Comparison of the effect of two selected resistance training patterns on some physical and physiological factors of elite freestyle wrestler young boys.
Wrestling is a heavy and severe activity due to certain physical and physiological needs such as anaerobic (power, strength, speed, lactate tolerance, and anaerobic stamina) and it is a power-speed exercise that doing resistance training is necessary to improve the performance of the athlete. Although wrestling competitions are carried out at different weights, a more successful wrestling is the more powerful of the endurance to carry out repetitive techniques and tolerance of fatigue. High levels of muscular strength are needed to implement high-level techniques and skills. Hence, the design of a suitable program is the main factor in the success of strength training, at each level of readiness and consistency. Based on the results of studies, the genetic backgrounds such as age, sex, other and factors are mediators of the response to the exercise protocol of muscle hypertrophy. In fact, the amount of free fat is affected by these factors. In addition, an increase in muscle mass can be gradually improved by increasing exercise experience. However, relatively few studies have examined muscular adaptation in response to different rates of fecundity. 
Although to increase the maximum power, it is recommended to perform maximum load times; it seems that how to use maximal loads in macrocycle, microcycle, mesocycle, and even in the training session from one time to the next, and it is important to create the optimal training stimulus. In general, it has been accepted that multiple exercises to increase muscle strength and muscle hypertrophy, due to the greater volume of resistance training, are superior to the one-time practice method. On the other hand, the use of the foliar pattern with a gradual increase of load from one turn to the next, using the number of repetitions in lower load times, increases the time under the stress of muscle. 
Furthermore, based on the results of the studies, the greatest increase in muscle strength and muscle mass is achieved when the maximum unit is used. In the initial stages of resistance training, there is almost no muscle hypertrophy, and often, the improvement of strength at this stage is related to neural adaptation. However, a few months after the exercise, the muscle begins to increase due to hypertrophy, and it becomes the dominant factor for improving the strength. It is clear that a strength training program will improve the strength of each unit of the cross-sectional area of the muscle. In fact, increased muscle strength in subjects practice may be due to adaptation in muscle hypertrophy. 
The key to an effective workout program is the choice of enough movements. Often it's a difficult task to determine the right number of movements, and some coaches choose more exercises to strengthen muscle groups. The consequence of this work is a very tedious plan. The most important factor in designing a resistance training program is to focus on the variables of the resistance training program, such as the practice type, the number of sets, the choice of resistance, the number of repetitions, or the rest between the training sessions. Various programs can be designed for people with different readiness. Furthermore, according to the results of studies, the greatest increase in muscle strength and muscle volume occurs when the maximum unit of motion is used. Some coaches are advocating the use of different loads instead of using constant loads. Studies that have examined different methods of resistance training by varying the intensity of exercise at each turn have reported similar increases in muscle strength. In the research, comparing two models of the flat pyramid and peripheral pyramid in soccer players did not show significant differences in power, muscle strength, and volume. According to performed reports, 97% of fitness coaches use multiple duty exercise methods to increase power. Salman et al. (2016) in their study stated that both training methods (simple pyramid and flat pyramid) increased strength and increased muscle mass in the subject,  and Yaghoub et al. (2012) also pointed out in their research on young wrestlers that two different dual pyramidal resistance training programs and reverse stairs had the same results in maximizing muscle strength and muscle mass, but to increase muscular endurance, the inverse stepwise foliation pattern was more suitable for dual pyramidal fecundity to increase the strength of the legs.  On the other hand, Hosseini et al. (2014) suggested that two different exercises of resistance training create similar results in increasing strength, endurance, muscle volume, and anaerobic power in young wrestlers.  Given the importance of maximum power, the endurance of anaerobic power and power in the good performance of elite adult free-rider wrestlers and the lack of consistency of studies conducted to determine the best method of rheumatology, as well as the extension of the use of practice protocols to increase strength and muscle mass study about this field is indispensable. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to compare the effect of selected resistance training patterns on some physical and physiological factors of elite freestyle wrestler's young boy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The present study was a semi-experimental design with preand post-test design in three experimental dual pyramidal groups (10 people), diagonal pyramid (10), and control group (10 people). After completing the consent, the subjects participated in the research and medical information questionnaire in this study. All subjects had no illness or complications at the beginning of the research and had no history of smoking, alcohol, medication, and injuries. Subjects were asked to maintain their daily activities and diet during the study. The day before the beginning of the test, the subjects became familiar with how they were performed and measurements of height and weight, fat percentage, repeatability, anaerobic power, and muscle mass were performed. The exercise is done in the evening to avoid the effects of boarding rhythm on the variables studied from the subjects. Before starting the measurements, all subjects participated in a training exercise for 1 week to get familiar with the training equipment and to teach the correct techniques of movement. The power of the subjects in two movements of the half squat and bending of the arm were evaluated using the 1RM test in the manner as described by McQuaygan et al. (2008).  The lower muscle strength of the subjects was evaluated using the Vertical Jump Test Sargent Jump Test (true) by Braun and Weir Method. After initial heating, each subject performed three jump tests, and the fourth jump was considered as the main jump. Using the vertical jump height and the equations provided by Harman et al. (1991), the maximum power and average power were calculated.  Muscle mass was calculated using the anthropometric method for hip muscles (quadriceps and hamstrings), according to Intelligence et al. (1995), and for muscle of the arm area according to the method described by Friesenko et al. (1974). 
Equations used to estimate the cross-sectional area of the muscle complex are as follows: 
Hamstring transverse cross-sectional area (1.08xhalf the circumference of the thigh by millimeters)-(64xthe thickness of the skin of the skin in the anterior thigh region to millimeters) - 22.69
Total cross-sectional thickness of the thigh muscle (4.68xhalf the circumference of the thigh to millimeters)-(2.09xthe thickness of the skin of the skin in the anterior thigh region to millimeters) - 80.99
Quadriceps transverse cross-sectional area (2.52xhalf the circumference of the thigh by millimeters)-(1.25xthe thickness of the skin of the skin in the anterior thigh region to millimeters) - 45.13.
Equations used to estimate arm size are as follows: 
Arm diameter (mm): [Arm circumference (mm)/TT]-[(mm) Thickness of the skin of the triceps]
Arm muscle area (mm): [Arm circumference (mm) TT]x[Thickness of the skin of the triceps (mm)]
Arm muscle arm [m.sup.2]m): [TT/4x] [Arm diameter [(mm).sup.2]]
The maximum power of the subjects was measured using the 1RM test by McGuigan et al. (1997). Hence, before the test and after general heating, 5 repetitions with 30% (2 min rest), 4 repetitions with 50% (2 min rest), 3 repetitions with 70% (3 min. rest), and one repetition with 90% (3 min of rest) ) were done to warm up. After the last run with 90% oflRM, the load in the next turn with the feedback of the subjects based on the displaced weight was added to get 1RM (2.5-10 kg after each successful attempt). To obtain 1RM, after the determination of 90% of the 1RM, three test steps were taken, and each resting effort was considered to be 4 min.  After identifying 1RM subjects, 60% of their 1RM was calculated individually in each move individually, and they were asked to perform a maximum repeat with that calculated weight (from 60% of 1RM). About the speed of movement, the subjects were told that the move went on for a second and lasted for 2 s on the back or up. In the end, the number of repetitions performed is considered as the muscular endurance of the muscle. In the strength training program, after initial measurements, the subjects were trained for 12 weeks using two selective foliar patterns. Two training sessions for subjects were designed. The first group uses a dual pyramid program, 80%/4, 85%/3, 90%/2, 95%/1, 95%/1, 90%/2, 85%/3, 80%/4 [Figure 1]. Which performed 4 repetitions with 80% (1RM) in the first turn, and after this stage, the exercise load was progressively increased. At each stage, 5% was added to the workload to reach a load of 95%. At this stage, the fruiting was reduced and the number of replicates went up to the initial stage, 80% with 4 replicates. Totally, each muscle was trained 12 times in the dual pyramidal training pattern. The second group practised using a diagonal pyramidal program 80.5%, 95.2%, 90.2%, 85.4%, and 80.5%. At that time, the exercise load, after performing one turn with 80% of 1RM in the next 3 consecutive times, increased by 5% at each turn, and when the load reached 95% of the 1RM in the fourth turn, one time with 80% of 1RM was running. After each turn, the subjects were resting for 3-4 min [Figure 2]. Figure 1 shows a screenshot of the two applied patterns.
