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Computers and career guidance: ride the rising tide.

School and college counselors--and others who guide career seekers--take on daunting challenges as they help their clients discover their own way through the world of work. Career guidance professionals serve large numbers of students and must address the unique personal, academic, and career development needs of each one. It sounds like mission impossible, yet somehow counselors have always managed. Today, many of them use career information delivery systems (CIDS), powerful tools for their career questing clients. Counselors who use these computer-assisted tools effectively within a comprehensive counseling program will guide the work force into the next millennium.

It's hard to say exactly how much CIDS are currently being used, but State data provide a partial estimate. In 1994, more than 40 States reported the use of CIDS designated as official State systems. More than 9 million people used the State CIDS at about 20,000 sites that year. These figures do not cover many additional systems that are not supported by the States. All indications suggest growth in their use.

These systems enable users to search through large amounts of occupational and educational information at the click of a button. This article begins with a quick review of what CIDS can do. It then shows how counselors and others are actually using them as part of counseling programs in schools and colleges. It also lists sources of additional information; a separate box details the use of computer-assisted career guidance outside of schools.

What Can They Do?

CIDS spur clients to take charge of their own career development and have many different features to help individuals work through the various phases of the transition from school to work or from one career to another. These features vary from one system to another. In some cases, CIDS developers even put out different versions for different populations. For example, developers might offer versions tailored to suit elementary school, middle school, high school, or college students, or even adult career changers. But almost all CIDS have four core features: Assessment, occupational search, occupational information, and educational information.


Computer-assisted systems usually have one or more online assessments that help users learn about themselves and the qualities they might prefer in a career. In the online assessment, students answer questions dealing with their values, interests, skills, aptitudes, or experiences as they relate to work. They also explore the importance of occupational characteristics, such as anticipated demand for workers, physical requirements, salary, working conditions, and amount of education required.

Counselors often elect to have students do paper-and-pencil versions of the system's online assessments and enter the results into the system later. This reduces the amount of computer time needed for each student. Most systems can accept results from additional standardized assessment surveys, such as Self-Directed Search, ASVAB, Strong Interest Inventory, Career Assessment Inventory, GATB, Career Occupational Preference System (COPS), and Harrington-O'Shea CDM. Students using some systems can also take computer-administered versions of standardized assessment surveys.

As assessing skills and work experience has grown in importance, developers have added online skills-assessment instruments to their systems. Skills assessment proves especially helpful to experienced workers who need to find a new job or change careers. The latest pilot testing by developers shows that counselors may also find skills assessment useful for students who do not have much work experience. Students can use a skills-assessment tool to brainstorm about the kinds of skills they would like to have in a future career.

Occupational Search

A student's career hunt can get a big boost from the search feature in CIDS. The search takes one of three broad forms. In the first, students have the system generate a list of occupations based on the results of their completed assessment survey.

In the second, they choose search variables from a list. When they enter the value for each variable, the computer tells how many remaining occupations meet the criteria. Users can often specify job characteristics they wish to avoid as well as ones they desire. Sometimes an occupation that interests the user does not appear on the computer-generated list. In some CIDS, the user can then opt to display which of his or her criteria the occupation did not meet. Systems allow users to change criteria and search again. In this kind of search and in the preceding one, users can print the list of occupations found.

In the third type of search, the user types in key words from the name of an occupation or selects it from an index. The description for that occupation is shown on screen.

Occupational Information

When students know which occupations they want to learn more about, they go to their system's occupational descriptions. Most systems contain descriptions of 300 to 500 occupations. Some include more. The description for each occupation covers topics such as the nature of the work, working conditions, numbers employed, job outlook, education and training required, recommended school courses, earnings, related occupations, physical demands, common career ladders, and sources for more information. Many systems allow users to compare two occupations side by side on one display or printout.

Increasingly, CIDS have the capacity to include State or local, as well as national, data for occupations. The State CIDS, of course, are especially keen on including State data. System developers update the systems' salary and employment outlook information every year.

Educational Information

Students can also use CIDS to look at educational programs and institutions that will prepare them for a career. Systems offer information on vocational and technical schools, 2- and 4-year colleges, and--in some cases--graduate schools. Users can search for educational or training institutions by selecting their criteria within a set list of variables. Suppose, for example, a young woman wants to pursue a bachelor's degree in accounting; wishes to attend a college that costs a maximum of $8,000 per year in tuition and fees in New York, New Jersey, or California; and seeks a basketball scholarship. Given these criteria, one CIDS would list eight colleges as options.

