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Comparing Professional Attitude of Formal and Non-Formal Prospective Teachers: Gender Based Differences.

Byline: Muhammad Riaz, Muhammad Uzair-ul-Hassan and Afia Khan

Abstract

Teaching programs and courses are very essential to make the prospective teachers able to excel in academic as well as in instructions to accelerate professional attitudes. The main purpose of the study was to find out and comparing the professional attitude of formal and non-formal prospective teachers. The study was descriptive and survey was done to collect data from 102 formal prospective teachers and 140 non-formal prospective teachers from district Sargodha using convenient sampling technique. To collect data research tool named "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" was used. Collected data revealed that attitude towards teaching profession of non-formal prospective teachers is higher than that the professional attitude of formal prospective teachers but formal and non-formal trainee teachers on gender basis statistically showed the remarkable differences in their attitudes towards teaching profession.

Male trainee teachers of formal sector showed a lesser amount of positive professional attitude than the attitudes of female trainee teachers of formal and non-formal sector.

Key words: Professional attitude, instructional skills, gender, prospective teachers, teaching programs.

Introduction

In educative process educators, learners and educational purposes are considered the major components of education. Shah (2003) said that quality of teaching learning process directly depends upon quality of teacher education given to prospective teachers through different teaching programs. Similarly Riaz et. al. (2015) said that educating children is the work of only that person who is trained and has the professional attitude towards teaching. Good and professional teachers always remain popular among students. According to Rina (2010), teachers face multifold changes and professionalism enhances his/her services value. The teacher's professionalism help to improve competence that resultantly make teaching learning environment better. Due to teacher's professionalism the students get engaged in the teaching-learning process also. Professionalism also plays a vital role in ulterior to improve the quality of education.

Hussain (2004) elaborated that competence of teachers also facilitates him/her to use the environment in and outside schools, curriculum, teaching methods and other relevant aids that definitely bring about good and healthy results. Failing this, the teaching learning process will never be improved. In this regard teachers must deal students with sagacity. Professional teachers must stimulate students, record information confidential concerning performance and learning outcomes, counsel with students. Teachers must avoid comments that are related to biases, non-professional relationship with students, and seek ways to make the teaching-learning process more better for students and institutions.

According to Hussain, Ali, Khan, Ramzan and Qadeer (2011), the teaching is science that has psychological foundations. In this connection, attitude, Skills and beliefs make a teacher effective that consequentially produce better outcomes. The teacher job is to enable him/herself skillful to engage students prolific and productive teaching learning processes to attain good outcomes. Saphier and Gower (1997b) explained that the students outcomes and achievement can be increased if teachers' professional attitude dominates in his/her personality. Skills related to communication, understanding others, and thirst to get further knowledge based on their previous experiences make teachers professional. Further, Saphier and Gower (1997a) elaborated that teachers must be able to make teaching-learning process effective. Bozdogan, Aydin, Yildirim (2007) finally concluded that gender and teacher training programmes offered can change the attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession.

According to Capri and Celikkaleli (2008), attitudes towards teaching profession of prospective teachers are affected due to gender. Capa and Cil (2000) concluded that gender doesn't affect attitudes towards the teaching profession. They further elaborated that female trainee teachers reflect comparatively positive attitudes than males.

Similarly, teachers opting content courses related to pedagogy reflect positive attitudes. Practice teaching effectiveness depends on training. Such effectiveness can be observed during teaching-learning process in the live classrooms. Darling-Hammond (2003) explained that in such classroom knowledge and ability of teacher can be observed in snap-shot that also reflects the effective teaching which is based on better professional training. Sargent (2003) elaborated that teacher training programs must be systematic to maintain the delight among students in learning.

Justification of the Study

For effective teaching-learning process, teachers are considered to produce productive citizens transited from school to society. For this purpose, it is important to plan instructions in a systematic way. Effective learning can only be ensured if instructions contain differentiation in methods, strategies and techniques as per demands of discipline and subjects. Teaching-learning process can only be made effective when teachers are trained professionally. Teachers should put on caps of teachers and must reflect professional attitude towards teaching profession. Attitude of prospective teachers towards the profession of teaching is affected as shown by some researchers, on the basis of gender, type of class, nature of training programs and socio-economic status. For example, Oral (2004) pointed out significant difference in attitudes of prospective teachers was observed based on gender who were enrolled in the department of education.

