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Comparison the effects of different levels of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and zizaphora (zizaphora tenuior L.) medicinal plants on carcass characteristics of male and female broilers.

Introduction

The wide use of antibioticsand other chemical compounds have been experienced throughout the last 50 years which have been directed research back to natural antimicrobial products as indispensable resources [1]. Different additives like, enzymes, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics and phytogenics are used to improve the performance [2]. Newly, some medicinal herbs, and their associated essential oils or extracts are being concerned as potentially growth promoters. At present the scientists are working to improve feed efficiency and growth rate of livestock using useful herbs [3]. Some plants were found to have natural effects, e.g., tonics, antiparasitic, anti-bacterial, stimulant, carminative, anti-fungial, anti-microbial and antiseptic [4,5]. As antibiotics, plant extracts could control and limit the growth and colonization of numerous pathogenic and nonpathogenic species of bacteria in the gut. Thymol and carvacrol present in plants like thyme and zizaphora disrupt the membrane integrity, which further affects pH homeostasis and equilibrium of inorganic ions [6]. It was reported that some medicinal plants like black cumin seeds could be considered as a natural potential antioxidant promoter for poultry [7]. In broilers using 5,10 and 15 ml/lit aqueous extracts of some plant extract mixtures significantly improved dressing per cent, breast and leg weight [8]. In an experiment using 1% of cumin increased the dressing per cent of broilers carcass [9]. Findings by the effects of some herb mixtures on carcass quality showed that using of them had no effects on dressing per cent, but significantly increased gizzard weight [10]. Reported that the use 1.5% of different mixtures of Urtica dioica, Mentha pulegium and Thymyus vulgaris medicinal plants in broiler diets improved their performance and carcass quality [11]. Adding Chicory Fructans in broiler feed significantly decreased their abdominal fat pad [12].

The main components those find in Cichorium intybus L. are inulin and oligofructose. Reported that feeding male broilers a 0.375% level of oligofructose improved per cent hot carcass weight and per cent breast weight while per cent fat pad was lowered [13].

Thymol and carvacrol are essential oils those find in Zizaphora tenuior L. and Thymus vulgaris L. medicinal plants that they have antimicrobial activity against fungi [14]. Therefore in aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of chicory and zizaphora medicinal herbs on carcass traits of male and female broilers.

Materials and Methods

Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of using different levels of chicory and zizaphora medicinal plants on carcass characteristic of male and female broilers. In each of these experiments 300 broilers (Ross 308) from 1-42 days of age in two breeding periods starter (1-21) and grower (22-42) days of age were used in a completely randomized design in 5 treatments and 3 replicates (with 20 birds in each replicate). The amounts of each medicinal plant powder were 0-2 per cent from control until 5 experiment groups. Dried aerial parts of medicinal plants were obtained from local market and the compositions of them were determined according to AOAC (1994) [15]. After fine milling, mixed with other ingredients. The diets and water was provided ad libitum. The treatments in each of these experiments consisted of a control group (1) with no medicinal plant supplementation, and 0.5%, %1, 1.5% and 2% in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 respectively. The diets were formulated (Tables 1, 2) to meet the requirements of broilers as established by the NRC (1994) [16]. The lighting programme during the experimental period consisted of a period of 23 hours light and 1 hour of darkness. Environmental temperature was gradually decreased from 33[degrees]C to 25[degrees]C on day 21 and was then kept constant.

Performance Parameters:

Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion were determined weekly on bird bases. Mortality was also recorded.

Carcass Components:

At 42 days of age, six birds/per treatment were randomly chosen, slaughtered and carcass per cent to total weight and per cents of carcass characteristic to carcass weight were calculated.

Statistical Analysis:

The data were subjected to analysis of variance procedures appropriate for a completely randomized design using the General Linear Model procedures of SAS Institute (2005) [17]. Means were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. Statements of statistical significance are based on P<0.05.

Results And Discussion

The effects of chicory on the carcass characteristic of the male broilers are given in Table 3. According to Dancan's test a significant differences were recorded among groups with respect to abdominal fat and thigh per cents (P<0.05). The lowest per cent of abdominal fat and the highest per cent of thigh were observed by using 1% and 1.5% of chicory. The highest and lowest (27.70) and (25.37%) per cents of thigh were obtained in 4 and 5 groups. Using different levels of chicory numerically improved the small intestine, gizzard and liver per cents. The lowest per cent of abdominal fat in group 3 and the highest per cent of thigh in group 4 by using 1 and 1.5 per cents of chicory could be related to relatively the lowest per cents of carcass and breast per cents of male broilers in these groups. The highest per cent of abdominal fat was obtained by using 0.5% of chicory in group 2. Chicory possibly promotes fat deposition along with live weight gain or since the increase in live weight gain is possibly by increased fat deposition. Increased abdominal fat in broilers fed by thyme leaves, is previously reported [18]. On the contrary, another report showed that dietary inclusion of chicory fructans in broiler feed had significantly decreased the abdominal fat pad size [12].

The effects of different levels of chicory in feeds on carcass characteristic of female broilers is shown in Table 4.

Using different levels of chicory did not have significant effects on carcass characteristic of female broilers (P>0.05). However, using chicory numerically improved the per cent of carcass, decreased the per cents of abdominal fat, gizzard, liver, on the other hand, unfortunately, decreased the per cents of thigh and breast.

The effects of different levels of zizaphora in feeds on carcass characteristic of male broilers is shown in Table 5. Only gizzard per cent significantly affected by using different levels of zizaphora in male broilers (P<0.05). The highest per cent of gizzard was observed by using 2% of zizaphora, whereas the lowest per cent was observed in control group. Using different levels of zizaphora numerically improved the abdominal fat pad size.

Carvacrol is an essential oil that find in Zizaphora tenuior L. has antimicrobial activity against fungi [14]). On the contrary to the findings of this study, it was reported that carvacrol additives increased the abdominal fat weight compared to control and menthol groups [19]. Significantly Increased the gizzard size in group 5 could be associated with an increased amount of dietary fiber by using 2% of zizaphora in this group.

The effects of different levels of zizaphora in feeds on carcass characteristics of female broilers are summarized in Table 6. Using different levels of zizaphora had significant effects on abdominal fat percent in female broilers (P<0.05). The lowest per cent of abdominal fat (2.18%) resulted by using 2% of zizaphora, Where as the highest per cent (5.30%) was observed in control group. As above, the antimicrobial effects of essential oils of zizaphora, such as carvacrol may be the main reason for the reduction the abdominal fat decreasing of male broiler carcass [14]. In addition to abdominal fat, different levels of chicory improved the carcass per cent, and decreased the percents of small intestine, gizzard and liver, such chicory in female broilers, unfortunately, decreased the per cents of thigh and breast. Reduce the per cents of thigh and breast by using different levels of chicory and zizaphora may be related to genetically susceptible of female chicks, however future research is need in this field.

It can be concluded that medicinal plants contain substances which have positive effects on carcass characteristics in broilers.

References

[1.] Ferrini, G., M.D. Baucells, E. Esteve-garca, A.C. Barroeta., 2008. Dietary polyunsaturated fat reduces skin fat as well as abdominal fat in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci., 87: 528-35.

[2.] Patterson, T.A., K.M. Barkholder., 2003. Application of prebiotics and probiotics in poultry production, J. Poult. Sci., 82: 627-637.

[3.] Bunyapraphatsara, N., 2007. Utilization of medicinal plants in animal production. 11th International Congress, Leiden, The Netherlands, Phytopharmcology. Chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci., 10: 157-165.

[4.] El-Emary, N.A., 1993. Egyption Medicinal Plants: An over view I, Assiut J. Env.

[5.] Soliman, A.Z., N.Y. Abd El-Malak, A.M. Abbas., 1995. Effect of using some commercial feed additives as promoters on the performance of growing and adult rabbits. Egypt. J. App. Sci., 10: 501.

[6.] Lambert, R.J.W., P.N. Skandamis, P.J. Coote, G.J.P. Nychas., 2001. A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. J. Appl. Microbiol., 91: 453-462.

[7.] Gulcin, I.K., I.U. Kufrevio, M. Oktay, M.E. Buyukokuro., 2004. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiulcer and analgesic activities of nettle (Uritica dioica L.). J. Ethnopharacol., 90: 205-215.

[8.] Javed, M., F.R. Durani, A. Hafeez, R.U. Khan, I. Ahmad., 2009. Effect of aqueous extract of plant mixture on carcass quality of broiler chicks. ARPN. J. Agr. Bio. Sci., 4: 37-40.

[9.] Al-Kassi, G., 2010. Effect of feeding Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) on the performance and some blood traits of broiler chicks. Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 72-75.

[10.] Franciszk, B., B. Sliwinski, O. Rutkowska., 2010. Effect of herb mixture on productivity, mortality, carcass quality and blood parameters of broiler chickens. Ann. Anim. Sci., 10: 157-165.

[11.] Modiry, A., A. Nobakht, Y. Mehmannavaz., 2010. Investigation of the effects using different mixtures of Nettle (Urtica dioica), Mentha pulagum (Oreganum vulgare) and Zizaphora (Thymyus vulgaris) on performance and carcass traits of broilers. Proc 4th Ir Cong Anim Sci., pp: 252-254.

[12.] Yusrizal, C., C. Chen., 2003. Effects of adding chicory fructans in feed on broiler growth performance, serum cholesterol and intestinal length. Intr. J. Poult. Sci., 2: 214-219.

[13.] Ammerman, E., C. Quarles, P.V. Twining Jr., 1989. Evaluation of fructooligosaccharides on performance and carcass yield of male broilers. Poult. Sci., 68(Suppl.): 167.

[14.] Porte, A., R. Godoy., 2008. Chemical composition of Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) essential oils from the Riode Janerro State (Brazil). J. Ser. Chem. Soc., 73: 307-310.

[15.] A.O.A.C., 1994. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Official Methods of Analysis--Animal Feed Section.

[16.] National Research Council, 1994. Nutrient requirements of poultry. National Academic Press, Washington, D.C. USA.

[17.] S.A.S. Institute, 2005. SAS User's Guide: Statistic. Version Yeh, Y.Y. and G.A. Leveille.

[18.] Ocak, N., G. Erener, A.K.F. Burak, M. Sungu, A. Altop, A. Ozmen., 2008. Performance of broilers fed diets supplemented with dry peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) orthyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) leaves as growth promoter source. Czech. J. Anim. Sci., 53: 169-175.

[19.] Erener, G., N. Ocak, F.B. Ak, A. Ve-Altop., 2005. Performance of broiler fed peppermint (Menthol) or origan (Carvacrol) essential oil supplemented diet. Procc of 3rd National Congress of Animal Nutrition, Sept. 7-10, Adana, pp: 58-62.

Ali Nobakht

Islamic Azad University--Maragheh Branch

Corresponding Author

Ali Nobakhat, Islamic Azad University--Maragheh Branch.

E-mail: anobakht20@yahoo.com
Table 1: The ingredients and nutrients
composition of starter diets of broilers (1-21 days)

Diets                             Control   0.5% Medicinal      1%
ingredients                       Group        plants       Medicinal
                                                             plants

Yellow corn                       58.51        57.81          57.12
Soybean meal                      32.72        32.77          32.81
Fish meal                           3            3              3
Medicinal plants                    0           0.5             1
Vegetable oil                     2.53          2.72          2.91
Dicalcium phosphate               1.06          1.07          1.07
Oyster shell                      1.30          1.30          1.30
Salt                              0.23          0.23          0.23
Vitamin premix (1)                0.25          0.25          0.25
Mineral premix (2)                0.25          0.25          0.25
DL- Methionine                    0.15          0.15          0.15
Calculated composition
Metabolisable energy (Kcal/Kg)    3000          3000          3000
Crude protein (%)                 21.56        21.56          21.56
Calcium (%)                       0.94          0.94          0.94
Available phosphorous (%)         0.42          0.42          0.42
Sodium (%)                        0.14          0.14          0.14
Crude fiber                       3.71          3.79          3.88
Laysin (%)                        1.25          1.25          1.25
Methionine+Cysteine (%)           0.87          0.87          0.87
Threonine (%)                      0.9          0.9            0.9
Thryptophan (%)                   0.28          0.28          0.28

Diets                              1.5%         2%
ingredients                      Medicinal   Medicinal
                                  plants      plants

Yellow corn                        56.43       55.50
Soybean meal                       32.86       32.96
Fish meal                            3           3
Medicinal plants                    1.5          2
Vegetable oil                       3.1        3.29
Dicalcium phosphate                1.07        1.07
Oyster shell                       1.30        1.30
Salt                               0.23        0.23
Vitamin premix (1)                 0.25        0.25
Mineral premix (2)                 0.25        0.25
DL- Methionine                     0.16        0.16
Calculated composition
Metabolisable energy (Kcal/Kg)     3000        3000
Crude protein (%)                  21.56       21.56
Calcium (%)                        0.94        0.94
Available phosphorous (%)          0.42        0.42
Sodium (%)                         0.14        0.14
Crude fiber                        3.97        4.06
Laysin (%)                         1.25        1.25
Methionine+Cysteine (%)            0.87        0.87
Threonine (%)                       0.9         0.9
Thryptophan (%)                    0.28        0.28

(1) Vitamin premix per kg of diet: vitamin A (retinol), 2.7 mg;
vitamin [D.sub.3] (cholecalciferol), 0.05 mg; vitamin E (tocopheryl
acetate), 18 mg; vitamin [K.sub.3], 2 mg; thiamine 1.8 mg;
riboflavin, 6.6 mg; panthothenic acid, 10 mg; pyridoxine, 3 mg;
cyanocobalamin, 0.015 mg; niacin, 30 mg; biotin, 0.1 mg; folic
acid, 1 mg; choline chloride, 250 mg; Antioxidant 100 mg.

(2) Mineral premix per kg of diet: Fe (FeSO4.7H2O, 20.09% Fe), 50
mg; Mn (MnSO4.H2O, 32.49% Mn), 100 mg; Zn (ZnO, 80.35% Zn), 100 mg;
Cu (CuSO4.5H2O), 10 mg; I (Kb 58% I), 1 mg; Se (NaSeO3, 45.56% Se),
0.2 mg.

Table 2. The ingredients and nutrients composition
of grower diets of broilers (22-42 days) of broilers

Diets                        Control   0.5% Medicinal   1% Medicinal
Ingredients                  Group        plants          plants

Yellow corn                  67.91        67.13           66.35
Soybean meal                 26.06        26.14           26.32
Fish meal                      2            2               2
Vegetable oil                1.01          1.21            1.4
Medicinal plants               0           0.5              1
Dicalcium phosphate          1.03          1.03            1.03
Oyster shell                 1.20          1.20            1.20
Salt                         0.25          0.25            0.25
Vitamin premix (1)           0.25          0.25            0.25
Mineral premix (2)           0.25          0.25            0.25
DL- Methionine               0.04          0.04            0.04
Calculated composition
Metabolisable energy         3000          3000            3000
(Kcal/Kg)
Crude protein (%)            18.75        18.75           18.75
Calcium (%)                  0.85          0.85            0.85
Available hosphorous(%)      0.38          0.38            0.38
Sodium (%)                   0.14          0.14            0.14
Crude fiber                  3.20          3.34            3.48
Lysine (%)                   1.02          1.02            1.02
Methionine + Cysteine (%)    0.67          0.67            0.67
Threonine (%)                0.79          0.79            0.79
Thryptophan (%)              0.24          0.24            0.24

Diets                       1.5% Medicinal   2% Medicinal
Ingredients                     plants          plants

Yellow corn                     65.58           64.80
Soybean meal                    26.30           26.38
Fish meal                         2               2
Vegetable oil                    1.6             1.8
Medicinal plants                 1.5              2
Dicalcium phosphate              1.03            1.03
Oyster shell                     1.20            1.20
Salt                             0.25            0.25
Vitamin premix (1)               0.25            0.25
Mineral premix (2)               0.25            0.25
DL- Methionine                   0.04            0.04
Calculated composition
Metabolisable energy             3000            3000
(Kcal/Kg)
Crude protein (%)               18.75           18.75
Calcium (%)                      0.85            0.85
Available hosphorous(%)          0.38            0.38
Sodium (%)                       0.14            0.14
Crude fiber                      3.62            3.76
Lysine (%)                       1.02            1.02
Methionine + Cysteine (%)        0.67            0.67
Threonine (%)                    0.79            0.79
Thryptophan (%)                  0.24            0.24

(1) Vitamin premix per kg of diet: vitamin A (retinol), 2.7 mg;
vitamin [D.sub.3] (cholecalciferol), 0.05 mg; vitamin E (tocopheryl
acetate), 18 mg; vitamin [K.sub.3], 2 mg; thiamine, 1.8 mg;
riboflavin, 6.6 mg; panthothenic acid, 10 mg; pyridoxine, 3 mg;
cyanocobalamin, 0.015 mg; niacin, 30 mg; biotin, 0.1 mg; folic
acid, 1 mg; choline chloride, 250 mg; Antioxidant 100 mg.

