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Comparison of the shaping ability of various nickel--titanium file systems in simulated curved canals.

Abstract

Aim

The aim of this study was to compare the shaping time and shaping ability of the ProTaC... per Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and Twisted Files (TF) nickel--titanium (NiTi) systems.

Materials and Methods

This study was conducted using simulated root canals (n = 40). The specimens were divided into four experimental groups (n = 10 each).

Each group prepared by NiTi system as followC... ing: ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaC... veOne, the canals were injected with black ink before instrumentation, a series of photographs of each canal was saved to a computer using a set protocol. The canals were reinjected using red ink postoperatively to define their outlines, and images were taken in the same standardized manner. Photoshop software was used to superimpose preC... and postC...instrumentation images in two different layers. Each 1 mm step from the apical end was measured using ImageJ Software and evaluated by measuring the amount of reC... moved resin. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Significance was set at P

Conclusions

ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne preserved the original curvature of the canal betC... ter than the TF system.

Keywords

Nickel--titanium, ProTaper Next, ProTaper UniverC... sal, shaping, simulated canal, WaveOne

Introduction

Root canal shaping is considered an essential step in endodontic treatment. 1 According to Schilder,2 the preferred shape of the canal after mechanical shaping is a tapering funnel following the original shape and curvature of the canal, while keeping the original position of the foramen, and keepC... ing it as small as practically possible. TraditionC... ally, stainless steel instruments have been used to achieve these objectives.

The classic method of using stainless steel instruC... ments to shape the canal from the apical end to the coronal part does not achieve Schilder's mechanical objectives of root canal shaping in curved canals and can cause iatrogenic damC... age to the original shape of the canal 3 such as straightening a curved canal, transportation, zipC... ping, ledging, and root perforations. 4,5

Stainless steel instruments' stiffness is considered the main cause of these procedural errors. 6 The introduction of nickel--titanium (NiTi) instruments to the endodontic field has revolutionized endC...odontic treatment, reducing operator fatigue and treatment time and minimizing errors associated with the use of stainless steel instruments.1 ProTaper Universal rotary files (Dentsply MailleC... fer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), which constitute a common NiTi rotary system, have a convex trianC... gular crossC...sectional design and progressive taper that allows efficient movement and cutting ability to flare the canal more coronally. 7 ProTaC... per Universal rotary files are made from a conventional superelastic NiTi wire. In previous studC... ies, the ProTaper Universal system showed more cracks than other rotary NiTi instruments. 8,9 Recently, several brands of NiTi instruments have been marketed to simplify root canal shaping.

ProTaper Next (Dentsply Maillefer) is one of these brands with an offC...center rectangular design and progressive and regressive percentC... age tapers on a single file, which is made from MC...Wire technology. The offC...center rectangular design of ProTaper Next minimizes contact beC... tween the instrument and the dentin, which leads to decreased withdrawal of the instrument from the canal and reduces the risk of taper lock. 10 The novel WaveOne NiTi singleC...file system (Dentsply Maillefer) is another example of new brands offered in 2011. This system is intended for use with a special reciprocating file motion. It is composed of three singleC...use files: Small (ISO 21 tip and 0.06 taper) for fine canals, primary (ISO 25 tip and 0.08 taper) for most canals, and large (ISO 40 and 0.08 tapers) for large canals.

Files are manufactured by grinding MC...Wire NiTi alloy. Endodontic instruments made of MC...Wire are predicted to have higher strength, with wear resistance resembling conventional superelastic NiTi instruments because of MC...Wire's unique nanocrystalline martensitic microstructure. 12 Recent improvements in NiTi systems have reduced the number of machining defects; Twisted Files (TF) (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA), whose use involves twisting a file blank, represent an example of these improvements. 13 TF are made by transforming basic austenite NiTi wire into the RC...phase through thermal processing through a series of heating and cooling cycles after achieving the required twisted shape. When RC...phase wire returns to the austenite crystalline structure, it becomes superelastic when stressed. 14

The aim of this study was to compare the shaping time and shaping ability of the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and TF NiTi systems.

Materials and methods

Simulated canals

This study was conducted using simulated root canals (n = 40) fabricated with clear resin blocks (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). The taper of the canals was 2, and they were 17 mm long (a straight coronal section of 12 mm and a curved apical section of 5 mm). The size of the canal equaled ISO file size 15#, and the curvature of the simulated root canals was 40A, based on the Schneider method of measurC... ing curvature. 15

Photographic procedures

To provide standardized photographs of each caC... nal, a special mold was used to position the camera (Nikon D3200, Nikon, Inc.) precisely. To improve the color contrast of photos, all canals were injected with black ink before instrumentation. In a standardized manner, a series of photographs of each canal was saved to a computer using a set protocol. The canals were reinjected using red ink postoperatively to define their outlines, and images were taken in the same standardized manner. To reduce the margin of error, all photographs were taken by the same opC... erator.

Instrumentation

The specimens were divided into four experimental groups (n = 10 each).

* Group 1 was prepared using the ProTaper Universal system according to manufacturer reference guide to F2 instrument (size 25, taper 8% over the first 3 mm from apical tip) file, the instrument replaced afC... ter preparing three canals

* Group 2 was prepared using the ProTaper Next sysC... tem according to manufacturer reference guide to Eu 2 (size 25, taper 6% over the first 3 mm from apical tip) file, the instrument replaced after preparing three canals

* Group 3 was prepared using the WaveOne system according to manufacturer reference guide, the caC... nals prepared by primary single file instrument (size 25, taper 8% over the first 3 mm from apical tip)

* Group 4 was prepared using the TF system according to manufacturer instructions, the canals preC... pared until TF instrument (size 25, taper 6% conC... stant taper), the instrument replaced after prepare three canals

* All simulated canals were prepared by the same operator, who had more than 5 years' experience in root canal therapy.

Assessment of root canal preparation

The time taken to prepare each canal was recorded including active instrumentation, instrument changC... es, and irrigation.

Shaping efficiency was evaluated by measuring the amount of material lost at various levels (1 mm [D1], 2mm[D2],3mm[D3],5mm[D5],and7mm[D7]) from the apical foramen of the root canal. Photoshop (Adobe Systems, San Jose, CA, USA) was used to superimpose preC... and postC...instrumentation imC... ages in two different layers. Each 1 mm step was measured using ImageJ Software (National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA) and evaluated as follows:

D (difference) = Do (outer resin removed) -- Di (inner resin removed).

A positive value indicated the prevalence of outer resin removal, and a negative result indicated the prevalence of inner resin removal. The closer the value was to zero, the more balanced was the prepC... aration.

Statistical analyses

Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software (version 20; SPSS, Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). To evaluate the results, oneC...way ANOVA and BonferC... roni post hoc tests were used. Statistical significance wassetatP TF > ProTaper Next > WaveOne.

Table 1 and Figure 1 show the preparation times of each NiTi system.

Canal transportation evaluation

There were significant differences (P 0.05) in canal transporC... tation among ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne. At D2, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in canal transportation between ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Next. In addition, canal transportation with ProTaper Next was lower than that with WaveOne at D2 and D3, and canal transportation with ProTaper Universal was less than that with WaveOne at D2 and D3. Furthermore, absolute values of canal transportation with ProTaper Universal and WaveOne were lower than transportation values for ProTaper Next at D5 and D7.

Table 2 shows means and standard deviation of transportation (in mm) at different apical levels.

Figure 2 shows the differences in canal transportation according to NiTi system.

Evaluation of canal transportation direction

There were significant differences (P

The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of several NiTi systems (ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, WaveOne, and TF) in simulated canals. The use of simulated canals in this study allowed standardization of canal shaping evaluation 16, 17 and root canal morphology. 18, 19 The canals also supplied the same hardness and abrasion characteristics every time. 20

PreC... and postC...instrumentation studies indicate that the analysis of root canal outlines provides a standardized study design and extremely reproducible conditions. 17, 21

In our study, there was a significant difference in preparation time among NiTi systems, where the longest time was required for the ProTaper UniverC... sal, and the shortest for the WaveOne system. This is logical because the procedure with the ProTaper Universal required four instruments, whereas the WaveOne system is a singleC...file system, and the use of a singleC...file NiTi system with reciprocating moC... tion reduces the time of preparation in curved root canals. 17, 21

The results show that the TF rotary system caused more canal transportation than did the other NiTi systems in this study (ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne).

This is consistent with the results of one other study; 22 however, in other studies, TF produced less canal transportation than did ProTaper Universal.[23,20] A recent study revealed that ProTaper and TF rotary systems could shape curved canals safely and preC... serve the original canal in a satisfactory way without any significant difference in shaping ability and canal transportation between them. 24

TF instruments have a triangular cross section with a constant taper. While nonlanded, groundC...fluted instruments with aggressive cutting action have more difficulty negotiating a curvature and increase the risk of ledging or transportation, 25 the differencC... es between this study and other studies may result from differences in assessment methods and the equipment used.

The reciprocating motion with WaveOne prevents instrument engagement, and that may enhance the safety of singleC...file systems in curved canals.26 However, it is clear that instrumentation with singleC...file systems is faster. 27 Furthermore, reciprocating motion facilitates centered instrumentation more than a continuous rotating motion does, as aggressive continuous rotating motion tends toward the external wall of the canal, especially in the apical third. 28 Comparisons of singleC...file technique systems with the ProTaper NiTi system (continuous rotating moC... tion) have yielded conflicting results. Berutti et al. 17 reported that the WaveOne system facilitated cenC... tering preparation better than the ProTaper system did, whereas Bu[THORN]erklein et al. 29 found no significant difference between the singleC...file technique and a full NiTi file sequence technique.

The shaping ability of NiTi instruments is a multifacC... torial phenomenon that is related to the method of manufacture, 30 microstructure of the alloy, taper, crossC...sectional design, type of movement, and sysC... tem composition.

The microstructure of NiTi wire has three phases: Austenite, martensite, and the RC...phase.

The strong, hard quality of NiTi alloy is present in the austenite phase, and the flexible and ductile quality are present in the martensite phase.[31] The progressive tapers and sharp cutting edges of ProTaper instruments are responsible for canal transportation toward the outside wall of the canal. 32

A microcomputed tomographic threeC...dimensional [3D] analysis is a recent advance for evaluating root canal instrumentation. 33

It has recently been suggested that microcomputed tomographic 3D analysis provides clearer distincC... tions than photographic measurements do. However, evaluation of root canal instrumentation requires further studies on natural teeth to achieve accurate results. Within the limitations of the present study, the ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne systems preserved the original curvature of the canal better than the TF system did.

Conclusion

The results of this study revealed that ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne preserved the original curvature of the canal better than the TF system did, with transportation toward the outside wall of the canal. ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and WaveOne produced satisfactory root canal instrumentation. Further studies on extracted teeth with 3D analysis are needed to obtain accurate results.

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Publication:Dental News
Article Type:Report
Date:May 31, 2017
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