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Comparing Professional Attitude of Prospective Teachers Enrolled in Public and Private Institutions in Punjab.

Byline: Muhammad Riaz Zahida, Habib, Jafar Riaz and Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan

Abstract

The purpose of this research study is to find out and compare the professional attitude of prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education Lahore, and private institutions, private teacher training colleges affiliated with University of Education Lahore. The population for this research study was consisted of all the prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) enrolled in the campuses of the University of Education as well as enrolled in the private colleges affiliated with University of Education getting and completing their academic courses and training. Out of the population the researchers drew out 240 prospective teachers using convenience sampling technique, 120 prospective teachers were selected from public teacher training institutions and 120 prospective teachers were selected from private teacher training institutions.

For the purpose of data collection, the data collection instrument named the "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching", originally developed by Ustuner (2006), was used for this research study. When the data was analyzed it reveals that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions but the prospective teachers sectioned on the base of gender show statistically significant differences in their level of professional attitude. Male prospective teachers of private sector have less positive professional attitudes than that of male and female prospective teachers of public sector.

Introduction

Social psychology uses the term attitude to explain the human behavior. Attitude is the cause of an individual's actions to other individuals or objects. It is an important concept that describes the consistency of an individual's behavior. According to Shah (2002) attitudes have a major role in the betterment or chaos of teaching- learning activities. Attitude is an inevitable part of a man's personality. As teacher training programs are man-makers so knowing attitudes is vital. Contrary to intelligence, the concept of attitude is a nature-nurture dispute. All are agreed that attitudes are not instinctive but acquired. Allport (1935) defined the attitude that "an attitude is a mental and neural state of readiness, organized through experience, exerting a directive or dynamic influence upon the individual's response to all the objects and situation with which it is related." (p.34).

According to Maslow (1954) attitude is a preparation for the actual response that constitute the social behavior accompanying consciousness. According to Lacy (1977) attitude is actually set of the organism that can be adjusted as per situation. On the other hand Ball and Goodson (1985) described the attitude as a mental readiness to react towards an object. But Robbins (1994) says that "Attitudes are evaluation statements, either positive or negative, about objects, people or events. Attitudes express how an individual feels about something" (p. 17).

Everyone has individual differences because attitudes are not innate. Several factors such as environment, religion, family background, socio economic status, peers and formal and informal educational environment influence the attitude. The given factors lead attitude towards a specific thing. Attitude change with the passage of time because individual gains experience of life. Attitude formation is a gradual process. Socialization and personal experience are two major factors in attitude formation as well as its evaluation (Padhi and Jodho, 1997). Since attitude is very important in the whole teaching learning process therefore it must be looked at not only as a part of training but also as a major tool for training. Attitude is a changing phenomenon but when one tries to have some conditioned attitude it needs a very technical and comprehensive type of training drill.

Educating is the work of someone who is professional. Therefore, teacher education as the main perpetrator must be a professional educator. However, a professional educator must have a professional attitude as well. Teachers as professional educators have a good image on students as well as in society. Shah (2003) says that the quality of the profession of education can be improved through teacher education. The formation of professional attitude of teachers through training helps to promote the efficiency of teachers. Bloom (1971) stated that to teach a concept is not merely a teaching of a concept rather it is a teaching of an attitude which may be desired to be changed. He also proposed to exercise a successful communication to have the acquisition of the desired attitude because change in attitude occurs by both communication and instruction. Hence a dynamic educational exercise broadens the horizon of modification of attitude with the pivotal role of information and formation.

According to Prince (2002) professional attitude of teachers can serve in many worth able ways and the knowledge about these attitudes can also be helpful a lot. Hence the professional outlook which must be sound in terms of behavioral variety polishes not only the performance of a teacher but also improves students' achievements. Berry (2001) asserts the need for the provision of good and solid professional training programs for prospective teachers who are supposed to teach at different levels. When a teacher teaches at different levels he has to apply different teaching methods, skills and techniques, for example a teacher teaches a group of children he will consider their age group, mentality, individual differences, level of comprehending the things and limits of their creativity. Whereas a teacher who is teaching at post graduate level will never consider those elements that are necessary to consider while teaching at lower level.

He will have to consider pre-requisites according to the situation that he faces. The ability of determining various instructional aids regarding the prevailing situation needs a brief plan of training, exercise and practice. Hence teacher training programs are highly approved. Moreover Memon, (2007) points out that the teachers who do not value, teacher training programs and they do not revise, up to date, upgrade and improve their knowledge, skills, methods and techniques to be used, can never achieve their goals accordingly. In Pakistan most of the teachers do not pay proper attention to the proposed teacher training programs and show a sluggish and lethargic attitude. In this way they remain ineffective when they have no information about the use of different instructional aids to have a good and successful teaching learning practice. So the teacher training institutions must be responsible to provide the best training opportunities to their student teachers.