The subjects performed 12 sessions a week and 3 sessions in synchronization during the 6 (th) movement (chest, lumbar, arm, leg press, back, thigh, and forehead), respectively.  All the active muscles in these movements were practised in each session. In each training session, the researcher monitored the subjects. Every 1 week, 1RM test was taken from subjects. Depending on the amount of displacement, the new program was given to the subjects to comply with the overdraft principle. To compare physical and physiological changes after 12 weeks of strength training, data were first analyzed for Kolmogorov--Smirnov (K-S) for determining normality. For inferential statistics, Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) test was used with Sidak post-hoc test. All operations and statistical analysis were analyzed by SPSS software version 21 and also considered in this study (P < 0.05).
After collecting data, the results of the normal distribution of data were analyzed by K-S test, all of which were normal data (P > 0.05). Therefore, MANCOVA analysis was used for analyzing inferential statistics which pre-test values were used as covariance variable, and after the significance of this test, Shidak post-test was used as a complementary test for two by two comparisons. The findings of this study showed that the strength and endurance of the upper and lower extremity muscles, as well as the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps and muscle diameter in both training groups, showed a significant difference compared to the control group (P < 0.05). However, the value of Sergeant height jump and the absolute and relative power peaks was only significant in the group that had the pyramid diagonal program compared to the other two groups (P < 0.05). In contrast, body fat percentage was significantly higher in the dual pyramidal group than in the other two groups (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the amount of arm circumference and total muscle area in the dual pyramid group was significantly different from the control group (P < 0.05), but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05) in comparison to the diagonal pyramidal training group (P > 0.05). Other research variables did not show any significant difference compared to other research groups [Table 1].
The results of this test showed that the strength and endurance of upper and lower extremity muscles, as well as the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps and muscle diameter in both training groups, showed a significant difference compared to the control group. These findings suggest that both of these exercise programs have had a positive effect on improving the functional levels of these variables and have improved these physical fitness factors.
Findings of the study on the strength, endurance, and muscle mass of the upper and lower limbs, with the results of research by Campos et al. (2002)  and Brandenburg et al. (2006),  but not consistent with the results of the study by Campos et al. (2002) and Baird et al. (2005). In the field of muscle strength, the results of the study were compared with the results of Hakkinen and Komi (1985),  Rutherford et al. (1986),  McGuinness et al. (2008),  and Salman et al. (2016).  Regarding the body mass index and fat percentage, the results of the non-matching with the results of researches by Yaghoub et al. (2012),  Hosseini et al. (2014),  Brad (2010),  and Brid et al. (2009)  are consistent.
According to the presuppose of the research, the diagonal pyramidal foliar pattern (SPLP) did not increase muscle strength in comparison with the dual pyramidal pattern despite the incremental increase in load at each turn. Given the fact that the training volume in both training programs was almost identical, such an outcome was not far off expectation. It has been reported that using of maximal loads and low repetitions, by calling the fast-moving motor units and exerting pressure on the muscular nervous system, and by changing the nervous activity of the muscle, increase muscle strength. Therefore, it seems that the use of the same mechanism for stimulating the nervous system of the muscle causes the same initial neuromuscular adaptations by two different protocols. Of course, 6 weeks of initial resistance training, in the hypertrophy stage, may partially affect the power increase by two different protocols.
Kraimer et al. (2004) suggested that the subjects at the level of practice may have different adaptations in response to resistance training. They reported an increase of 40% in inflammatory subjects and an increase of 2% in elite practice subjects. Considering the use of maximum loads in both exercise programs, it seems that a similar method has been used to stimulate neuromuscular devices and recall motor units. 
Plutz et al. (1994) reported that the use of maximum loads to increase power triggers the use of special motor units (high-threshold motor units) that cannot be achieved with light-to-moderate loads. Some coaches tend to use different loads instead of using constant loads. Increasing muscle endurance of trained groups than the control group is another result that was obtained from this study. Studies have shown that resistance training can be effective on muscular endurance, and the higher the frequency and the lower the frequency, the more effective the muscular endurance.  Other results of the study showed that the amount of arm circumference and total muscle area in the dual pyramidal group was significantly different from that of the control group, but the difference was not significant between the participants in the diagonal pyramidal training program. This phenomenon also shows that dual pyramidal training programs may have more effects on physical inactivity but may not have much benefit and benefit from having diagonal pyramidal training programs. On the other hand, muscle tiredness can cause a rapid recall of fast contractions, the consequence of which in this pattern of fetal development, rather than increased power, has been increased muscle mass. The results of this study, in accordance with other findings, showed a significant increase in muscle and muscle mass in the two groups after mid-term strength training (12 weeks).
Campus et al. (2002) reported that after 8 weeks of resistance training on untrained men, after training, muscle volume was higher in the group with a low and moderate repetition.  Bird et al. (2005) showed that low volume and high-intensity programs produce significant increases in muscle volume compared to high volume and low-intensity programs. Contrary to the initial claim, the dual pyramid pattern is said to have more effect on muscle mass. 
According to the studies, the use of moderate-to-heavy loads, moderate-to-high repetitions, multiple turns for each movement, and the execution of several moves per session are generally considered as high-profile programs, which are special training exercises, training programs for muscle mass. Salman et al. (2016) concluded that both methods of training (simple pyramid and flat pyramid) increased strength and muscle mass in subjects. It can be suggested to use these types of training methods, especially simple pyramid training, to gain a better result in increasing hypertrophy and muscle strength, instructors or athletes. Another result of the research showed that the amount of jump in sergeant height and absolute peak power relative to the one in the group that had the pyramid diagonal program was significant compared to the other two groups. In contrast, however, the percentage of body fat was significant only in the dual pyramidal group compared to the other two groups, which also indicates that diagonal pyramidal training programs may be more effective than double pyramidal exercise programs to improve their power; however, dual pyramidal training programs can play a more effective role in changing body composition and lowering body fat. While the authors reported 21% increase in vertical jump height using explosive power exercises percentages. Furthermore, Rutherford et al. (1986) did not show a significant change in maximum power output after 12 weeks of isokinetic resistance training with maximum loads.  Hakkinen and Komi (1985) observed only 7% increase in vertical jump height after 24 weeks of training using maximum loads.  Most likely, due to the higher vertical jump height in the flat pyramidal group, a relatively greater increase in muscle strength was observed in this group. Such a finding is in accordance with other findings, the maximum power utilization using maximum loads and slow contraction velocity to increase the vertical and vertical jump height. Mirzaei et al. (2012) stated that the results of this study showed that the use of maximum loads in multiple turns of maximum resistance training did not have a significant effect on the desired increase in strength, power, and hypertrophy.  In general, we conclude that it might be possible to have more effectiveness to improve the power of diagonal pyramidal training programs and to improve body composition and lower body fat percentages, although more research is needed to validate these findings.
The strengths of the research are that given the fact that in both exercise programs, the maximum loads were used, so it seems that a similar method was used to stimulate neuromuscular devices and the recall of motor units, and that to improve the power, programs diagonal pyramidal training may have a greater impact than a dual pyramidal exercise program, while dual pyramidal training programs may play a more effective role in altering body composition and reducing body fat percentages. Moreover, the research limitations were adequate diet and rest time after exercise.
