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Computing a successful system.

The '60s brought the beginning of the computer revolution, the '70s the PC and advances in telecommunications, and the '80s networks and high-speed communications with powerful PCs. Business, industry, and government continue to implement and apply high technology to improve performance and reduce expenditures and lost time.

"For Apple Eyes Only," an article in the May 1989 issue of Security Management, described Apple Computer Inc.'s implementation of an information protection program and the security department's development of an automated security organization. This article describes Apple's system and opportunities available to security professionals through computer technology.

Many opportunities previously only imagined are available. These include automation of administrative tasks through word processing, fax, electronic mail (e-mail), and managerial programs; electronics data exchange for financial transactions involving credit cards, invoicing, stocks, and business deals; manufacturing processes and manufacturing automation through automated inventory tracking, just-in-time material control, and robotics; and educational uses, such as training aids and learning tools.

With the continuous decline in the cost of computer and communication products due to competition and new products, each function in any organization can now be affordably and efficiently improved.

The evolution of computer technology to improve security operations at Apple's manufacturing site began slowly, with small but significant improvements. These chances began in early 1988 with the primary goal of developing an automated security organization to improve performance and reduce waste.

Today, computer technology is used to enhance security in every facet of Apple's manufacturing organization. Computer systems are used for training, access control, property control, security administration, investigations, record keeping, scheduling, and administrative tasks.

Effective training must be provided since not every individual has computer or security experience. Security personnel training at Apple is provided through a blend of custom-made video-tapes and software. The videos provide the new officer with a basic understanding of the style and type of security at the company and overviews of the training process.

The officer then learns how to operate an Apple Macintosh computer through a training software package, After the trainee has a basic understanding of the Macintosh, he or she continues training with the computer system using three automated software packages in a five-day program. The software is interactive and includes sound, graphics, and automation that simulate activities an officer might encounter.

For the past two years these software packages have been used in conjunction with Apple's contract security vendor. Both the vendor and Apple have realized significant improvements in the quality of service, performance, and retention of security personnel.

Security personnel are also more motivated and confident as a result of the training and their ability to use computer in every facet of their jobs. Every aspect of security requires constant interface with the computer systems.

The security organization operates through the use of four file servers, each on an individual secured network called a local area network (LAN) (see the accompanying exhibit). These file servers allow different aspects of the department to operate independently yet with flexibility and control. The file servers are set up in four platforms: property control, security operations, security administration, and card access/alarm systems.

Each file server can allow a number of computer systems to interface with the main directories. The software platform is completely supported by the company's software application HyperCard. HyperCard is extremely versatile, flexible, easy to program, and user friendly. Since most security information is confidently, the file server with HyperCard provides multiple levels of protection along with password protection.

Terminals in lobbies have a keyboard and mouse for input and to interface with the computer system. To make the computer even faster, a hand-held scanner was installed for reading bar codes. An officer can access programs or files by scanning a bar code in a reference binder, and the computer immediately

accesses that application or file.

The following applications and information are available to the security officer:

Access Control

* employee access badging

* contractor access badging

* guest access badging

* temporary employee access

* returned badges

* nondisclosure agreement data base

* deny entry data base

Property Control

* property pass signatures

* permanent property passes


* plant protection procedures

* phone directories

* MicroMail (an Apple application)

* passdown log

* vehicle registration

USING COMPUTERS FOR ACCESS CONTROL allows security staff and receptionists to do tasks more efficiently than with traditional security methods. For example, to allow a contractor access into a facility, the receptionist would traditionally require the contractor to sign in and then issue the contractor a hand-printed name badge.

For more restrictive facilities, the receptionist may have to refer to an approved list for the individual's name or contact someone within the facility for approval. In some cases, nondisclosure agreements may be required prior to entering the facility.

With the company's computer system, information can be referenced automatically through data bases. For example, contractors are required to be approved by an employee sponsor and nondisclosure agreements are also required on all contractors. All forms and agreements can be entered into the master access control system for contractors and the master nondisclosure system.

When the contractor arrives at the lobby, her or she provides identification, and the receptionist scans to the appropriate application--contractor access badging, for example--then inputs information based on prompts in the application such as name, company, and sponsor. If the contractor is already approved the badge will be automatically printed and all access information will be in the data base with building, date, time, and who the contractor is seeing.

If the contractor is not approved, the computer will request approval prior to issuing a badge. As with a preapproved contractor, all information is automatically loaded into the data base. This process is essentially the same for employees who have misplaced or forgotten their badges as well as guests or visitors to the facility.

Guests must always be approved and escorted. All badges must be returned to security once the guests have exited the facility, and this information is entered into the computer system through the "return badge" application. This application references the person exiting the facility by name and records the exit time in the access data base.

The company's manufacturing operation requires a high percentage of temporary employees. It is not uncommon to have to access more than 200 temporary employees at shift changes. All entrance and exit times for each temporary must be accounted for, and in some cases changes between production shifts only allow 15 minutes.

Each temporary receives an ID card with a bar code on it from his or her temporary agency. The agency faxes information about the temporary to Apple's security department prior to the employee's arrival for work.

This information and the bar code number are entered into the data base. When the temporary arrives for work, the security officer scans to the "temporary employee access" application and then scans enter or exit into the computer.

The officer then scans the ID card that was issued by the temporary agency, and the computer finds the appropriate information and notes the day, time, building, and shift that the temporary is entering or exiting.

