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Comparing volcanoes.

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In "Volcano Alert!" (pp. 10-13), you read about Iceland, one of the most volcanically active places in the world. The chart below shows characteristics and examples of three common volcano types: shield, composite, and cinder cone. Study the chart, then answer the questions that follow.

1. Which type of volcano has the smallest width?

2. What is the difference between the eruptions of composite and cinder cone volcanoes?

3. Which volcano example in the chart is located on a planet other than Earth?

4. Viscosity is how resistant a liquid is to flowing. Which type of volcano in the chart has the least viscous lava? Which details in the chart gave you your answer?

5. Which volcano is more likely to put people at risk of breathing in ash: Mount Fuji or Mauna Loa? Why?

ANSWERS

1. cinder cone 2. Lava from a composite volcano flows slowly down the sides. Lava from a cinder cone volcano shoots high in the air. Composite volcanoes have more violent eruptions.

3. Olympus Mons (Mars)

4. Shield volcano. Its lava is thin and watery, so it is less viscous.

5. Mount Fuji. It spews ash high in the air.

Common Volcano Types

                      SHIELD               COMPOSITE

Shape

Description         broad and         very tall with steep
                dome-shaped; up to    sides; about 1-10 km
               200 km (125 mi) wide     (0.6-6 mi) wide

Lava             thin and watery        thick and sticky

Typical        relatively quiet and      explosive and
Eruption       gentle; lava travels   violent; lava flows
               far from the opening     slowly down the
                  before cooling      sides as ash shoots
                                        high in the air

Examples        Mauna Loa (Hawaii)     Mount Fuji (japan)
               Olympus Mons (Mars)    Mount Hood (Oregon)
                    La Cumbre          Mount Etna (Italy)
               (Galapagos Islands)

                   CINDER CONE

Shape

Description      short with steep
                sides; often less
                than 1 km (0.6 mi)
                       wide

Lava             thick and sticky

Typical        explosive but small;
Eruption       lava is thrown high
                in the air, breaks
                into fragments and
                      falls

Examples        Paricutin (Mexico)
               Crater Lake (Oregon)
                  Sunset Crater
                    (Arizona)
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Title Annotation:CHART SKILL
Publication:SuperScience
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Sep 1, 2014
Words:330
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