In general, we conclude that it might be possible to have more effectiveness to improve the power of diagonal pyramidal training programs and to improve body composition and lower body fat percentages, although more research is needed to validate these findings.
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Mohammad Mohammadi (1), Hjjatollah Siavoshy (2), Seyyed Gholam Hossein Rahimi (1)
(1) Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Malayer University, Malayer, Iran, (2) Ph.D. Student of Sport Physiology, Department of Exercise Physiology, Sports Medicine Research Center, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Tehran, Iran
Correspondence to: Mohammad Mohammadi, E-mail: M.firstname.lastname@example.org
Received: October 13, 2017; Accepted: November 08, 2017
Table 1: Results and findings of variables used in the research (data as mean[+ or -]standard deviation) Variable Group [dagger][dagger] SPLP DPLP Control Body weight (kg) Control 0.969 0.309 - DPLP 0.493 - 0.309 SPLP - 0.493 0.969 Body mass index (kg/[m.sup.2] Control 0.891 0.162 - DPLP 0.436 - 0.162 SPLP - 0.436 0.891 Strength of upper muscles of the body (kg) Control <0.001 <0.001 - DPLP 0.189 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.189 <0.001 Strength of the lower muscles of the body (kg) Control <0.001 <0.001 - DPLP 0.15 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.15 <0.001 Upper muscles endurance (number) Control <0.001 <0.001 - DPLP 0.082 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.082 <0.001 Endurance of the lower muscles of the body (number) Control <0.001 <0.001 - DPLP 0.256 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.256 <0.001 Jump height (cm) Control <0.001 0.263 - DPLP <0.001 - 0.263 SPLP - <0.001 <0.001 Body fat percentage (%) Control 0.768 0.041 - DPLP 0.01 - 0.041 SPLP - 0.010 0.768 Peak of absolute power (watts) Control <0.001 0.24 - DPLP <0.001 - 0.24 SPLP - <0.001 <0.001 Absolute average power (watts) Control 0.074 0.965 - DPLP 0.118 - 0.965 SPLP - 0.118 0.074 Relative peak power (watts per kilogram) Control <0.001 0.09 - DPLP <0.001 - 0.09 SPLP - <0.001 <0.001 Relative average power (watts per kilogram) Control 0.088 0.973 - DPLP 0.149 - 0.973 SPLP - 0.149 0.088 Cross-sectional area of hamstring muscle (square millimeter) Control 0.957 0.199 - DPLP 0.394 - 0.199 SPLP - 0.394 0.957 Thickness of cross-section of total hip [mm.sup.2] Control 0.979 0.196 - DPLP 0.299 - 0.196 SPLP - 0.299 0.979 Cross-section of quadriceps [mm.sup.2] Control 0.013 0.006 - DPLP 0.995 - 0.006 SPLP - 0.995 0.013 Arm muscle Length (mm) Control 0.014 <0.001 - DPLP 0.166 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.166 0.014 Arm muscle circumference (mm) Control 0.212 0.015 - DPLP 0.377 - 0.015 SPLP - 0.377 0.212 Total cross-sectional area of the muscle of the arm [mm.sup.2] Control 0.071 <0.001 - DPLP 0.133 - <0.001 SPLP - 