For each school, systems typically give information on admissions requirements, programs of study, types of degrees offered, school affiliation, community setting, tuition and fees, financial aid, total enrollment, housing, athletic programs and other student activities, student body characteristics, military training opportunities, special programs, contacts for further information, and more.

In the future, look for the options of requesting more information from colleges electronically and of applying to colleges online. At least one product on the market already offers these features for 130 colleges.

And Much More

Computer-assisted systems can do a lot more than noted above, and they are constantly evolving. Every year, developers add features and make other improvements. Here are a few additional features:

* Online orientation to the system;

* Instruction in the career decision making process;

* Guidance in overcoming barriers to career choice;

* Information on scholarships and financial aid;

* Tools for resume writing;

* Generation of letters requesting more information from colleges;

* Capacity to add local information;

* Option to save the user's responses for a later session; and

* Online user evaluation questionnaire.

In addition to adding new features, CIDS developers will continue to move toward multimedia versions of their products, using CD-ROM technology. This will make for much livelier presentation of information. Products offering dazzling graphics, CD-quality sound, and video clips are already making their debut.

For a detailed comparison of the major CIDS, see "A Differential Feature-Cost Analysis of Seventeen Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems: Technical Report Number 10," (fifth edition) by Jim Sampson, Jr., and Bob Reardon, et al. This report is available through the ERIC document reproduction service at 1 (800) 443-3742. The authors codirect the Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development at Florida State University. Find out more about this center via the internet; the gopher server is at

How Are They Used?

CIDS are impressive tools. Users get the full benefit of these systems, however, only when they are used properly as part of a counseling program designed to meet the needs of the population being served. Philip Manzie knows the importance of using systems effectively. As CIDS coordinator for the Maryland Occupational Information Coordinating Council, Manzie trains counselors and others to make optimal use of Maryland's State CIDS, VISIONS PLUS. He offers counselors four bits of advice:

* Know everything that is available in the system.

* Don't be afraid because it's on a computer. You won't break it unless you're trying to.

* Get teachers and parents involved.

* Get training on how to use the system effectively.

In the training Manzie does, he stresses that students need to use CIDS as an integral part of a career guidance program. He says students just don't benefit as much from these systems when they stand alone. Trainers like Manzie help a lot of hard-working school, college, and employment counselors use CIDS well. Here's how counselors around the country are really putting systems to use.

Starting Early and Going in Order

Career development can start in kindergarten. And it does in Notus, Idaho, where Vera Kenyon is a guidance counselor for grades K through 12. By the fourth grade, the students are ready for their introduction to the Idaho Career Information System (CIS). In that grade and the two following ones, Kenyon talks to students about the kinds of courses from which they will choose in the future and how these choices relate to the work they want to do. She uses printouts on Idaho CIS occupations to encourage exploration into what the working world offers. Usually, the students do not work on the system directly, because the school has only the high school version of the program. Instead, Kenyon has students use a worksheet to select occupations that interest them. Then she gives them the printed descriptions for the occupations they've requested. She finds this exposure to the information primes the students to use the sytem themselves in the career exploration courses they take in the seventh and eighth grades.

Kenyon isn't the only one starting early with CIDS. According to the National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC), elementary schools were equipped with CIDS at over 1,250 sites in 1994. Sue Reynolds, vice-president for secondary education for the American School Counselors Association, likes the idea of introducing students to computer-assisted systems before high school. She also favors system use within a developmental school counseling program. "It's sequential," she says. "It starts out with awareness and then goes to planning and then to transition."

At Indian Creek High School in Trafalgar, Indiana, Reynolds' ninth grade students are introduced to a system called COIN. Using the assessment, search, and occupational information features of COIN, ninth and tenth graders find out about themselves and the kinds of work they might like. Students then make career plans, which they revise each year as necessary. The educational information in COIN helps students find the instruction they need beyond high school to prepare for their chosen careers. Typically, Reynolds' students begin the transition to life after high school in eleventh grade. Reynolds uses the computer-assisted system as one element in a planned, ordered process of career development.

Access to Systems

The way students gain access to CIDS differs in secondary and postsecondary schools. In many secondary schools, counselors actively introduce the systems to students, but college counselors more often leave students to their own initiative. Increasingly, high school students use the systems on networked computers. College students more commonly work on stand-alone terminals.