Similarly, Cakir (2005) conducted a study on prospective teachers who get training to teach English language and found no significant difference in attitude. While others pointed out that nature of teacher training programs affect attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. Depending upon cited studies, researchers were curious and planned to conduct the study on professional attitudes of male and female prospective teachers of formal and non-formal sectors. In Pakistan, both formal and non-formal sectors are offering teachers' training programmes. These sectors are also providing pre-service training to future teachers.

Hence, studying professional attitudes of prospective teachers could be productive to make training programmes better.

Statement of the Problem

This research work intends to investigate and compare the professional attitudes of formal and non-formal prospective teachers. The study further highlights the differences based on gender.

Objectives of the Study

1. To find out professional attitude of male and female trainee teachers of formal institutions

2. To find out professional attitude of male and female trainee teachers of non-formal institutions

3. To compare professional attitude of trainee teachers of both formal and non-formal.

Research Questions

Following research questions were formulated to achieve the established objectives:

1. What is the level of professional attitude of formal prospective teachers?

2. What is the level of professional attitude of non-formal prospective teachers?

3. Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

4. Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

5. Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of male formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

6. Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of female formal and male non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

7. Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of male formal and female non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Methodology

Research Design

This research study was descriptive, by technique it was quantitative and data was collected through survey.

Population

As for as population concerned for this study, all the male and female prospective teachers of B. Ed enrolled in formal and non-formal teachers' training sectors in Division Sargodha were the population.

Sample and Sampling

In the present study 102 prospective teachers from University of Sargodha and Government College for Elementary Teachers Sargodha of formal sector and 140 prospective teachers from Allama Iqbal Open University of non-formal sector, region Sargodha, B. Ed. Session (2014-15) participated. All the prospective teachers who participated in the study were selected from District Sargodha through convenient sampling technique.

Research Instrument

For data collection research instrument "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" established by Ustuner (2006) was used to collect data from formal and non-formal prospective teachers. It was a 5 points Likert type scale having 34 items to measure the professional attitude of trainee teachers towards teaching.

Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument

As the research instrument was adopted so the validity and reliability was originally calculated by Ustuner (2006). The concurrent validity of research instrument was 0.89 and reliability coefficient Cronbach Alfa was 0.93.

Data Analysis

After collecting data it were analyzed through SPSS software. As 242 prospective teachers participated in this research study so following table showed the breakdown of male and female prospective teachers of formal and non-formal sector.

Table 1 Breakdown of formal and non-formal prospective teachers

Type of Prospective Teacher###Female###Male###Total

Formal###77###25###102

Non-formal###100###40###140

Total###177###65###242

Table 1 showed that there were 77 female and 25 male prospective teachers from formal sector, 100 female and 40 male prospective teachers from non-formal sector in the sample.

Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Table 2 Formal and non-formal prospective teachers' mean scores

Type of Prospective Teacher###n###M###SD###t###p

Formal###102###132.441###15.411###-2.823###0.005

Non-formal###140###138.871###18.865

Table 2 showed that mean scores of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 132.441, 138.871 and standard deviation of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 15.411, 18.865 respectively. The table also showed t=-2.823, p=0.005 at p<0.05, these values indicated the significant difference in the level of formal and non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude. It means non-formal novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal novice teachers.

Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Table 3 Female formal and non-formal prospective teachers' mean scores

Type of Prospective Teacher###n###M###SD###t###p

Formal###77###132.065###15.687###-4.058###0.000

Non-formal###100###141.990###16.465

Table No. 3 showed that mean scores of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 132.065, 141.990 and standard deviation of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 15.687, 16.465 respectively. The table also showed t=-4.058, p=0.000 at p<0.05, these values indicated the significant difference in the level of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude. It means non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal female novice teachers.

Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of male formal and non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Table 4 Male formal and non-formal prospective teachers' mean scores

Type of Prospective Teacher###n###M###SD###t###p

Formal###25###133.600###14.776###0.503###0.617

Non-formal###40###131.075###22.203

Table No. 4 showed that mean scores of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 133.600, 131.075 and standard deviation of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 14.776, 22.203 respectively. The table also showed t=0.503, p=0.617 at p<0.05, these values indicated no significant difference in the level of male formal and non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of female formal and male non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Table 5 Female formal and male non-formal prospective teachers' mean scores

Type of Prospective Teacher###n###M###SD###t###p

Formal###77###132.065###15.687###0.280###0.780

Non-formal###40###131.075###22.203

Table No. 5 showed that mean scores of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 132.065, 131.075 and standard deviation of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 15.687, 22.203 respectively. The table also showed t=0.280, p=0.780 at p<0.05, these values indicated no significant difference in the level of female formal and male non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

Are there some significant differences in the attitudes of male formal and female non-formal trainee teachers towards teaching profession?