Justification of the Study

In Pakistan as different public and private teacher training institutes train the prospective teachers through different training programs in such a way that they develop the expertise to incorporate variety of teaching strategies resulting in creating effective learning environment by way of professional attitude. So this area of the expertise can well be judged by way of keeping an ongoing training program of prospective teachers under observation so that the deficiencies in this area could well be located. Investigating and studying professional attitude of prospective teachers can best serve the purpose so that the teachers' training institutes get the in time opportunity to catch lacking with in their products as well as with in their own teaching system employed to train the future-teachers before letting them move into the market.

This makes the basic theme of the proposed study that investigates the professional attitude of prospective teachers in order to judge the efficacy of the training program under observation. For this purpose, the study examines and compares the professional attitude of prospective teachers of public and private institutes. It is hoped that the efforts of the researchers through this research study will be useful in promoting professional attitude among teachers in the educational settings and pave the way towards educational progress of Pakistan.

Statement of the problem

The study intends to find out and compare the professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

Significance of the Study

The study will reveal the facts, why professional attitude of teachers is essential for the students for obtaining high academic achievement in various subjects. The study will help in providing guidelines to enhance the professional efficiency of teachers. The study will also provide a guideline to the teacher training institutions in magnifying their instructional strategies and communication methods according to needs of the trainee teachers as well as the needs of the market. The study will enable prospective teachers to get first-hand knowledge of the deficiencies in their instructional methods and mend their ways for creating an effective teaching learning environment and proceed with a successful future career according to the needs of the market and society.

Professional attitude of teachers is a dynamic term, which has the great flexible capacities of adjustment in a variety of teaching-learning situations. So the teachers would be facilitated to understand the nature of professional attitude and its affective functioning on the learners and in the classroom achievement as well. The study will help in providing the guidelines to policy makers for the improvement and betterment of teacher training programs. The study will be helpful for prospective teachers and for in service teachers to develop professional attitude towards teaching profession. The study would provide a dimension for future researchers to seek guidelines for further research work in this field.

Objectives of the Study

This research study intends to achieve following objectives. These objectives includes to:

1. Investigate level of professional attitude of prospective teachers on institution basis.

2. Examine the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers on gender basis.

3. Compare level of professional attitude of prospective teachers of public and private institutions.

Research Questions

In consistence with the established objectives following research questions were formulated.

1. What is the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions

2. What is the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions

3. Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

4. Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

5. Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

6. Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers and male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

7. Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers and female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

Methodology

Population

The population for this research study was consisted of all the prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) enrolled in the campuses of the University of Education as well as enrolled in the private colleges affiliated with University of Education getting and completing their academic courses and training.

Sample and Sampling

Out of population the researcher drew out 240 prospective teachers, 120 prospective teachers were selected from public teacher training institutions and 120 prospective teachers were selected from private teacher training institutions. All the prospective teachers were selected using convenience sampling technique from the campuses and private affiliated colleges of the University of Education.

Procedure of the study

The procedure of the study was as follows:

- Stage 1

First of all search was done on internet to had a valid and reliable research instrument for collection of data and hence Ustuner (2006) provided the "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" as well as instructions to use the scale.

- Stage 2

As the instrument was developed, validated and used in Turkey, so before using it in Pakistani context the instrument was discussed with experts and their opinion was sought. Hence it was mutually decided that as Turkey and Pakistan both are Islamic countries and there are many similarities between both the two countries therefore this valid and reliable research instrument can be used as it is in Pakistan.

- Stage 3

Then after preparing the research instrument in the distribution form to distribute among prospective teachers, prints of the research instrument were taken out.

- Stage 3

Then the researchers visited the public and private teacher training institutes, campuses of the University of Education and private affiliated colleges with University of Education, personally to distribute the questionnaire and to collect the data.

- Stage 4

After collecting the data researchers did the analysis of the data through SPSS software using t-test to find out the differences between the professional attitudes of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private teacher training institutions (campuses of the University of Education and private affiliated colleges with University of Education).

Research instrument

For the purpose of data collection, the data collection instrument named the "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" was used for this research study. This research tool was originally developed by Ustuner (2006), and it was comprised on a single dimension Likert type scale having 5 points. The research instrument includes 34 items to show the responses of prospective teachers about the attitudes headed for teaching profession. As far as the validity of the scale is concerned it was developed originally by Ustuner (2006) and its concurrent validity was 0.89. Whereas the reliability of the scale is concerned, its reliability coefficient in terms of its score stability and its internal reliability coefficient, Cronbach Alfa, is 0.72 and 0.93 respectively.

