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Comparative study concerning the motor and psycho motor development level of the 7-8 years old childrene.

Introduction

The present paper is an addition to a study started in 2007, that had as main target the actual motor and psycho motor development level of 7-8 years children, the completion of the existent specific data with data that can contribute in resolving some specific problems that condition youth formation and preparation from the physical education point of view and not only and the comparison of these data with the anterior ones, the results of this study being able to be of help to the teaching staff that "work" effectively with children of young scholar age, 7-8 years (physical education teachers, school teacher etc.) and to those concerned with the selection from different performance sport branches by determining the motor and psycho motor parameters at 7-8 years old children.

So, we can say that, this study had as main objective the study of motor and psycho motor availability of early age and comparing the results with the anterior ones, knowing that specialists from the domain were drawing the attention over the criteria improvement for the perspective evaluation of an athlete's future, also over the clear determination on scientific bases of quality complexes and features that assure the success in the respective sport activity. The orientation, selection and training processes complexity at an early age is given also by the unusual adaptability and plasticity of the different motor and psychic functions at that age, as well as for the great compensatory capacity that a child has during the growth and development period. Mass sport development leads indirectly to results by the possibility of choosing certain talented youth from a large number of probationers and to the possibility of having superior athletic results (Svart V. B. and Hruscev S.V., 1986).

The child must not be treated as a shorter adult, but differentiate depending on his growth and development processes, also of age characteristics that must be well known by the specialists.

In this period (early scholar age) growth is almost uniform, observing an acceleration towards the end of the period, this growth is made especially by the extension of the inferior limbs, fact that determines a pronounced grace of child's body (Ifrim M., 1986).

Hypotheses

--I believe that by the correct determination of the motor and psycho motor potential of pupils (correlated with the other existent parameters) an efficient direction can be realized of the used means and methods during the physical education lesson and even in the sport practice, taking into account these children's characteristics.

--I consider that by determining motor and psycho motor availabilities of the early age an expansion of the orientation concerning the physical education approach and of the mentioned age selection, but also of the physical education programs adaptability to the primary education, specific to the respective age.

--Also, I think that this study can complete the other studies from the domain helping at the establishment of certain indicators with applicability both in performance sport and in the school physical education.

Material and methods

The study was made on a lot of 30 boys and the same number of girls with an approximate age of 7-8, pupils at Saint Vasile School from Ploiesti, in 2008, data being compared with the ones obtained in 2007 at 3 elementary schools randomly chosen from the entire city of Ploiesti.

Of the used methods and research techniques we mention the bibliographic method, the observation method, measurement and recording method (that aimed identifying the following parameters: speed running on 30 m with take-off, length jump from standing with take-off from both legs, coxo--femoral mobility in anterior plan, equilibrium, the cube test and Matorin test, resistance run), statistic-mathematical method, graphic one and the experimental one.

For the statistic processing the following indicators have been used: the weighted arithmetic mean, trust mean interval-- -95%- - + 95%, median, superior limit (X max), inferior limit (X min), quartiles are those values of the characteristic that divide the series in four equal parts, amplitude (W), dispersion, quadratic mean abnormality (S), variability coefficient (Cv).

From the presented proofs I would like to offer more details about the ones less used and that is:

Equilibrium (Ech)--through this task maintaining equilibrium capacity was measured on a device in T shape that is placed reversed. This device has the vertical plate of 4cm, 2cm width and 61 cm length and the horizontal plate of 61 cm length and 35 cm width. The subject climbs on one foot on the device (having his hands on his hips) and tries to maintain as much as possible his equilibrium on the device. It is being timed the period until the subject reaches the ground with his free foot, raises his hands of the hips or falls from the device. Time is expressed in seconds and the task is made also on the left and right foot (Dragnea A., 1984).

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

The cube test (C.T.)--this task is realized by tracing on the ground a 90cm side cube that, at its turn, is divided in 9 cubes of 30cm/30cm. At the end of this operation another two cubes of the same dimensions are traced (30cm/30cm) on the opposite sides of the large cube. It is numbered according to the image below and it is requested to the subject that from square "0" in which he is to execute, following the existent numbering, jumps on both legs, as fast as possible, without stepping on the cube's lines or without skipping a cube. In this test we find also the number of mistakes that every subject has made and also the time expressed in seconds in which subjects finish the test.

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Matorin--this test has been realized with the purpose of determining general condition of the subjects. This task consists of making certain jumps with take-off and returning around your own longitudinal ax trying to realize as many rotations as possible around this ax.

