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Comparison of Tocopherol Contents in Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Genotypes Traits.

Byline: Eun-Hye Kim, Philippe Seguin, Ju-Hyun Lee and Ill-Min Chung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the tocopherols concentration of 150 adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] genotypes. Adzuki beans a darker seed coat had a 4% higher total tocopherol concentration than light colored seeds, seed color also impact delta-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentrations. Smaller seeds had a 3% higher total tocopherol concentration than large seeds, differences among seed size groups being also observed for gamma-tocopherol and (alpha)-tocopherol.

Seeds from Japan and China had a 10% greater delta-tocopherol concentration, while seeds from Korea had a 7% higher gamma-tocopherol concentration. Improved adzuki bean genotypes had a higher total tocopherol concentration compared to wild and landrace genotypes; differences between improvements status groups being observed for tocopherols except (alpha)-tocopherol.

This study demonstrates that seed color, seed size, origin and improvement status impact adzuki bean tocopherol concentrations. (c) 2013 Friends Science Publishers

Keywords: Vigna angularis; Adzuki bean seeds; Tocopherols; Genotypes; Gas chromatography

Introduction

Adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] is a leguminous crop, which use is concentrated in Asia (Yoshida et al., 2008). Boiled adzuki bean juice is commonly used locally as a folk remedy to prevent health-related issues associated with aging (Maruyama et al., 2008). The term 'vitamin E', which was first introduced by Evans and Bishop in 1922 as a dietary factor, is used to describe a group of naturally occurring compounds that include tocopherols and tocotrienols (Seppanen et al., 2010). Tocopherols are free radical scavengers that may reduce the risk of certain cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Pakinson's (Kamal-Eldin and Appleqvist, 1996). Tocopherols are mostly present in vegetable oils, meats, and green parts of higher plants, while tocotrienols mainly exist in the bran fractions of certain seeds and cereals (Bauerfeind and Desai, 1977).

In this study, the tocopherols concentration in 150 adzuki bean genotypes was determined by gas chromatography (GC). Although adzuki beans are a valuable crop frequently consumed in Asia, there is limited information on their concentration of health-beneficial compounds including tocopherols.

Materials and Methods

A total of 150 adzuki bean [Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi and Ohashi] genotypes obtained from the genebank of the RDA (Rural Development Administration, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, Korea) were classified into groups according to color (using the Hunter color scale; L: lightness (0 = black, 100 = white), a (-a = greenness, +a = redness), b (-b = blueness, +b = yellowness) using by a Minolta Color Difference Meter (Model CR-310, Minolta Co. Ltd, Osaka, Japan) and 100 seed weight [small (less than 12 g), medium (12-18 g), and large (greater than 18 g)], origin (i.e., China, Japan and Korea), and improvement status (i.e., wild, landrace and improved).

Tocopherol analysis was conducted on duplicate samples from each adzuki bean genotype using a slightly modified version of the protocol of Lee and Park (2004). Data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure in SAS (SAS Institute, 2000). Comparisons between means were made at a 0.05 probability level when ANOVA indicated model and treatment significances.

Results and Discussion

Differences in tocopherols concentrations were observed for all groups defined (i.e., color, seed size, origin and improvement status) (Table 1). Differences between seed color groups were observed for delta-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol, and total tocopherol. Seeds of color groups A (L less than 30, +a, +b) and B (L less than 30, +a, -b) according to Hunter's scale had a 4% greater total tocopherol concentrations than those in group C (L greater than 50, +a, +b) and D (Lgreater than 50, +a, -b). They also had a 13% greater concentration of delta-tocopherol than those of group D, and 11% greater gamma-tocopherol concentration than those of group C. This study indicated that tocopherol concentration of adzuki beans showed higher in dark colored seeds.

Differences among seed size groups were observed for gamma-tocopherol, (alpha)-tocopherol, and total tocopherol. Small adzuki bean seeds had a 3% greater total tocopherol concentration than medium-sized seeds. Smaller seeds also had 14 and 2% greater concentrations of gamma-tocopherol and (alpha)-tocopherol, respectively than large-and medium-sized seeds.

Differences among genotypes of different origins (i.e., Korea, Japan and China) were observed for gamma-tocopherol and (alpha)-tocopherol. Adzuki bean genotypes from Korea had a 10% higher delta-tocopherol concentration than those from Japan. Genotypes from Korea also had a 2% higher gamma-tocopherol concentration than those from Japan and China.

Improvement status also had an impact on all tocopherols except (alpha)-tocopherol. Wild and Improved genotypes had a 4% greater total tocopherol concentration compared to landrace genotypes. Improved genotypes had higher concentrations of both delta-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol, differences with wild and landrace genotypes being as large as 11%. Finally, wild genotypes had a 16% greater gamma-tocopherol concentration than other groups.

Tocopherol concentrations we observed in adzuki beans contrast with results from previous studies. Indeed the few studies, which have reported on the tocopherol concentration in adzuki beans all reported negligible concentrations of alpha-tocopherol and beta-tocopherol (Yoshida et al., 2008). Differences could be attributed to differences in growing conditions, seed storage, or extraction methods, which all have been reported to affect tocopherol concentration and proportions in other legume species (Ching and Mohammed, 2001; Seguin et al., 2009). Differences in tocopherol concentrations we observed among groups differing in seed coat color, seed size, origin, and improvement status were also reported for tocopherols and other health-beneficial compounds in soybean (Lee et al., 2008). Overall, alpha-tocopherol concentrations we observed are in accordance with those previously reported in V. sinensis seeds (Ching and Mohammed, 2001).