(2) Mineral premix per kg of diet: Fe (FeSO4.7H2O, 20.09% Fe), 50
mg; Mn (MnSO4.H2O, 32.49% Mn), 100 mg; Zn (ZnO, 80.35% Zn), 100 mg;
Cu (CuSO4.5H2O), 10 mg; I ([K.sub.1], 58% I), 1mg; Se (NaSeO3,
45.56% Se), 0.2 mg.

Table 3: The effects of different levels of
chicory on carcass traits of male broilers

Chicory per cent
Carcass traits (%)   0            0.5          1

Carcass              72.29        71.46        71.80
Abdominal fat        3.38 *       3.61 (a)     2.16 (b)
Small intestine      6.02         7.30         5.70
Gizzard              2.54         2.79         2.48
Breast               34.44        33.35        34.04
Thigh                25.87 (ab)   25.79 (ab)   26.17 (ab)
Liver                2.89         3.01         3.02

Chicory per cent
Carcass traits (%)   1.5          2            SEM

Carcass              72.27        72.04        0.75
Abdominal fat        3.35 (ab)    3.33 (ab)    0.42
Small intestine      6.51         5.91         0.67
Gizzard              2.74         2.59         0.14
Breast               31.81        32.23        1
Thigh                27.70 (a)    25.37 (b)    0.59
Liver                3.11         3.18         0.21

Values in the same row not sharing a common
supercript differ significantly (P<0.05).
SEM = Standard error of mean.

Table 4. The effects of different levels
of chicory on carcass traits of female broilers

Chicory percent
Carcass traits (%)   0       0.5     1       1.5     2       SEM

Carcass              71.95   70.93   70.71   71.14   73.21   1.99
Abdominal fat        5.29    4.29    3.31    3.36    3.13    0.81
Small intestine      6.57    5.26    6.30    7.03    6.20    0.86
Gizzard              3.31    2.65    2.85    3.12    2.79    0.28
Breast               38.46   35.07   34.28   34.91   34.16   1.55
Thigh                27.04   23.71   24.32   25.63   25.26   1.62
Liver                3.97    3.28    3.51    3.11    3.17    0.42

Values in same row not sharing a common
superscript differ signicicantly (P<0.05).
SEM = Standard error of mean.

Table 5. The effects of different levels of
zizaphora on carcass traits of male broilers

Zizaphora per cent
Carcass traits (%)   0           0.5         1

Carcass              72.29       73.2        71.15
Abdominal fat        3.38        2.47        2.75
Small intestine      6.02        6.61        7.07
Gizzard              2.54 (b)    2.68 (ab)   2.64 (ab)
Breast               34.44       34.34       29.77
Thigh                25.87       26.05       25.28
Liver                2.89        2.92        2.95

Zizaphora per cent
Carcass traits (%)   1.5         2           SEM

Carcass              71.35       71.48       1.45
Abdominal fat        2.55        2.88        0.38
Small intestine      7.19        7.76        0.55
Gizzard              2.56 (b)    3.1 (a)     0.15
Breast               32.14       32.04       1.91
Thigh                25.75       26.58       0.71
Liver                2.98        3.1         0.21

Values in the same row not sharing a common
superscript differ significantly (P<0.05).
SEM = Standard error of mean.

Table 6. The effects of different levels of zizaphora
on carcass traits of female broilers

Zizaphora per cent
Carcass traits (%)   0           0.5         1

Carcass              71.95       70.63       70.99
Abdominal fat        5.30 (a)    3.30 (ab)   3.28 (ab)
Small intestine      6.57        7.19        7.38
Gizzard              3.31        3.34        3.02
Breast               38.46       33.85       33.81
Thigh                27.04       24.47       24.74
Liver                3.97        3.20        3.14

Zizaphora per cent
Carcass traits (%)   1.5         2           SEM

Carcass              74.49       72.36       1.97
Abdominal fat        2.94 (b)    2.18 (b)    0.66
Small intestine      6.36        6.89        0.92
Gizzard              2.83        3.02        0.26
Breast               35.48       34.67       1.47
Thigh                23.80       24.81       1.65
Liver                3.12        3.53        0.44

Values in the same row not sharing a common
superscript differ significantly(P<0.05).
SEM = Standard error of mean.
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Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Nobakht, Ali
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Aug 1, 2011
Words:3386
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