pinguicula grandiflora         I
Festuca burnatii               I
Gentianella campestris         I
Asplenium viride               I
Sesleria caerulea              I
Polygonum viviparum            I
Euphrasia hirtella             I
Potentilla crantzii            I
Poa minor                      I
Agrostis schleicheri           I
Pedicularis pyrenaica          I
  var. fallax
Ranunculus alpestris           I
Erigeron alpinus               I
Paronychia kapela              I
Carduus defloratus             I

Other species: Euphrasia minima + in 4; Geitm pyrenaicum
and Campanula arvatica + in 6; Campanula rotundifolia and
lberis carnosa + in 9; Festuca ovina 1 in 10; Gentianella
ciliate, Botrychium lunaria and Solidago virgaurea +, Draba
cantabriae and Veronica aphylla 1 in 14; Ranunculus
carinthiacus. Polygonum aviculare and Phleum alpinum +,
Galium mollugo 1 in 15; Eryngiitm bourgatii and Taraxacum
officinale + in 16; Hippocrepis comosa and Galium estebanii
+ in 18. Localities: all releves from Central Massif, except
17, 18 from Western Massif. 1: Climbing down to Jou Grande
(208); 2: From Torre de la Palanca to Hoyo Bajero (159);
3: Horcadina del Jou Ceixedo (210); 4: Near Collada Blanca
(160); 5, 7, 11: Surroundings of Cabana Veronica, rel. 11:
Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984), tb. 1, rel. 2 (97,152,9); 6:
From La Collada Blanca to Tirollago, Rivas-Martinez et al.
(1984): tb. 1, rel. 3 (10); 8: Surroundings of Jou de los
Boches (120); 9: Trail from Llago Cimero to Collado Jemioso
(157); 10, 12-14: Colladina de las Nieves, rel. 10:
Rivas-Martinez et al. (1984): tb. 4, inv. 1 (8,156,155,154);
15: Surroundings of Hoyo Bajero (158); 16: From Pico Arenizas
to Jou de los Boches (161); 17: Horcada de Santa Maria (17);
18: Surroundings of La Torre de los Cabrones (44); 19, 21:
From Torre de la Pardida to Jou Negro (164,153); 20: Jou del
Ceixedo (213).


Borja Jimenez-Alfaro (*), Jose Ignacio Alonso Felpete (**), Alvaro Bueno Sanchez (**) & Jose Antonio Fernandez Prieto (***)

* Department of Botany and Zoology. Masaryk University. CZ-61137 Brno, Czech Republic. Email: borja@sci.muni.cz

** Jardin Botanico Atlantico. ES-33394 Gijon, Spain. Email: nachofelpete@gmail.com; abueno@uniovi.es

*** Departamento de Biologia de Organismos y Sistemas. University of Oviedo. E-33006 Oviedo, Spain. Email: jafp@uniovi.es
Table 1
Shortened synoptic table of diagnostic species for the groups
resulted from cluster analyses

Numbers refer to the percentage frequency of species in each
cluster. Diagnostic species are in bold and sorted by decreasing
fidelity. Only significant species (Fisher's exact test,
p < 0.05) with phi coefficient > 0.30 are shown.

Cluster                       1      2     3     4     5     6
Number of releves             34     42    24    39    51    21

Cluster 1

Jurinea humilis              68#     0     4     23    0     14
Koeleria vallesiana          97#     43    13    72    25    33
Juniperus alpina             21#     0     4     3     0     0
Helianthemum canum subsp.    100#    76    21    62    35    90
  cantabricum
Festuca hystrix              47#     29    8     8     4     14
Globularia repens            41#     38    4     8     0     0
Genista legionensis          18#     0     4     3     0     0
Androsace villosa            76#     55    4     62    8     52

Cluster 2

Jasione cavanillesii          3     81#    0     8     29    24
Potentilla nivalis subsp.     12    55#    0     5     0     0
  asturica
Senecio boissieri             0     38#    0     0     0     0
Saxifraga oppositifolia       15    83#    8     13    25    14
Galium pyrenaicum             50    100#   4     10    41    57
Iberis carnosa                18    74#    13    8     33    5
Helictotrichon sedenense      74    100#   21    46    41    90
Silene ciliata                29    81#    13    38    57    52
Ranunculusparnassiifolius     15    50#    13    0     18    33
  subsp. Favargeri

Cluster 3

Carex macrostylon             0      0     33#   0     2     0
Phleum alpinum                0      0     33#   0     0     5
Trifolium thalii              0      0     42#   8     2     14
Ranunculus carinthiacus       15     0     71#   44    39    5
Carex parviflora              0      5     50#   3     14    38
Festuca nigrescens s.l.       0      0     25#   8     6     0
Plantago alpina               26     0     75#   59    63    14
Pritzelago alpina subsp.      3      7     38#   21    12    0
  auerswaldii

Cluster 4

Sesleria caerulea             3      0     4     41#   0     10
Luzula pediformis             12     0     29    64#   18    19
Polygonum viviparum           0      5     0     41#   16    10
Festuca rubra s.l.            9      0     38    56#   22    0
Leontodon taraxacoides        3      0     0     18#   0     0
Alchemilla alpigena           26     10    67    85#   61    29
Gentiana occidentalis         21     0     0     28#   2     0
Scilla verna                  6      0     4     26#   10    0
Oxytropis halleri             0      2     0     15#   2     0

Cluster 5

Festuca glacialis             6      43    21    10    84#   29
Veronica nummularia subsp.    0      2      0     0    27#    0
  cantabrica
Omalotheca hoppeana           0      2     25     5    45#    0
Saxifraga conifera            62     17    38    62    90#   24
Arenaria moehringioides       12     33     8    18    57#   14
Festuca picoeuropeana         9      2      0     3    35#   24
Sedum atratum                 21     19    13    31    59#   29

Cluster 6

Kobresia myosuroides          3      19     0    13     4    90#
Oxytropis neglecta            3      12     8     5     4    52#
Arenaria grandiflora          0      2      0    15     6    33#
Carex ornithopoda s.l.        6      7      4     0    24    38#
Seseli montanum               3      0      0     5     0    19#

# Bold
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Author:Jimenez-Alfaro, Borja; Alonso Felpete, Jose Ignacio; Bueno Sanchez, Alvaro; Fernandez Prieto, Jose A
Publication:Lazaroa
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:16436
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