0.133 0.071 Variable Percent Post-test change [dagger] Body weight (kg) Control 0.77[+ or -]0.42 92.10[+ or -]15.11 DPLP 2.94[+ or -]4.01 84.30[+ or -]8.20 SPLP 1.44[+ or -]0.74 85.50[+ or -]6.8 Body mass index (kg/[m.sup.2] Control 0.77[+ or -]0.42 28.50[+ or -]4.9 DPLP 2.4[+ or -]4.1 27.24[+ or -]2.4 SPLP 1.44[+ or -]0.74 26.69[+ or -]1.7 Strength of upper muscles of the body (kg) Control 2.27[+ or -]2.94 9[+ or -]95 DPLP 13.16[+ or -]4.64 9[+ or -]101 SPLP 15.77[+ or -]4.19 8[+ or -]106 Strength of the lower muscles of the body (kg) Control 3.30[+ or -]2.33 14[+ or -]117 DPLP 17.1[+ or -]5.24 11[+ or -]120 SPLP 18.29[+ or -]5.42 9[+ or -]128 Upper muscles endurance (number) Control 5.3[+ or -]4.46 2[+ or -]24 DPLP 32.33[+ or -]9.21 3[+ or -]30 SPLP 27.87[+ or -]9.53 1[+ or -]27 Endurance of the lower muscles of the body (number) Control 7.2[+ or -]3.18 3[+ or -]27 DPLP 34.66[+ or -]10.68 2[+ or -]37 SPLP 31.96[+ or -]7.65 3[+ or -]34 Jump height (cm) Control 4.75[+ or -]4.88 37.5[+ or -]3.55 DPLP 20.90[+ or -]8.56 14.38[+ or -]18.70 SPLP 23.67[+ or -]8.89 41.5[+ or -]2.83 Body fat percentage (%) Control 0.07[+ or -]10.94 12.35[+ or -]2.1 DPLP -10.66[+ or -]8.55 12.23[+ or -]1.46 SPLP 4.98[+ or -]2.43 12.12[+ or -]1.47 Peak of absolute power (watts) Control 8.32[+ or -]9.37 16.75[+ or -]25.88 DPLP 20.90[+ or -]8.56 14.38[+ or -]18.70 SPLP 42.34[+ or -]15.97 17.43[+ or -]16.98 Absolute average power (watts) Control 20.86[+ or -]46.87 56.24[+ or -]11.3 DPLP -41.7[+ or -]13.62 12.12[+ or -]99.9 SPLP -69.54[+ or -]13.88 240.80[+ or -]340.43 Relative peak power (watts per kilogram) Control 7.49[+ or -]8.43 16.68[+ or -]2.44 DPLP 57.17[+ or -]9.65 17.75[+ or -]3.42 SPLP 40.37[+ or -]16.20 20.10[+ or -]3.32 Relative average power (watts per kilogram) Control 19.95[+ or -]45.86 0.46[+ or -]1.43 DPLP -402.84[+ or -]134.6 0.19[+ or -]1.9 SPLP -69.15[+ or -]14.76 2.99[+ or -]5.65 Cross-sectional area of hamstring muscle (square millimeter) Control 0.78[+ or -]0.9 52.68[+ or -]7080 DPLP 12.5[+ or -]7.49 17.75[+ or -]3.42 SPLP 17.75[+ or -]3.42 48.38[+ or -]79.43 Thickness of cross-section of total hip [mm.sup.2] Control 0.45[+ or -]0.42 20.50[+ or -]7.9 DPLP 4.4[+ or -]4.02 23.24[+ or -]2.58 SPLP 1.44[+ or -]0.12 26.69[+ or -]1.54 Cross-section of quadriceps [mm.sup.2] Control -4.20[+ or -]15.55 12.12[+ or -]99.9 DPLP 4.98[+ or -]2.43 12.12[+ or -]1.47 SPLP 10.49[+ or -]5.55 2.99[+ or -]5.65 Arm muscle Length (mm) Control -0.49[+ or -]5.80 37.38[+ or -]20.69 DPLP 2.94[+ or -]4.01 84.30[+ or -]8.20 SPLP 42.34[+ or -]15.97 17.43[+ or -]16.98 Arm muscle circumference (mm) Control 24.18[+ or -]66.75 120.64[+ or -]68.88 DPLP 15.85[+ or -]7.49 2113.78[+ or -]12.76 SPLP 10.95[+ or -]4.51 199.54[+ or -]17.84 Total cross-sectional area of the muscle of the arm [mm.sup.2] Control -0.17[+ or -]17.60 1447.94[+ or -]45.9843 DPLP 34.74[+ or -]17.50 3779.65[+ or -]17.7687 SPLP 