Data Analysis

Collected data was analyzed through SPSS software using t- test to find out the difference between the professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

As questionnaires were distributed among 240 prospective teachers of program B. Ed session (2012-13), 120 questionnaires were distributed among the prospective teachers of campuses of the University of Education and 120 questionnaires were distributed among the prospective teachers of private colleges affiliated with the University of Education. The following table shows a breakdown of prospective teachers' response rate of public and private institutions in the data.

Table No. 1 Categories of prospective teachers by key response rate

###Institution###Questionnaires###Questionnaires###Response

###distributed###received###rate

###Public###120###118###98.3%

###Private###120###114###95%

###Total###240###232###96.6%

Table 1 shows that 120 questionnaires were distributed among the prospective teachers of public institutions, campuses of University of Education, and 118 prospective teachers returned the filled questionnaires so response rate was 98.3%. Similarly 120 questionnaires were distributed among the prospective teachers of private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, and 114 prospective teachers returned the filled questionnaires so response rate was 95% and overall response rate was 96.6%.

Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

Table No. 2 Prospective teachers' mean score of professional attitude

Type of

Prospective###N###Means###Standard###t-test###Critical###Level of

Teacher###Deviation###value###Value###Significance

Public###118###133.966###14.496###tless than -

###1.396###1.960 and###0.05

Private###114###130.500###22.589###tgreater than 1.960

Table 2 shows that mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, are 133.966 and 14.496 respectively and mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, are 130.500 and 22.589 respectively. The table also shows that independent-samples t-test value 1.396 is less than the critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance. It means that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

Table No. 3 Female prospective teachers' mean score of professional attitude

Type of

Prospective###N###Means###Standard###t-test###Critical###Level of

Teacher###Deviation###value###Value###Significance

Public###88###133.557###14.876###0.573###tless than -###0.05

###1.960 and

Private###88###131.852###23.595###tgreater than 1.960

Table 3 shows that mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, are 133.557 and 14.876 respectively and mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, are 131.852 and 23.595 respectively. The table also shows that independent-samples t-test value 0.573 is less than the critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance. It means that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions

Table No. 4 Male prospective teachers' mean score of professional attitude

Type of

Prospective###N###Means###Standard###t-test###Critical###Level of

Teacher###Deviation###value###Value###Significance

Public###30###135.167###13.488###tless than -###0.05

###2.158###1.960 and

Private###26###125.923###18.461###tgreater than 1.960

Table 4 shows that mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, are 135.167 and 13.488 respectively and mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, are 125.923 and 18.461 respectively. The table also shows that independent-samples t-test value 2.158 is greater than the critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance. It means that there is significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers and male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

Table No. 5 Mean score of female and male prospective teachers' professional attitude enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

Type of

Prospective###N###Means###Standard###t-test###Critical###Level of

Teacher###Deviation###value###Value###Significance

Public###88###133.557###14.876###tless than -

###2.172###1.960 and###0.05

Private###26###125.923###18.461###tgreater than 1.960

Table 5 shows that mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, are 133.557 and 14.876 respectively and mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, are 125.923 and 18.461 respectively. The table also shows that independent-samples t-test value 2.172 is greater than the critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance. It means that there is significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female and male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively.

Is there any significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers and female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

Table No. 6 Mean score of male and female prospective teachers' professional attitude enrolled in public and private institutions respectively

Type of

Prospective###N###Means###Standard###t-test###Critical###Level of

Teacher###Deviation###value###Value###Significance

Public###30###135.167###13.488###tless than -

###0.729###1.960 and###0.05

Private###88###131.852###23.595###tgreater than 1.960

Table 6 shows that mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, are 135.167 and 13.488 respectively and mean score and standard deviation of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions, private colleges affiliated with University of Education, are 131.852 and 23.595 respectively.

The table also shows that independent-samples t-test value 0.729 is less than the critical value of 1.960 at 0.05 level of significance. It means that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male and female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively.

Findings of the study

On the basis of analyses, findings are enlisted below:

1. The response rate of the prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions was higher as compare to the response rate of the prospective teachers enrolled in private institutions.

2. There was no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

3. There was no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

4. There was significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions.

5. There was significant difference in the level of professional attitude of female and male prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively.

6. There was no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of male and female prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions respectively.

Discussion

A Teacher is considered an important element of education system of any nation. So every nation tries to bring reforms to enhance the quality of teaching and teacher training programs. As both public and private sector are contributing services for the training of pre-service teachers. So teacher training programs must be upgraded and fully equipped with modern facilities to enhance the quality of teachers up to satisfactory level. The growing of private teacher training sector is going to add complications to the profession of teaching and it is the need of the hour that private teacher training sector should be taken into account in any one of the reforms of the system of education. So the proposed study was targeted at finding and comparing the professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public institutions, campuses of the University of Education, and private institutions, private teacher training colleges affiliated with University of Education.