Results from this study demonstrate that tocopherol concentrations of adzuki bean seeds are affected by seed color, seed size, origin and improvement status. Our results suggest that there is significant variation in tocopherol concentrations among adzuki beans genotypes, which implies that there is potential for genetic selection of specific tocopherols in this species.

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the National Research

Table 1: Tocopherol concentrations (ug g-1) of adzuki bean genotypes differing in seed coat color, seed size, origin and improvement status

Trait###(delta)-###(beta)-###(gamma)-###(alpha)-###Total

###tocopherol###tocopherol###tocopherol###tocopherol

Color

A (108)###78.4 a###29.8###50.6 a###39.3###198.0 a

B (52)###76.3 b###29.7###49.0 a###39.3###194.3 a

C (102)###75.3 b###29.7###44.3 b###39.3###188.7 b

D (36)###68.6 c###29.7###49.1 a###39.7###187.1 b

Size

Small (220)###75.8###29.7###49.5 a###39.5 a###194.4 a

Medium (60)###75.5###29.8###44.3 b###39.0 b###188.6 b

Large (20)###77.4###29.8###43.2 b###38.8 b###189.2 ab

Origin

Korea (112)###72.0###29.8###51.4 a###39.8 a###193.0

Japan (122)###79.1###29.7###46.9 b###39.1 b###194.9

China (8)###79.0###29.9###49.3 ab###39.2 b###197.3

Improvement

Wild (94)###74.8 b###29.7 b###53.7 a###39.5###197.7 a

Landrace (132)###76.1 b###29.7 b###46.1 b###39.5###191.3 b

Improved

(10)###83.8 a###30.0 a###46.1 b###39.3###199.1 a

Number of genotypes evaluated is provided parentheses

Color groups defined using Hunter's scale (L, Lightness; a, Redness; b,

Yellowness; A, Lless than30, +a, +b; B, Lless than30, +a, -b; C, Lgreater than50, +a, +b; D, Lgreater than50,

+a, -b)

Size groups are defined based on the 100-seed weight (Small, less than12 g; Medium, 12 to 18 g; Large, greater than18 g)

Means in a column followed by different letters are significantly different

(Pless than 0.05)

Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No. 355-2011-1-F00005)

References

Bauerfeind, J.C. and I.D. Desai, 1977. The tocopherol content of food and influencing factors. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 8: 337-382

Ching, L.S. and S. Mohammed, 2001. Alpha tocopherol content in 62 edible tropical plants. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49: 3101-3105

Kamal-Eldin, A. and L. Appleqvist, 1996. The chemistry and antioxidant properties of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Lipids, 31: 671-701

Lee, S.J., J.J. Kim, H.Y. Moon, J.K. Ahn, S.C. Chun, W.S. Jung, O.K. Lee and I.M. Chung, 2008. Analysis of isoflavones and phenolic compounds in Korean soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merill] seeds of different seed weights. J. Agric. Food Chem., 56: 2751-2758

Lee, Y.S. and S.R. Park, 2004. Determination of tocopherols and tocotrienols in rice bran by using HPLC. Kor. J. Crop Sci., 49: 82-89

Maruyama, C., R. Araki, M. Kawamura, N. Kondo, M. Kigawa, Y. Kawai, Y. Takanami, K. Miyashita and T. Shimomitsu, 2008. Azuki bean juice lowers serum triglyceride concentrations in healthy young women. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 43: 19-25

SAS Institute, 2000. SAS User's Guide; Basics, 5th edition. SAS Institute, North Carolina, USA

Seguin, P., P. Turcotte, G. Tremblay, D. Pageau and W. Liu, 2009. Tocopherols concentration and stability in early maturing soybean genotypes. Agron. J., 101: 1153-1159

Seppanen, C.M., Q. Song and A.S. Csallany, 2010. The antioxidant functions of tocopherol and tocotrienol homologues in oils, fats and food systems. J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 87: 469-481

Yoshida, H., N. Yoshida, Y. Tomiyama, M. Sakai and Y. Mizushina, 2008. Distribution profiles of tocopherols and fatty acids of phospholipids in adzuki bean (Vigna algularis). J. Food Lipids, 15: 209-221

1Department of Applied Life science, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Republic of Korea, 2Department of Plant Science, McGill University - Macdonald Campus, 21111 Lakeshore Road, Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue, QC, H9X3V9, Canada, For correspondence: imcim@konkuk.ac.kr

To cite this paper: Kim, E.H., P. Seguin, J.H. Lee and I.M. Chung, 2013. Comparison of tocopherol contents in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) genotypes traits. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 15: 179-180
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Article Details
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Author:Eun-Hye Kim; Seguin, Philippe; Ju-Hyun Lee; Ill-Min Chung
Publication:International Journal of Agriculture and Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9SOUT
Date:Feb 28, 2013
Words:1655
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