22.99[+ or -]9.77 5431.61[+ or -]17.7645 Variable Pretest Effect size [double dagger] Body weight (kg) Control 91.40[+ or -]14.98 0.103 DPLP 81.98[+ or -]8.48 SPLP 84.31[+ or -]7.12 Body mass index (kg/[m.sup.2] Control 28.28[+ or -]4.4 0.14 DPLP 26.45[+ or -]1.53 SPLP 31.26[+ or -]1.13 Strength of upper muscles of the body (kg) Control 10[+ or -]93 0.713 DPLP 10[+ or -]89 SPLP 5[+ or -]92 Strength of the lower muscles of the body (kg) Control 15[+ or -]113 0.786 DPLP 13[+ or -]103 SPLP 9[+ or -]108 Upper muscles endurance (number) Control 2[+ or -]23 0.767 DPLP 3[+ or -]23 SPLP 1[+ or -]23 Endurance of the lower muscles of the body (number) Control 3[+ or -]26 0.776 DPLP 1[+ or -]27 SPLP 2[+ or -]26 Jump height (cm) Control 35.96[+ or -]4.16 0.646 DPLP 12.29[+ or -]1.40 SPLP 33.65[+ or -]1.77 Body fat percentage (%) Control 12.35[+ or -]1.39 0.304 DPLP 13.77[+ or -]1.32 SPLP 11.56[+ or -]1.52 Peak of absolute power (watts) Control 14.37[+ or -]27.93 0.613 DPLP 12.29[+ or -]1.40 SPLP 12.75[+ or -]1.33 Absolute average power (watts) Control 20.2[+ or -]123.5 0.211 DPLP -63.88[+ or -]84.21 SPLP -75.38[+ or -]13.54 Relative peak power (watts per kilogram) Control 15.69[+ or -]3.32 0.681 DPLP 15.31[+ or -]3.34 SPLP 14.43[+ or -]1.88 Relative average power (watts per kilogram) Control 0.07[+ or -]1.59 0.196 DPLP -0.73[+ or -]1,44 SPLP -0.98[+ or -]0.37 Cross-sectional area of hamstring muscle (square millimeter) Control 52.51[+ or -]68.64 0.135 DPLP 15.31[+ or -]3.34 SPLP 44.33[+ or -]75.15 Thickness of cross-section of total hip [mm.sup.2] Control 21.54[+ or -]4.49 0.14 DPLP 28.45[+ or -]1.32 SPLP 31.26[+ or -]1.12 Cross-section of quadriceps [mm.sup.2] Control -63.88[+ or -]84.21 0.349 DPLP 11.56[+ or -]1.52 SPLP -0.98[+ or -]0.37 Arm muscle Length (mm) Control 38.60[+ or -]20.44 0.463 DPLP 81.98[+ or -]8.48 SPLP 12.75[+ or -]1.33 Arm muscle circumference (mm) Control 111.39[+ or -]18.98 0.267 DPLP 184.70[+ or -]40.55 SPLP 180.29[+ or -]20.51 Total cross-sectional area of the muscle of the arm [mm.sup.2] Control 1447.54[+ or -]76.8742 0.408 DPLP 2879.32[+ or -]23.7532 SPLP 3531.19[+ or -]34.8742 DPLP: Dual pyramid program, SPLP: Diagonal pyramid, MANCOVA: Multivariate covariance. [dagger] Post-test values minus pre-test values divided by pre-test values multiplied by; [dagger][dagger] The results were analyzed using MANCOVA analysis with pre-synonym variables as covariance (P[less than or equal to]0.05); [double dagger] The effect of dependent variable (measured variables) on the independent variable (assignment of research groups)
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|Title Annotation:||RESEARCH ARTICLE|
|Author:||Mohammadi, Mohammad; Siavoshy, Hjjatollah; Rahimi, Seyyed Gholam Hossein|
|Publication:||National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology|
|Date:||Feb 1, 2018|
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