Secondary schools. At this level, a counselor's dream setup might include access to a CIDS via a network with 2 terminals in the counselors' office, 5 in the school library, and 1 in every classroom, plus 2 computer labs, each containing 30 terminals. In the waking world, counselors often get by with a lot less. Whether equipped with computer networks or not, many schools that have a system formally introduce it to students. Sometimes counselors sit down with students individually at the computer. More often, they work with small groups. After the introduction, the system is made available for use in the library, the counseling office, or a computer lab. Students sign up for access during study hall and before or after school.

At Jefferson High School in Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Ron Tower has only 16 networked computers, but they allow all sophomores a 1 1/2-day introduction to a system named CHOICES. Tower borrows students from Language Arts classes and works with them in groups. They spend half of one class period on assessment, completing the career interest survey in CHOICES. On the second day, Tower shows them how to conduct an occupational search. As he does the search from his terminal, the students watch it happen on their own computer screens, a feat made possible by the network. Next, Tower lets them do an occupational search on their own. He walks around the lab and offers aid where needed. He also encourages students to print out occupational descriptions of special interest to them.

At Interstate 35 High School in Truro, Iowa, Diana Beem lacked the hardware needed to deliver CHOICES to students the way Tower does. She has only one computer in her office, one in the library, and two more in the business department. To overcome this problem, Beem relies on trained peer tutors to introduce the system to other students. Beem gets things started by telling ninth graders about the system in one of their required classes. She uses overhead transparencies from the CHOICES manual to illustrate her talk. The ninth graders then sign up to work through the system with the peer tutor of their choice. Tutors work with students at four one-on-one introductory sessions.

"I try to give tutors as much flexibility and responsibility as I can, as long as it works," Beem says. She trains 15 to 25 tutors to work with other students on CHOICES. Tutors point out system features that users might not otherwise remember and remind users that whatever the system says about an occupation, much variation exists within occupations. Tutors may also prompt students to reconsider their search criteria. For example, if a student enters a starting salary requirement of $50,000, the list of possible occupations will drop sharply to just a few. The tutor might say, "You lost a lot of occupations based on that salary. What does that tell you?" A question like this guides the student toward more realistic criteria. Tutors must also know when to refer a student to a counselor. Sometimes a student can't identify any occupations of interest or might say something very negative about him or herself. In such cases, Beem expects a referral from the tutor.

Although Beem hopes to deliver CHOICES via networked computers in the future, she plans to continue the peer tutor program. She thinks tutors help students with differing needs work with the system at their own pace. Sharing this belief, many counselors now enlist the aid of peer helpers. CIDS Coordinator Manzie notes the growing role of peer tutors in Maryland. During the first half of 1995, Manzie trained about 1,050 people in VISIONS PLUS. Of these, 500 were students, many of whom will serve as tutors for the system.

Counselors may also tap adult volunteers to administer a system. Some parents offer their time to play a role similar to that of the peer tutor. They can also take on additional responsibility, for example, by staffing the school career center so it can keep evening hours. Victor Lazarowitz relies on retired workers who volunteer for this purpose at George C. Marshall High School in Falls Church, Virginia. The career center's evening hours allow parents to come in with their children or by themselves and use the systems. Lazarowitz says having this access gets parents more involved in their children's career development.

Colleges. College students are often directed to CIDS when they walk into their school's career center asking for guidance. Like most college counselors, Joel Martin of Chemeketa Community College in Salem, Oregon, prefers to meet with students before they use the school's systems, Oregon CIS and DISCOVER. During the first meeting, Martin assesses his client's needs. If working on a CIDS makes sense to both of them, Martin describes how the system works. He explains what it can do and what it can't, thus avoiding problems resulting from unrealistic student expectations. When he suggests that students use CIS, he first has them complete a cardsort assessment called Microskills. Other counselors may advise that students complete other written assessments, such as the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator or the Strong Interest Inventory, before working on the system. Martin strongly encourages students to come back after they use the system and discuss the results.

Chemeketa students sign up for an appointment to use Oregon CIS or DISCOVER. The advising and counseling center on the Salem campus has eight stand-alone terminals equipped with CIS. Two terminals offer DISCOVER. When students return for their appointments, they work through the system on their own, but student aides are there to assist them if needed. Counselors may also make themselves available to confer briefly with students as they use the system.

As noted earlier, system use at the college level depends heavily on student initiative. College counseling programs, thus, employ strategies to draw students into the career center. Each quarter, Chemeketa Community College mails its course schedule to every residential address in the district. The schedule includes information on services the career center offers to students and others in the community. To publicize the CIDS, many college career centers post ads, mail flyers, place articles in college bulletins and local newspapers, or distribute brochures at career-oriented events on campus.

Some schools promote system use through routine functions like registration and orientation. Students registering for courses at Prince George's Community College in Largo, Maryland, can check a box on the registration form to request career information. The college then sends the interested students facts on DISCOVER and other resources. New student orientations also introduce services offered at career centers. At Prince George's, students take a career interest survey and receive group advisement as part of orientation.

Integration Into the Curriculum

Schools and colleges everywhere are integrating career development into their curriculums. This integration occurs in two ways. First, courses can focus specifically on career development. Second, courses can tie their subject matter to appropriate career development information and activities. The trend toward integration gives students more exposure to CIDS in both schools and colleges.

Secondary schools. At Notus Junior Senior High School, Vera Kenyon's career development program has seventh and eighth graders take 1-trimester courses called Taking Charge and Career Exploration. In Taking Charge, seventh graders do a career search at the computer. They choose one occupation on their list and write a report on it. The course includes field trips that foster career awareness and reinforce what students have learned on Idaho CIS. Career Exploration encourages eighth graders to research career pathways at the computer terminal. Again, students do a major writing project. They get credit for the reports they write in both their career development and English classes. By the end of Career Exploration, each student has chosen a tentative career path.

Kenyon's students take their next career development course, Introduction to Career Pathways, in tenth grade. This class guides students through more extensive self-assessment. They continue to explore alternative career pathways. They also learn about internships and technical preparation. Using Idaho CIS, students begin to delve into postsecondary education and training, college and job application letters, and scholarship information.

In many other schools across the country, counselors and teachers are inventing new ways to use CIDS in traditional courses. English teachers find that student research on CIDS is a sound basis for assignments that build writing skills. Often, students prepare oral or written reports on occupations relating to the subject at hand. A social studies class might report on political science or law enforcement careers; a health class could address health care occupations; a math class, math-related jobs; and so on. Adding career development into regular coursework makes students more mindful, according to Ron Tower. As he says, "The kids know that the stuff they're going to learn from me today is going to be used in a paper that's due next week. Now, it's pretty easy to have kids pay attention to that."

Teachers of core subjects can enliven their classes by using computer-assisted systems, but they may not know this. Counselors like Diana Beem spread the word. She hunts through the curriculum for areas where the CIDS might add something to a class. She then pitches the idea to the teacher. Because Beem has done her homework, she easily impresses teachers with how her suggestion will benefit them. They give it a try. At the end of the year, she goes back to the teachers and asks for their thoughts about collaborating next year. "I try to make it win-win," Beem says.

Colleges. The integration of CIDS into the college curriculum is less common than in secondary schools, but these systems have made their way into some college classrooms with great success. The School of New Resources, part of the College of New Rochelle, has seven campuses in the New York City area that use SIGI PLUS. The School of New Resources caters to older students, many of whom return to school after gaining some work experience. Students get started by taking a course called Experience, Learning, and Identity. For this class, they write a paper describing their life experiences and considering scenarios for their future work lives. Students select and compare two occupations in the paper based on their use of SIGI PLUS. After students complete 40 credits, they take a second career development course known as Career Interest Review. In this class, they use SIGI PLUS again. They then rework their papers in light of what they have learned since starting school. Upon completing 80 credits, students do this exercise a third time.

With the support of counselors, some college instructors assign projects requiring students to use CIDS. College students may have to use a system and then write a paper on occupations relating to the subject matter of a course, as high school students do. Such assignments can fit into a variety of introductory college courses. Some find sociology an especially useful vehicle for career development activities, given the focus this discipline has always placed on the working world.

Roles of Computer and Counselor

It's widely accepted that computers best perform repetitive tasks involving collection, processing, and providing of information. CIDS have developed accordingly. They accept, score, and interpret assessment data. They speedily search through massive stores of information according to user-specified criteria. They provide the same facts on the same occupations time and again without wearying. In CIDS, the counseling profession has found its paints, palette, and brushes. The artistry of today's counselor lies in providing these tools to clients and then helping them paint their own workscapes.