Table 6 Male formal and female non-formal Prospective teachers' mean scores

Type of Prospective Teacher###n###M###SD###t###p

Formal###25###133.600###14.776###-2.232###0.022

Non-formal###100###141.990###16.465

Table 6 showed that mean scores of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 133.600, 141.990 and standard deviation of formal and non-formal trainee teachers were 14.776, 16.465 respectively. The table also showed t=-2.232, p=0.022 at p<0.05, these values indicated significant difference in the level of male formal and female non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude. It means non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal male novice teachers.

Findings

On the base of data analysis following are the findings of this research study:

1. There was significant difference in their level of attitudes of formal and non-formal prospective teachers' professional attitude.

2. Significant difference was found in the level of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

3. Significant difference was found in the level of male formal and non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

4. Significant difference was found in the level of female formal and male non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

5. Significant difference was found in the level of male formal and female non-formal trainee teachers' professional attitude.

Conclusion

It was concluded through data analysis that there are significant differences in the level of formal and non-formal prospective teachers' professional attitude. Non-formal novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal novice teachers. On the basis of gender it was concluded that there are remarkable differences in their attitudes of female formal and non-formal trainee teachers' towards teaching i.e. non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal female novice teachers it was also found that non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal and non-formal male novice teachers.

Discussion

Trained and skilled teachers are considered an integral component of school system of a country therefore every nation or country tries to provide best training facilities to their prospective teachers for effective teaching learning to take place. It should take into account that teachers must be trained sufficient earlier to join teaching as profession. The expectations can only be met when this would happen. Variety of professions for example, medicine pre service training is considered as necessary. Similarly, training of teachers to shape up professional attitude in them is also part and parcel of their professional life. As both the formal and non-formal sectors is providing training to their prospective teachers so this research work intended to investigate and compare attitudes towards profession of formal and non-formal trainee teachers.

The study was descriptive and survey research method was used to collect data from male and female trainee teachers of B. Ed Session (2014-15) of formal and non-formal sectors. Research instrument "Attitude Scale towards the Profession of Teaching" a 5 points Likert type scale having 34 items developed by Ustuner was used to collect data from formal and non-formal prospective teachers.

During data collection process it was observed that prospective teachers of non-formal sector listened instructions given to them more carefully and attentively as compare to the prospective teachers of formal sector. It was noted through data analysis that there were significant differences in the level of formal and non-formal prospective teachers' professional attitude on gender basis i.e. non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal female novice teachers it was also found that non-formal female novice teachers showed better attitude towards teaching as compare to formal and non-formal male novice teachers. Similar results were presented by Akkaya (2009) who concluded that professional attitudes of teachers are affected by gender. Further, she explained that female prospective teachers were more successful than that of males in relation to professional attitude and academic outcomes.

Moreover she also found significant difference in nature of training programmes of trainee teachers. Similarly, Bozdogan, Aydin, Yildirim (2007) also concluded that gender and teacher training programmes offered can change the attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. Same results also were found in Capri and Celikkaleli's (2008), study who also found that attitudes towards teaching profession of prospective teachers are affected due to gender.

After collecting data from prospective teachers of non-formal sector, during conversation it was observed that some of the respondents were regular teachers in government schools who were appointed as untrained teachers and they were asked to provide B. Ed. Degree within three years so according to them it is easy to get a degree from non-formal institution during job. Further it was also observed that some of the respondents were regular students at University of Sargodha in different departments and they were enrolled in non-formal institution at the same time to get a professional degree B. Ed. As they wanted to get a job as soon as possible in government schools after completion of studies so according to them this B. Ed degree will be helpful in competing with other candidates in the merit list.

References

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Cakir, O., (2005). The Attitudes of the students attending English language teaching graduate program in Faculty of Open Education in Anadolu University and the students attending English language teaching graduate programs in faculties of education towards the profession of teaching and their perceptions of professional proficiency. Inonu University Faculty of Educ., 9 (6), 27-42.

Capa, Y., Cil, N., (2000). Teachers' attitudes towards teaching profession: An investigation of the different variables. Hacettepe University J. Educ., 18, 69-73.

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Hussain, S., Ali, R., Khan, M. S., Ramzan. M., and Qadeer. M. Z., (2011). Attitude of secondary school teachers towards teaching profession. International Journal of Academic Research, 3(1), 985-990.

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Article Details
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Author:Riaz, Muhammad; Uzair-ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Khan, Afia
Publication:Journal of Educational Research
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Jun 30, 2017
Words:3473
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