Printer Friendly

Comparison of direct seeded and transplanted rice in response to zinc under salt-affected soil.

Rice is a grain crop for feeding more than half of the world population (Fageria et al., 2008). Surface and underground water resources are decreasing and water has become a serious factor in rice cultivation (Farooq et al., 2009). Presently a shift from transplanted rice (TRR) to direct seeded rice (DSR) is in practice and TPR to DSR cultivation has been seen in many countries of Southeast Asia (Pandey and Velasco, 2002). In Asia, dry seeding is mostly adopted in rainfed lowlands, uplands, and flood-prone areas, while wet seeding is a common practice in irrigated areas (Azmi et al., 2005; de Dios et al., 2005). The transplanted rice leads to higher loss of water through puddling, surface evaporation and percolation (Farooq et al., 2011). After nitrogen, zinc is the most yield-affecting nutrient especially in rice. Therefore, this experiment was conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute farm, Pindi Bhattian to investigate the effect of different levels of Zn (0, 5, 10, 15 kg/ha) as ZnS[O.sub.4] on growth and yield of direct seeded and transplanted rice (Oryza sativa Cv. Super Basmati) under naturally salt-affected soil having pH=8.32; ECe=6.41 d/S m; SAR=26.71 [([mmol.sub.c]/L).sup.1/2] at the farm of Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian during 2013. Randomised complete block design was applied with three replications. Direct seeded rice sowing was done in 2nd week of June and transplanting was done in 2nd week of July. Treatment application was done at the time of crop sowing. Agronomic data were collected at maturity. Collected data were statistically analysed using LSD at 5% probability level (Steel and Torrie, 1997).

Plant height, number of tillers/plant, spike length and number of grains/spike showed significant results in direct seeded rice with the application of zinc at different levels under salt affected soil but the values of growth parameters in transplanted rice with application of Zn were lower than direct seeded rice (Table 1). Highest plant height was attained with the application of 15 kg Zn/ha (101.3cm) followed by 10 kg Zn/ha (97.7cm). 15 kg Zn/ha got the highest position in number of 0 kg Zn/ha tillers/plant (11.7) followed by 10 kg Zn/ha and 5 kg Zn/ha attaining 11.3 and 11.0, respectively. Spike length of direct seeded rice had gained highest rank in 15 kg Zn/ha (28.3cm). 10 kg Zn/ha and 5 kg Zn/ha gave the statistical similar spike length. Highest number of grains/spike was attained by the addition of 15 kg Zn/ha (98.3) followed by 10 kg Zn/ha (94.7). Transplanted rice showed significant results in plant height and number of grains/spike while number of tillers/plant and spike length attained non significant findings with the treatment of different zinc levels under salt affected soil (Table 1). 15 kg Zn/ha, 10 kg Zn/ha and 5kg Zn/ha attained statistically similar results in plant height under salt stress conditions. Number of tillers/plant was the highest in 15 kg Zn/ha (8.3) while other zinc doses are approximately equal with 0 Kg Zn/ha. Number of grains/spike was the highest in 15 kg Zn/ha (82.7) which was statistically at par with 10 kg Zn/ha (82.3) followed by 5 kg Zn/ha. Plant height, number of tillers/plant, spike length and number of grains/spike was gained better values than 0 kg Zn/ha. Excess soluble salts ([Cl.sup.-] and S[O.sub.4.sup.2-] of [Na.sup.+], [Ca.sup.2+] and [Mg.sup.2+]) in saline soils cause high osmotic pressure and complex interactions of Na, Ca, K and other micronutrients such as Zn which disturb equilibrium in rhizosphere and plant growth. Imbalanced nutrient affects Zinc availability (Girija et al., 2013).

Paddy yield was significantly affected with different doses of zinc in direct seeded rice (Table 2). Maximum paddy yield of direct seeded rice was attained with the application of 10 kg Zn/ha (2.61 t/ha) followed by 15 kg Zn/ha application and transplanted rice under salt affected soil also shows significant results with the application of zinc at different levels (Table 2). Paddy yield at 10 Kg Zn/ha in direct seeded rice was closely followed by 15 kg Zn/ha application (2.41 t/ha) in transplanted rice (2.45 t/ha) which was statistically at par with paddy yield. However, overall paddy yield of direct seeded rice was 5 % higher than the transplanted rice. Paddy yield of direct seeded rice was higher (5%) than traditionally transplanted rice. Nasir et al. (2006) concluded that yield and yield components were significantly affected with the application of zinc.