The test is made tracing a line of 35 cm on the ground, oriented towards north-south, subject standing with his soles on one side and the other of this line. Two jumps on the left and two on the right had been executed, the best one being noted for each part. It was requested that the subjects not to loose their equilibrium during the test, to land in approximately the same place and in the same position as the starting one. The rotation value was measured in grades with the help of the compass.

Results

The obtained results from this study had been centralized in four tables in which there are presented statistic calculus of the motor and psycho motor aptitudes at boys and girls separately in 2007 and 2008.

Moreover, in addition to these tables there are graphically presented in the graphic 3-7 the differences on years of all motor and psycho motor aptitudes that were researched.

[GRAPHIC 1 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 2 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 3 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 4 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 5 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 6 OMITTED]

[GRAPHIC 7 OMITTED]

Conclusions

From the data presented above both as table or graphic (separately on sex--boys/girls), the results from the investigation of the 60 subjects (30 girls and 30 boys) in 2007 and the same number in 2008, consisting of a number of primary data pretty significantly, we can draw the conclusion that determining these values it is necessary both to form an idea about the actual developing level of these aptitudes at these children and both to help us in the sport orientation process for making future selections of them in different sport branches and not only.

Making a synthesis of the data from the presented tables and graphics, a growth more or less significant can be observed at all studied parameters in comparison with 2007 both at boys and girls, with the exception of the cube test where the number of seconds at boys and girls is lower in 2008 and where an increase of the mistake number can be observed at girls in 2008 than in 2007.

From the statistic calculus of the variability coefficient results that at the speed run on 30 m task homogeneity is higher both at boys and girls in both studied years, but at the length jump homogeneity is medium at both sexes in both years excepting the year 2009 at girls where homogeneity is higher.

Also from a variability coefficient point of view, we can notice a lack of homogeneity at the equilibrium task in both years at both sexes, excepting the year 2009 where at boys the left equilibrium homogeneity is weak.

At the mobility task can be seen a lack of homogeneity at both sexes both in 2007 and in 2008. From the tables presented above it is seen that at the task--cube test--a lack of homogeneity at boys and girls at the chapter "mistakes" both in 2007 and in 2008 and at the test in seconds can be seen a weak homogeneity both at boys and girls in both years excepting the year 2008 where homogeneity is medium.

Moreover, from the statistic calculus of the variability coefficient at the Matorin task results that homogeneity is medium at both sexes in both years both for the left and right sides excepting the year 2008 at boys where homogeneity is higer.

Also, by knowing the motor and psycho motor potential of pupils, as medium values and as statistic indicators we can establish certain indicators with applicability both in performance sport (depending on the sport branch) and in scholar physical education, but also a correct, direction, efficient for different means and specific methods used at this age.

On the basis of those observed previously and of the specialized literature we can say that at this age it is recommended an increased attention in planning the dynamic effort. At the same time, at this age, static effort resistance at children is low. In order to realize a functional equilibrium between high antagonist muscular groups it is recommended the development of extensor muscles of the back and neck and also of the other extensor muscles groups. Resistance exercises, strength must be realized gradually and with caution, this graduation being made individually. In efficient educational conditions movement harmony and their precision can be significantly developed.

References

IFRIM, M. (1986)--Motor Anthropology, Edit. Stiintifica si Enciclopedica, Bucuresti.

SVART, V.B., HRUSCEV, S.V. (1986)--Medico Biological Aspects of Orientation and Selection, CNFS, Bucuresti.

VAIDA MARIUS, Assit. Univ. PhD, Petroleum and Gas University from Ploiesti
Table 1. Motor and psycho motor aptitudes--boys-2007

                         30 m   Lenght    Mobility      Left
                                jump on              equilibrium
                                 place

Number                    30      30         30          30

Arithmetic mean          6.61   107.05     -1.78        4.58

Trust interval    -95%   6.51   103.93     -2.99        4.12
of the mean       95%    6.71   110.17     -0.57        5.05

Median                   6.60   107.00     -2.00        5.00

Inferior limit           5.80    74.00     -13.00       2.00

Superior limit           7.90   139.00      8.00        11.00

Lawer Quartile           6.40   102.00     -5.00        3.00

Upper Quartile           6.80   111.50      2.00        6.00

Amplitude                2.10    65.00     21.00        9.00

Dispersion               0.15   145.47     21.97        3.23

Quadratic                0.39    12.06      4.69        1.80
abnormality
mean

Standard error           0.05    1.56       0.61        0.23

Variability              5.89    11.27    -262.83       39.21
coefficient

                            Right      Cube test,   Cube test,
                         equilibrium    seconds      mistakes