It was a descriptive research in nature, quantitative by technique. Further this study was done with the survey research method to collect data and information about the attitudes of prospective teachers enrolled in the campuses of University of Education and private institutions affiliated with University of Education towards the profession of teaching. The population for this research study was consisted of all the prospective teachers of B.Ed. session (2012-2013) enrolled in the campuses of the University of Education as well as enrolled in the private colleges affiliated with University of Education getting and completing their academic courses and training. The researchers drew out 240 prospective teachers, 120 prospective teachers were selected from public teacher training institutions and 120 prospective teachers were selected from private teacher training institutions.

All the prospective teachers were selected using convenience sampling technique from the campuses and private affiliated colleges of the University of Education.

For the purpose of data collection, the data collection instrument named the "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" was used for this research study. This research tool was originally developed by Ustuner (2006), and it was comprised on a single dimension Likert type scale having 5 points. The research instrument includes 34 items to show the responses of prospective teachers about the attitudes headed for the profession of teaching. The researchers visited the public and private teacher training institutes personally to distribute the questionnaire and to collect the data. It was observed during the data collection process that data collection from public sector is easy as compare to private sector. After collecting data the researchers analyze the collected data through SPSS.

Overall results of the study reveal that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions but the prospective teachers sectioned on the base of gender show statistically significant differences in their level of professional attitude. Male prospective teachers of private sector have less positive professional attitudes than that of male and female prospective teachers of public sector. This indicates that the professional attitude of male prospective teachers of public sector is highly negative than that of male and female prospective teachers of public sector.

Conclusion

Overall results of the study reveal that there is no significant difference in the level of professional attitude of prospective teachers enrolled in public and private institutions but the prospective teachers sectioned on the base of gender show statistically significant differences in their level of professional attitude. Male prospective teachers of private sector have less positive professional attitudes than that of male and female prospective teachers of public sector. This indicates that the professional attitude of male prospective teachers of public sector is highly negative than that of male and female prospective teachers of public sector. On the basis of the findings it was also concluded that prospective teachers having higher scores from the scale have highly positive attitude towards the profession of teaching. Hence prospective teachers should try to develop the attitude towards the profession of teaching as they are going to adopt teaching profession.

Recommendations

- Random sampling technique should be used to make the sample more representative of the population for the study.

- New researchers should compare prospective teachers with regular teachers of the market.

- The researchers included only prospective teachers of B. Ed program to compare the professional attitudes; new researchers should also include prospective teachers of other teacher training programs as a sample of the study.

- This research study was a survey research; new researchers should use other research designs on same topic.

Notes and References

Allport, G. W. (1935) Attitudes.In Murchison, C. (Ed.) A Handbook of Social Psychology. pp. 34-36. Worcester, Mass: Clark University Press.

Ball, S. J. and Goodson, I. F., (1985).Teachers' lives and careers. London: The Falner Press. P.193

Berry, B., (2001). No Shortcuts to Preparing Good Teachers. Educational Leadership. 58(8), 32-36.

Bloom, B. S., (1971).Hand book of formative and summative evaluation of student learning. New York: McGraw Hill.

Lacy, C., (1977).The socialization of teachers. London: Methuen. P.46

Maslow, A., (1954). Motivation and personality. New York: Harper and Row.

Memon, G. R., (2007). Education in Pakistan: The key issues, problems and the new challenges. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 3(1), 47-55.

Padhi, J. S., andJodho, V. G., (1997).School effectiveness and learners achievement at primary stage. New Delh: NCERT.

Prince, C., (2002).The challenge of attracting good teachers and principals to struggling schools. Alexandria, VA: American Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Robertson, D. L. (1996).Educational Helping Relationship.Adult Education Quarterly, 47(1), 41-53.

Robbins, S., (1994).Fundamentals of organizational behavior. Ankara: Eskisehir: TAM Pressing and Publishing.

Shah, D. (2003).Decentralization in the education system of Pakistan: Policies and strategies. Paper for Academy of Educational Planning and Management.

Shah, M., (2002).Comparative effectiveness of teacher training in enhancing the professional attitude of B.Ed students admitted in institutes of education and research, NWFP, College of Education Islamabad and AllamaIqbal Open University Islamabad. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation.AllamaIqbal Open University, Islamabad.

Ustuner, M., (2006). Validity and reliability study on an attitude scale towards the profession of teaching. KuramveUygulamadaEgitimYAlnetimi. Winter 2006, 12(45), 109127.
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Publication:Journal of Pakistan Vision
Article Type:Clinical report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2015
Words:4540
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