The computer then asks for a daily badge to be issued. The badges are color-and number-coded for quick verification that a temporary is in the correct building at the correct time. At the end of each day all daily-issue badges are automatically verified as returned by the computer system. Any unreturned badges are immediately tracked down by security and the temporary agency.

Property and equipment transfers are controlled in two basic ways: through building-to-building movement or offsite movement. Building-to-building transfers are controlled by computers. Each employee has a bar code on his or her ID badge. When an employee needs to move equipment or parts from one building to another, he or she goes to an Interplant Property Transfer system (IPT). These IPT's are located at each card access door and at each general lobby.

The IPT system requires the employee to complete four steps to remove property. A laminated sign located with each system allows the employee to scan basic information quickly. The employee starts the process by scanning "begin" and his or her employee badge. Next, the computer asks "What is the destination building?" and the employees scans the appropriate building number located on the laminated sign.

The computer then prompts "What type of equipment?" and the employee scans or types in the serial number of the equipment. If additional items are being transferred, the process is repeated. Normally this process takes 30 seconds to two minutes. On arrival at the destination the employee scans "complete" and then scan his or her badge, and the process is complete.

The property computer system automatically reconciles the transfer by matching the time and building destination to the employee badge. Each station is at a card access door, which is also videotaped. The computer transactions and the videotapes can be used together in an investigation. All material transactions are kept in a property data base for future use.

Moving property off site requires a manager's or supervisor's approval. This transaction is usually for extended periods and currently requires a form because a signature is necessary.

All authorized signatures are computer digitized and must be compared visually to the written signature for verification by the security officer when property is leaving the facility. When the property transaction is completed, the paper pass is date entered into the computer system to track the transaction and ensure the proper and timely return of equipment. The off-site property control data base allows for reports of overdue property.

The consumer systems at the security officers post also provide a variety of general information, such as phone directories, pager listings, and officer procedures and policies, allowing the officer to reference a particular procedure when an incident occurs in which he or she is not well versed

For example, if an employee wants to bring a camera into the facility, the security officer can scan to the appropriate section in the procedure listing and not only reference the proper procedure but also who may authorize the camera onto the site. Critical information can be transferred to all locations simultaneously via e-mail, providing the officer quick and necessary information.

COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY IS USED throughout all levels of the security organization. All security-related information is available in a file server to provide the security officer with the information necessary, without delay, to do his or her job efficiently and effectively. The information controlled through the file sever includes card key holders, site key issuance, emergency information, personnel records, schedules, maps, incident reports, and statistical data.

Data is input to the file server throughout each shift by security staff members, updating critical operational information used to control the facility. Any information that is required in the lobby is sent at night, at predetermined times, to the specific post CPUs. Throughout the day information is then gathered on the post CPU hard drives. Information gathered during the day is then uploaded, updating the master files with access control and other data.

With the computer system normally tedious jobs, such as determining if a particular person ever entered the facility, can be made easily with a simple search. In addition, the computer system is capable of providing an investigator with a wide variety of critical data that can be accessed within a few minutes as opposed to hours, weeks, or longer.

Most professional security organizations monitor data for trends. Such information as theft activity is usually charted and analyzed. The problem is that the data is usually too old or may no longer be valid. Since the information being used and gathered through the computer is at the most 24 hours old, data and statistical information can be charted nearly at the speed at which it is collected.

The application of computer technology described here was designed for a manufacturing operation. While these applications have met the needs of our organization, computer technology can easily be adapted to suit the needs of any organization.

As computer technology continues to evolve, its applications can provide security professionals with limitless opportunities. Speed, efficiency, waste reduction, and the ability to control information will be the critical factors in the success so security operations in the future.

The New Spelling of Success

Private security officers are increasingly expected to perform duties traditionally done by law enforcement officers. Consequently, their work in becoming more demanding. The old "observe and report" style is being replaced by quick, appropriate, and effective action.

To meet this challenge, it is not enough to simply upgrade screening methods, improve the quality of training programs, or write voluminous manuals on policies and procedures. Instead, managers must learn active supervision.

Active supervision can often be more cost-effective than training or other quality assurance measures. Furthermore, qualified supervisors are more often in the ideal position to guide, direct, and evaluate because of their firsthand involvement with the guard force.

Active supervision can be defined by the following acronym.

Support subordinate, show sincerity, suggest ways to solve problems.

Unify standard operating procedures, unite emergency response plans, use consistency.

Prepare performance evaluations regularly, provide feedback, practice coaching.

Explain expectations clearly, eliminate obstacles, enforce compliance.

Reinforce good work performance, resolve poor performance problems, record results.

Verify knowledge of post orders, validate understanding of emergency response plans, view practice.

Inspire pride, ignite enthusiasm, and instill confidence.

Set standards of appearance and conduct, stress good work ethic, show integrity.

Instruct job skills, impart practical experience, increase competence.

Offer a listening ear, open up lines of communication, organize information flow.

Nurture good observation practices, note important observations, necessitate prompt and appropriate responses. William S. Cottringer, PhD, is branch manager of Wells Fargo Guard Services in Kent, WA. He is a member of ASIS. Brian J. Rauschhuber is security manager of Apple Computers Inc. in Fremont, CA, and a member of ASIS.
COPYRIGHT 1992 American Society for Industrial Security
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 1992 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
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Title Annotation:Training; includes related article on active supervision; Apple Computer Inc.'s information protection program
Author:Rauschhuber, Brian J.
Publication:Security Management
Date:Apr 1, 1992
Previous Article:Developing a counterintelligence mind-set.
Next Article:Hiring: caveat employer.

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