Number                       30            30           30

Arithmetic mean             5.03         22.72         2.53

Trust interval    -95%      4.21         21.26         2.19
of the mean       95%       5.86         24.17         2.88

Median                      4.00         22.00         2.00

Inferior limit              1.00         11.00         0.00

Superior limit              18.00        39.00         6.00

Lawer Quartile              3.00         20.00         2.00

Upper Quartile              6.00         26.00         4.00

Amplitude                   17.00        28.00         6.00

Dispersion                  10.17        31.83         1.81

Quadratic                   3.19          5.64         1.35
abnormality
mean

Standard error              0.41          0.73         0.17

Variability                 63.35        24.84        53.14
coefficient

                         Matorin   Matorin   Resistance
                          left      right      (sec.)

Number                     30        30          30

Arithmetic mean          246.05    230.38      208.93

Trust interval    -95%   238.04    221.94      205.38
of the mean       95%    254.06    238.83      212.48

Median                   246.50    230.00      209.00

Inferior limit           170.00    130.00      172.00

Superior limit           350.00    310.00      259.00

Lawer Quartile           235.50    221.50      202.50

Upper Quartile           257.00    243.00      214.50

Amplitude                180.00    180.00      87.00

Dispersion               961.47    1068.85     188.98

Quadratic                 31.01     32.69      13.75
abnormality
mean

Standard error            4.00      4.22        1.77

Variability               12.60     14.19       6.58
coefficient

Table 2. Motor and psycho motor aptitudes--girls-2007

                         30 m   Lenght jump   Mobility      Left
                                 on place                equilibrium

Number                    30        30           30          30

Arithmetic mean          7.09      94.73        2.62        5.53

Trust interval    -95%   6.94      91.88        1.49        4.57
of the mean       95%    7.24      97.59        3.75        6.50

Median                   7.10      95.00        3.00        5.00

Inferior limit           6.00      69.00       -8.00        2.00

Superior limit           9.20     130.00       13.00        25.00

Lawer Quartile           6.75      91.00        0.00        3.00

Upper Quartile           7.30      98.50        5.00        6.00

Amplitude                3.20      61.00       21.00        23.00

Dispersion               0.33     122.27       19.19        13.91

Quadratic                0.58      11.06        4.38        3.73
abnormality
mean

Standard error           0.07      1.43         0.57        0.48

Variability              8.14      11.67       167.41       67.41
coefficient

                            Right      Cube test,   Cube test,
                         equilibrium    seconds      mistakes

Number                       30            30           30

Arithmetic mean             4.95         19.60         2.87

Trust interval    -95%      4.28         18.38         2.45
of the mean       95%       5.62         20.82         3.29

Median                      5.00         20.00         2.00

Inferior limit              1.00         11.00         0.00

Superior limit              15.00        35.00         7.00

Lawer Quartile              3.00         17.00         2.00

Upper Quartile              6.00         21.50         4.00

Amplitude                   14.00        24.00         7.00

Dispersion                  6.76         22.38         2.66

Quadratic                   2.60          4.73         1.63
abnormality
mean

Standard error              0.34          0.61         0.21

Variability                 52.53        24.14        56.89
coefficient

                         Matorin   Matorin   Resistance
                          left      right      (sec.)

Number                     30        30          30

Arithmetic mean          246.80    235.62      229.45

Trust interval    -95%   237.43    225.94      224.92
of the mean       95%    256.17    245.29      233.98

Median                   246.50    236.00      229.50

Inferior limit           150.00    165.00      196.00

Superior limit           350.00    370.00      275.00

Lawer Quartile           220.00    208.50      224.00

Upper Quartile           262.50    247.00      237.50

Amplitude                200.00    205.00      79.00

Dispersion               1317.04   1402.88     307.44

Quadratic                 36.29     37.46      17.53
abnormality
mean

Standard error            4.69      4.84        2.26

Variability               14.70     15.90       7.64
coefficient

Table 3. Motor and psycho motor aptitudes--boys-2008

                         30 m   Lenght jump   Mobility      Left
                                 on place                equilibrium

Number                    30        30           30          30

Arithmetic mean          6.4       120.5        0.0          5.4

Trust interval    -95%   6.0       109.1        -3.8         4.3
of the mean       95%    6.7       131.9        3.8          6.5