The new tools of counseling are good and getting better. No matter how good the tools, however, an apprentice will always need the listening ear, the thoughtful word of a kind counselor. With computers taking over routine tasks--the argument goes--counselors can spend more time helping clients interpret what they have learned and act on it. They can assist clients in putting the information from CIDS into perspective. When different assessment tools point a student in different directions, counselors can resolve the conflict by blending the results together in new ways. They can point out other sources of information. And they can help students put career plans into action.

Joel Martin often helps clients interpret what CIDS tell them. He recalls talking to a plywood mill worker who wanted to become a physical therapist or a massage technician. Based on his experience at the mill, the man had deemed unsatisfactory all jobs that would require him to tolerate repetition. As a result, the computer did not list either physical therapist or massage technician as options. Martin quickly pointed out that the repetition in a physical therapist's job would differ greatly from that in a mill worker's. Reassured, the client continued to explore his new career prospects. Sometimes, a student's workscape just isn't turning out, and the counselor has to cast an eye at the canvas and say, "Try a little more red, there."

Only a counselor can do one additional task: Help the client feel comfortable enough with the computer to use it. People who lack experience using computers often shy away from them. Counselors can put these users at ease. As one counselor says to her computer-phobic clients, if the machine "ever gives you a bad time, you just turn it off. You're always in charge."

Finding Money

Shortages of funds often prevent counselors from implementing CIDS the way they would like to. Nancy Hull faced this challenge as a counselor at South Range High School in North Lima, Ohio. Hull had only one computer and 400 students, so she sought additional hardware in the community. She convinced local businesses to donate three computers they no longer needed because they had upgraded to new machines. With four computers, Hull can introduce students to the school's system in small groups. A little creativity pays off.

In some communities, counselors might run even further with Hull's idea. They could offer businesses public recognition of some kind in return for donated hardware. Or they might offer companies advertising space in school newsletters to parents.

When it comes to justifying funds at budget time, counselors can get useful information from CIDS developers. The developers can tell what hardware will be required to run future versions of their software. Knowing this in advance aids planning and can shore up a budget request.

Sampson's Implementation Model

Unleashing the strength of any computer-assisted system has everything to do with the way counselors implement it. As in most endeavors, good implementation depends on a good plan. Jim Sampson of the Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development has one such plan. Over the years, he has developed a seven-step implementation model for use in colleges, secondary schools, and other settings. The model's first step, program evaluation, begins by gauging how well current career guidance services meet client needs. If change appears in order, staff review their service goals in light of what computer-assisted systems might add. If a new system will further the goals, the organization sets up a committee to plan implementation. A coordinator leads this effort.

In the second step, the committee identifies software products that may meet clients' needs. Committee members evaluate different systems, often relying in part on system previews allowed by developers. The committee then picks appropriate software and hardware.

The third step, called software integration, involves planning how best to deliver services using the chosen system. In this step, staff first become very familiar with how the system works. Next, they decide how to make it mesh with the overall career guidance program. This includes specifying roles for all staff members with regard to the system. Operational procedures are also created, and a plan for evaluating system use is prepared.

Sampson's model then continues with steps called staff training, trial use, operation, and evaluation of service-delivery. Various feedback loops among the seven steps allow for a continual process of refinement. Sampson stresses that implementation is an ongoing process. Computer-assisted systems change every year; and, some years, they change dramatically. Implementation must keep pace. In "Effective Computer-Assisted Career Guidance: Occasional Paper Number 2," Sampson describes his implementation model in detail.

The one question counselors ask Sampson most often deals with selecting CIDS software: "Which system is really best?" Like a Zen master who has heard the sound of one hand clapping, Sampson answers this question with another question: "Given our client population, organizational structure, financial resources, staff (time and skills), and historical/theoretical approach to service delivery, which system provides the features that we need at an acceptable cost and has been shown to be effective for clients under these operating conditions?"


The potential of CIDS to aid American students and workers is vast. Equally vast are the challenges career development professionals face in striving to help their clients reap the full reward of these systems. Counselors and other practitioners will succeed if they find allies who can back much needed research into the effective use of systems with different populations under differing conditions. "Millions of dollars are spent on these systems every year," says Sampson. "It's ironic that so little is really known about them. These systems have an important role to play in helping us meet our labor market and, ultimately, our economic needs."

Where Can I Find Out More?

Further information about the various CIDS is available from national groups, CIDS developers, and the State CIDS directors.