References

Azmi, M., Chin, D.V., Vongsaroj, P., Johnson, D.E. 2005. Emerging issues in weed management of direct-seeded rice in Malaysia, Vietnam, and Thailand. In: Rice is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century, Proceedings of the World Rice Research Conference, 4-7 November 2004, Tsukuba, Japan, pp. 196-198.

de Dios, J.L., Javier, E.F., Malabayabas, M.D., Casimero, M.C., Espiritu, A. J. 2005.An overview on direct seeding for rice crop establishment in the Philippines. In: Rice is Life: Scientific Perspectives for the 21st Century. Toriyama, K., Heong, K.L., Hardy, B. (eds.), pp. 189-193, International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines and Japan International Research Centre for Agricultural Sciences, Tsukuba, Japan.

Fageria, N. K., Santos, A. B., Cutrim V. A. 2008. Dry matter and yield of lowland rice genotypes as influenced by nitrogen fertilization. Journal of Plant Nutrition, 31: 788-795.

Farooq, M., Siddique, K.H.M., Rehman, H., Aziz, T., Lee, D. J., Wahid, A. 2011. Rice direct seeding: Experiences, challenges and opportunities. Soil Tillage Research, 111: 87-98.

Farooq, M., Wahid, A., Lee, D.-J., Ito, 0., Siddique, K.H.M. 2009. Advances in drought resistance of rice. Critical Review of Plant Sciences, 28: 199-217.

Girija, V. V., Rattan, R.K., Datta, S.P. 2013. Adsorption study: A systematic approach to determine zinc availability in soils of divergent characteristics. International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3: 022-025.

Nasir, M., Cheema, N., Khan, N.U. 2006. Effect of zinc in the panicle structure and yield of coarse variety IR-6. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 19: 33-37.

Pandey, S., Velasco, L. 2002. Economics of direct seeding in Asia: patterns of adoption and research priorities. In: Direct Seeding: Research Strategies and Opportunities. S. Pandey, M. Mortimer, L. Wade, T.P. Tuong, K. Lopes and B. Hardy (eds.), International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.

Steel, R. G. D., Torrie, J.H. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. pp. 173-177, McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., Singapore.

Muhammad Arshad Ullah (a)*, Imdad Ali Mahmood (a), Badar-uz-Zaman (a), Syed Ishtiaq Haider (a), Muhammad Suhaib (a), Arshad. Ali (a) and Muhammad Jamil (b)

(a) Land Resources Research Institute, National Agricultural Research Centre, Park Road, Islamabad-45500, Pakistan

(b) Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian, Pakistan

(received March 29, 2016; revised August 24, 2016; accepted September 09, 2016)

* Author for correspondence;

E-mail: arshadullah1965@gmail.com
Table 1. Effect of zinc on growth parameters of direct seeded and
transplanted rice (Oryza sativa) grown under salt-affected soil

Treatments                 Direct seeded rice

                Plant      Number       Spike      Number
                height     of tillers/  length     of grains/
                (cm)       plant        (cm)       spike

0 kg Zn/ha      93.0c      10.0b        23.3c      85.7d
5 kg Zn/ha      95.3bc     11.0ab       25.7b      90.0c
10 kg Zn/ha     97.7b      11.3ab       26.0b      94.7b
15 kg Zn/ha     101.3a     11.7a        28.3a      98.3a
LSD             2.7        1.4          1.4        2.1

Treatments                 Transplanted rice

                Plant      Number       Spike      Number
                height     of tillers/  length     of grains
                (cm)       plant        (cm)       spike

0 kg Zn/ha      85.0b      7.3          19.3       76.7c
5 kg Zn/ha      87.0a      7.7          20.0       80.0b
10 kg Zn/ha     87.7a      7.7          20.0       82.3a
15 kg Zn/ha     87.7a      8.3          22.0       82.7a
LSD             1.8        NS           NS         2.2

Means bearing same letter(s) in each column are statistically
similar at p = 0.05.

Table 2.  Effect of zinc on paddy yield (t/ha) of direct
seeded and transplanted rice (Oryza sativa) grown under
salt-affected soil

Treatments      Direct seeded   Transplanted rice
                rice

0 kg Zn/ha      1.88 d          1.89 d
5 Zn kg/ha      2.25 c          2.15 c
10 Zn kg/ha     2.61 a          2.25 c
15 Zn kg/ha     2.41 b          2.45 b

Means bearing same letter(s) in each column are statistically
similar at p = 0.05.
COPYRIGHT 2017 Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2017 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Ullah, Muhammad Arshad; Mahmood, Imdad Ali; Badar-uz-Zaman; Haider, Syed Ishtiaq; Suhaib, Muhammad;
Publication:Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research Series B: Biological Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2017
Words:1453
Previous Article:Accumulation of heavy metals by living and dead bacteria as biosorbents: isolated from waste soil.
Next Article:A comparison of nutrient and dietary compositions of cereals and pulses commonly consumed in Pakistan.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |