Comparative study on treatment efficiency with zinc sulfate and ORS solution for intensity or duration of acute diarrhea in 1-4 years old infants at Malard City, Fars Province- Iran.
Diarrhea is a very common disorder among newly born and 1-4 years old kids, world widely . It is a main agent of grow delay and early mortality in developing countries . In United States of America 2.1 to 3.7 million diarrhea cases were diagnosed annually and 300-400 cases of annual mortality were recorded because of acute diarrhea. Patient with diarrhea causes high economic costs for developing countries, for example about 30 present of hospital beds in these countries were occupied by diarrhea suffered infants . In Iran, diarrhea is a main reason of mortality for 1-4 years old group . In other word, about 12% 1-4 years old of infants in cities and 14% in villages were suffering from diarrhea . Main reason of diarrhea related mortality is incidence of dehydration that commonly liquid intravenous injection was used for treatment . In a research it is cleared that treatment with only solution injection may cause lowering mortality incidence but can't decline duration of diarrhea period . Because of negative effect of acute diarrhea on body weight and immune system , suggested treatment is including zinc sulfate syrup and ORS solution . Efficiency of this kind of treatment was documented in researches [11,12]. Also, some studies decelerated that zinc supplementation can prevent respiratory disorders and can help for diarrhea period declining in acute or chronic diarrhea [3,13,14].
With attention to effectiveness of ORS and zinc sulfate treatment, in present study, effect of both of treatments in 1-4 year old infants were compared.
Material and methods
Grouping and Treatment Procedure:
This study conducted with clinical based diagnosis on patients (1-4 year old infants) at healthcare center of Malard city. The investigable patients have these parameters; 1-4 years old, suffering from diarrhea without hemorrhage and without antibiotic usage from began to end of treatment.
Patients with lower and higher ages (lower than one or higher than four), diarrhea with hemorrhage or without parents allowance were removed from my experimental groups.
Totally, 112 infant were divided in to two experimental groups; 52 of them as control group and 60 of them as experimental or treatment group. In control group we had used only ORS and in experimental group, we had used ORS with zinc sulfate syrup according to hospital treatment protocol. Data were collected via communications with patient's parents, documents or disease history review and co-workerdoctor's reports in same research project.
Data were analyzed by SPSS Ver. 16 software and t-test was done for comparison of two groups and detection of significant differences.
Findings show 66.1 percent of diarrhea suffered infants were boy and 33.9 percent were girl.
Age mean of infants was 2.41 years old and around 52.7 percent had lower than two years old. Demographic information of samples is presented as table. 1.
Diarrhea frequency and duration in control and experimental group are presented in tables 2 and 3. In both of parameters, superiority of experimental group was observed.
Statistical analysis for diarrhea intensity show t-value: 11.07 with df: 110 and p<0.001.
Also, Statistical analysis for diarrhea duration showst-value: 8.21 with df: 110 and p<0.001. Comparative statistical description for treatments is presented in table 4.
According to tables 1-4, mean diarrhea frequency after zinc sulfate syrup and ORS was 2.35 time/ day that in comparison with control group (4.17 time/ day) had considerable declines.
For treatment period duration, efficiency of treatment with both of zinc sulfate and ORS in comparison with only ORS, it was observed that mean healing period in experimental group was 1.9 day that was 3.21 day for control group.
Findings of present study showed that synchronic application of ORS and zinc sulfate syrup in comparison with only ORS application is more efficient for both treatment parameters (declining of diarrhea frequency and shorting of healing period), qua in control group only 5.8% of infants in first 24 hours and 15.4% in 48 hours of treatment have healing signs, but in experimental group 30% of infants in first 24 hours and 55% of them in 48 hours had healing signs.
About diarrhea intensity similar trend was observed; diarrhea frequency was 2 time/day. In control group it was 3.8% and in experimental group it was 60%.
Obtained findings were according to past related studies [15,16]. In Sazawal et al.,  and Dutta et al., , treatment with zinc sulfate and ORS solution could lower diarrhea intensity and duration and in overall it had healing effect on acute diarrhea in infants. It is concluded, zinc sulfate is a suitable completive treatment for ORS in term of infant's diarrhea treatment.
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(1)Hakimeh Sajjadi and (2) Abdolvahab Samavi
(1)Center of emergency care, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
(2)Hormozgan University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
HakimehSajjadi, Center of emergency care, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
Table 1: Demographic information of studied sample. Parameters Gender girl boy total Number 74 38 112 Percent 66.1 33.9 100 Parameters Age mounts old 12 13-24 25-36 37-48 total Number 26 33 34 19 112 Percent 23.2 29.5 30.4 17 100 Table 2: Diarrhea intensity or frequency (time/day) in control and experimental group. Group time 2 3 4 6 More total than 6 Control No. 2 5 32 8 5 52 % 3.8 9.6 61.5 15.4 9.6 100 Experimental No. 42 9 9 0 0 69 % 70 15 15 0 0 100 Table 3: Diarrhea duration (day) in control and experimental group. Group day 1 2 3 More than 3 total Control No. 3 8 16 25 52 % 5.8 15.4 30.8 48.1 100 experimental No. 18 33 6 3 60 % 30 55 10 5 100 Table 4: Comparison of diarrhea duration and intensity in control and experimental groups via t-test.. trait group mean S.d t-value df Intensity Control 4.17 0.87 11.07 110 Experimental 2.35 0.86 Duration Control 3.21 0.91 8.21 110 Experimental 1.9 0.77 significance trait group level Intensity Control p < 0.001 Experimental Duration Control p < 0.001 Experimental
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|Title Annotation:||Original Article; oral rehydration solutions|
|Author:||Sajjadi, Hakimeh; Samavi, Abdolvahab|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||May 1, 2011|
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