National Information

Several national groups and associations provide information on CIDS programs. NOICC, a Federal interagency program, has fostered the development and use of CIDS since 1979 in cooperation with State Occupational Information Coordinating Committees (SOICC's) and State CIDS programs. The Association of Computer-based Systems for Career Information (ACSCI) and the National Career Development Association (NCDA) are professional associations that have written guidelines and standards for the use of CIDS. The Tech Center, or Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development, has worked with NOICC and ACSCI on several national studies. Relevant publications are listed after the addresses.

NOICC 2100 M Street NW., Suite 156 Washington, DC 20037 (202) 653-5665 "CIDS fact sheet" "Career Information Delivery: A Summary Status Report"

ACSCI ACSCI Administrative Office c/o National Career Development Association 5999 Stevenson Avenue Alexandria, VA 22304-3300 (703) 823-9800, ext. 309 "1995 Directory of State-Based Career Information Delivery Systems" "ACSCI Handbook of Standards"

National Career Development Association 5999 Stevenson Avenue Alexandria, VA 22304-3300 (703) 823-9800 "Guidelines for the Preparation and Evaluation of Career and Occupational Information Literature"

Center for the Study of Technology in Counseling and Career Development Florida State University Career Center 5408 University Center, 4th level Tallahassee, FL 32306-1035 (904) 644-6431

CIDS Developers

Each of the developers of CIDS provides information about its system.

Career Information System (CTS) National Office 5258 University of Oregon Eugene, OR 97403-5258 (503) 346-3875

CHOICES ISM-Careerware 175B State Street P.O. Box 129 Clayton, NY 13624 1 (800) 267-1544

COIN COIN Educational Products 3361 Executive Parkway, Suite 302 Toledo, OH 43606 1 (800) 274-8515

DISCOVER American College Testing Educational Services Division (I 1) P.O. Box 168 Iowa City, IA 52243-0168 (319) 337-1000

ExPAN The College Board 45 Columbus Avenue New York, NY 10023-6992 1 (800) 223-9726

Guidance Information System 11 (GIS 11) The Riverside Publishing Company Attn: GIS Contracts 8420 Bryn Mawr Avenue Chicago, IL 60631-9979 1 (800) 258-9773

Modular C-LECT Chronicle Guidance Publications, Inc. 66 Aurora Street P.O. Box 1190 Moravia, NY 13118-1190 1 (800) 622-7284

Peterson's College and Career Quest Peterson's Guides, Inc. P.O. Box 2123 Princeton, NJ 08541-6403 1 (800) 338-3282, ext. 402

SIGI PLUS (System of Interactive Guidance and Information Plus More) Educational Testing Service P.O. Box 6403 Princeton, NJ 08543-5071 1 (800) 257-7444

VISIONS PLUS Executive Plaza 1 11350 McCormick Road Suite 200 Hunt Valley, MD 21031 1 (800) 645-1992

State CIDS Directors

Most States select one CIDS software package from a CIDS developer, organize and load State data, and provide training for users with each annual update. Some States have created their own systems, such as Virginia VIEW, developed by Carl McDaniels and his staff at Virginia Tech.

