Composite flour improves health benefits of baked goods.
Composite flour is a mixture of flours, starches and other ingredients intended to totally or partially replace wheat flour in bakery and pastry products. Composite flour is advantageous in developing countries, as it reduces the importation of wheat flour and encourages the use of locally grown crops.
The development of food products using composite flour is attracting much attention because of the positive effects found in the functional and physicochemical properties and health benefits of raw blended flour. For example, some studies have shown that pulse flour can increase mineral bioavailability and lower the glycemic response in healthy consumers when pulses, such as chickpea flour, are added to the diet. Moreover, composite flour-based products have similar characteristics to products made from full-wheat flour.
When using composite flour, it's necessary to evaluate its functionality in test baking. Product developers must adjust the percentage of mixing ingredients and experiment with different baking techniques to improve the composite product's qualities. It may be necessary to mix different types of crop flours to maximize the composite baked product's quality using response surface methodology.
When baking with composite flour, you will have to experiment with varying doses of structural agents, for example hydrocolloids, emulsifiers, proteins, enzymes, starches, and fats and oils. Product developers will need to test which method of processing, such as toasting, boiling and fermentation of flour, they could use to improve the rheological properties of composite-baked products.
For example, legume proteins can be successfully used in baked products to obtain a protein-enriched product with an improved amino acid balance. One of the most important properties of legume proteins is their high content of lysine, an essential amino acid, and their lack of sulphur-containing amino acids. This makes them a great complement to other well-known cereal proteins such as wheat, which are deficient in lysine, but which have good sulphur amino acid content.
The use of legumes as protein-enriching agents in baked products, mainly in the form of protein flours, has been reported by several researchers. Among the legume protein products that have been tested are various soy bean protein preparations and germinated chickpea flour.
Further information. Binti Masri Noorfarahzilah, School of Food Science and Nutrition, University Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; phone: +60 88-320 000; email: firstname.lastname@example.org.