Median                   6.5       120.5        0.0          6.0

Inferior limit           5.8       105.0        -7.0         3.0

Superior limit           7.1       139.0        8.0          7.0

Lawer Quartile           6.0       107.0        -3.0         4.5

Upper Quartile           6.7       132.5        2.5          6.0

Amplitude                1.3       34.0         15.0         4.0

Dispersion               0.2       186.0        21.1         1.7

Quadratic                0.4       13.6         4.6          1.3
abnormality
mean

Standard error           0.2        4.8         1.6          0.5

Variability              7.0       11.3          --         24.2
coefficient

                            Right      Resistance   Cube test,
                         equilibrium     (sec.)      seconds

Number                       30            30           30

Arithmetic mean              6.5         195.3         20.4

Trust interval    -95%       4.3         181.7         16.8
of the mean       95%        8.7         208.8         24.0

Median                       7.0         199.0         21.0

Inferior limit               2.0         172.0         14.0

Superior limit              10.0         214.0         26.0

Lawer Quartile               4.5         180.5         17.5

Upper Quartile               8.5         208.5         23.0

Amplitude                    8.0          42.0         12.0

Dispersion                   7.1         263.6         18.6

Quadratic                    2.7          16.2         4.3
abnormality
mean

Standard error               0.9          5.7          1.5

Variability                 41.1          8.3          21.1
coefficient

                         Cube test,   Matorin   Matorin
                          mistakes     left      right

Number                       30         30        30

Arithmetic mean             2.3        246.9     245.6

Trust interval    -95%      1.1        231.0     219.4
of the mean       95%       3.4        262.7     271.9

Median                      2.0        251.5     239.0

Inferior limit              0.0        205.0     200.0

Superior limit              4.0        265.0     300.0

Lawer Quartile              1.5        243.0     226.0

Upper Quartile              3.5        258.0     267.5

Amplitude                   4.0        60.0      100.0

Dispersion                  1.9        358.4     984.6

Quadratic                   1.4        18.9      31.4
abnormality
mean

Standard error              0.5         6.7      11.1

Variability                 61.7        7.7      12.8
coefficient

Table 4. Motor and psycho motor aptitudes--girls-2008

                         30 m   Lenght jump   Mobility      Left
                                 on place                equilibrium

Number                    30        30           30          30

Arithmetic mean          6.8       101.6        6.6          6.3

Trust interval    -95%   6.3       93.6         4.1          3.5
of the mean       95%    7.3       109.6        9.2          9.0

Median                   6.6       101.0        7.0          5.5

Inferior limit           6.0       89.0         1.0          2.0

Superior limit           7.8       116.0        10.0        13.0

Lawer Quartile           6.4       93.5         5.0          4.5

Upper Quartile           7.2       109.5        9.0          7.5

Amplitude                1.8       27.0         9.0         11.0

Dispersion               0.4       91.7         9.1         10.8

Quadratic                0.6        9.6         3.0          3.3
abnormality
mean

Standard error           0.2        3.4         1.1          1.2

Variability              8.9        9.4         45.6        52.5
coefficient

                            Right      Resistance   Cube test,
                         equilibrium     (sec.)      seconds

Number                       30            30           30

Arithmetic mean              5.6         224.3         16.6

Trust interval    -95%       3.0         207.2         14.1
of the mean       95%        8.2         241.3         19.2

Median                       5.0         223.5         17.0

Inferior limit               3.0         197.0         11.0

Superior limit              12.0         255.0         20.0

Lawer Quartile               3.0         208.0         15.0

Upper Quartile               7.0         239.5         19.0

Amplitude                    9.0          58.0         9.0

Dispersion                   9.7         416.8         9.1

Quadratic                    3.1          20.4         3.0
abnormality
mean

Standard error               1.1          7.2          1.1

Variability                 55.4          9.1          18.2
coefficient

                         Cube test,   Matorin   Matorin
                          mistakes     left      right

Number                       30         30        30

Arithmetic mean             3.1        276.6     278.8

Trust interval    -95%      2.2        241.5     234.5
of the mean       95%       4.1        311.7     323.0

Median                      3.0        277.5     280.0

Inferior limit              2.0        210.0     204.0

Superior limit              5.0        350.0     370.0

Lawer Quartile              2.0        251.0     238.0

Upper Quartile              4.0        298.0     310.0

Amplitude                   3.0        140.0     166.0

Dispersion                  1.3       1762.0    2799.9

Quadratic                   1.1        42.0      52.9
abnormality
mean

Standard error              0.4        14.8      18.7

Variability                 36.0       15.2      19.0
coefficient
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Title Annotation:VARIA
Author:Vaida, Marius
Publication:Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education and Sport/Science, Movement and Health
Article Type:Report
Date:Jun 1, 2009
Words:3277
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