The following people are the directors of a State CIDS or SOICC. They can answer questions about the CIDS program in their State. They have information on what the system contains, where it is used, and how to obtain it.
Alabama Mary Louise Simms (205) 242-2990
Alaska Lynda Brown (907) 465-2980
Arizona Hugo Soll (602) 542-3871
Arkansas C. Coy Cozart (501) 682-3159
California M. Sumyyah Bilal (510) 235-3883
Colorado Charles B. Beck (303) 322-9323
Connecticut Gregory Dandio (203) 288-1883
Delaware Clifton Hutton (302) 739-4676
District of Columbia Etta Williams (202) 724-7237
Florida Glenn Thomas (904) 488-0400
Georgia Les Janis (404) 651-3100
Hawaii Lincoln T. Higa (808) 594-0625
Idaho Charles R. Mollerup (208) 334-3705
Illinois Jan Staggs (217) 785-0789
Indiana (317) 233-3785
Iowa Penelope Shenk (515) 242-4890
Kansas Dennis Angle (913) 532-6540
Kentucky Don Sullivan (502) 564-4258
Louisiana Linda Vandrell (504) 342-5149
Maine Denis Fortier (207) 624-6208
Maryland Jasmin M. Duckett (410) 767-2955
Michigan Myra Hiske (517) 676-1051
Minnesota Terry Hamm (612) 296-3653
Mississippi Liz Barnett (601) 949-2240
Missouri VIEW James H. Grogan (314) 839-9528
Missouri CHOICES Kay Raithel (314) 751-3800
Montana Anne Wolfinger (406) 444-0303
Nebraska LeeAnn Roth (402) 472-2570
Nevada Beverly Barker (702) 687-4577
New Jersey Laurence H. Seidel (609) 292-2626
New Mexico Consuelo Cordora (505) 841-8455
North Dakota Dan R. Marrs (701) 328-2733
North Carolina Nancy H. MacCormac (919) 733-6700
Ohio Karen Heath (614) 466-5718
Oklahoma Kelly Arington (404) 743-5159
Oregon Cheryl L. Buhl (503) 346-3872
Pennsylvania Fritz J. Fichtner, Jr. (717) 787-8646
Puerto Rico Evelyn Vargas (809) 723-7110
Rhode Island Mildred Nicholas (401) 272-0830
South Carolina Carol Kososki (803) 737-2733
South Dakota Phillip George (605) 626-2314
Tennessee Walter A. Cameron (615) 974-2733
Texas Richard Froeschle (512) 502-3750
Utah Tammy Stewart (801) 536-7861
Vermont Peter Hogg (802) 229-3011
Virginia Carl McDaniels (504) 231-7571
Washington Bert Palmer (360) 754-8222
Wisconsin Roger Lambert (608) 268-2725
Wyoming Bob Bennett (307) 766-3610

RELATED ARTICLE: Not Just for Students

Although schools and colleges host the majority of sites for Career Information Delivery Systems (CIDS), use of these systems is growing in other settings. The table shows State CIDS sites by type of site as of 1994 in the 50 States. Remember that these figures exclude sites having a CIDS other than an official State CIDS. The number of sites for all CIDS is not known. Consider also that a single site may house any number of terminals with access to the system.
Type of CIDS site Number Percent

All sites 20,080 100.0

K-12 Education 13,475 67.0
 Senior high school 8,300 41.0
 Junior high/middle school 3,925 20.0
 Elementary 1,250 6.0
Postsecondary Education 1,770 8.8
 Vocational/technical schools 700 3.5
 2-year community/junior colleges 625 3.2
 4-year colleges/universities 360 1.8
 Private vocational schools 85 .2
Employment and training 2,375 11.8
 Employment and training offices 725 3.6
 Vocational rehabilitation offices 650 3.3
 State job service offices 675 3.4
 Counseling offices 325 1.6
Other 2,460 12.3
 Public libraries 600 3.0
 Prisons 260 1.3
 Public businesses 100 .5
 Miscellaneous 1,500 7.5

Miscellaneous sites include those in adult education programs, youth services bureaus, Native American agencies, State homes, school-to-work transition centers, single parent programs, State welfare programs, military schools and bases, hospitals, and extension agencies.

Thirty-nine States reported the numbers of individual users of State CIDS during 1994. At sites under K-12 education and postsecondary education, more than 4 million people used CIDS. In the same States, nearly 900,000 people used CIDS at employment and training and other sites. The future will bring big increases in system use by adults in settings other than schools and colleges.

Part of the increase will stem from including CIDS in one-stop career centers currently being developed as the core of a new national reemployment system. Drawing on the latest technology, the centers will offer the public all of the following services:

* Information on employment-related services, including consumer reports on local education and training;

* Help filing initial claims for unemployment insurance and information on job training and education programs, including financial aid;

* Preliminary assessment of skills as well as job counseling; and

* Information on career exploration, job openings, job search, and referral and placement services.

With some funding from the Federal Government, 16 States have taken the lead in developing one-stop career centers for their residents. These include Arizona, Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, Ohio, Texas, and Wisconsin. Planning for the centers has already begun in several other States, and it should quickly spread to the remaining ones. The States will phase in their one-stop services over a period of several years.

The future will also offer access to CIDS and other employment information systems at high-tech kiosks in shopping malls around the country. Some people may find themselves choosing a career, getting a job, and buying a new wardrobe all at the local mall.
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Title Annotation:includes information sources, lists of developers and directors, and related article on career information delivery systems
Author:Mariani, Matthew
Publication:Occupational Outlook Quarterly
Date:Dec 22, 1995
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