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Comparative evaluation of anti-microbials in treatment and improving conception rate in endometritic crossbred cows.

Introduction

Endometritis is most commonly encountered anomaly causing repeat breeding in cattle. A wide variety of micro-organism infects the female genital tracts and causes pathological changes leading to infertility. Beside this, metabolites of bacteria and inflammatory exudates alter pH of uterine and vaginal fluids resulting in failure of conception due to death of spermatozoa or fertilized ovum. Various antimicrobial agents have been advocated and tried for therapeutic management of this condition with different degree of success (Shukla and Sharma, 2005). Treatment of endometritis has been routinely carried out with intrauterine infusion of antibiotics. However, indiscriminate use of antibacterial agents to treat uterine infection has invariably resulted in emergence of resistance bacterial infection is due to emergence of drug resistant bacterial strains (Arora et al., 2000). The present study was designed to evaluate efficacy of intrauterine infusion of different antimicrobial agents on recovery and conception rate of endometritic crossbred cows.

Materials and Methods Selection of experimental animals

The present study was conducted on 110 crossbred cows with endometritis presented with history of more than 3 inseminations. These cows were selected on basis of history of repeat breeding, through per-rectal examination and physio-chemical characterstics of cervical mucus. Cows with purulent or mucopurulent estrual discharge or containing white flakes and positive reaction to white side test (Popov, 1969) were considered positive for endometritis. Moreover, animals with history of repeat breeding and clear discharge but positive reaction to white side test were also included in present study. All the cows were examined per-rectally to rule out any anatomical defects of genitalia and ovarian abnormalities.

Experimental procedures

Cows were randomly divided into 4 groups i.e. group-1, 2, 3 and 4. In group 1 (n= 30), 60 ml Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (50 mg/ml) was infused intrauterine for 3 consecutive days. In group 2 (n=30), 30 ml of Levofloxacin (20mg/ml) + Ornidazole (40mg/ml) + [alpha]-Tocopherol (5mg/ml) (Lenovo AP (a))was infused intrauterine for 3 consecutive days. In group-3 (n= 30), Cephalexin (4 gm) whereas in group 4 (n=20) considered as untreated control, sterile normal saline solution (60 ml) was infused intrauterine for 3 consecutive days.

Collection of cervico-vaginal mucus

Estrual cervico-vaginal mucus from each cow was collected before treatment and at subsequent estrus by recto-vaginal technique as per Dabas and Maurya (1988). Estrual cervico-vaginal mucus was studied for its appearance, presence of white flakes, abnormal colour, white side test (Popov, 1969) and pH of cervico-vaginal mucus using pH strip.

Assessment of recovery and conception rate

The clinical recovery was assessed by clear appearance of discharge, reduction in pH and negative white side test at subsequent estrus. Cows during subsequent estrus were inseminated twice, 12 h apart, using french mini sahiwal semen straw. Cows which return to estrus after first AI were again inseminated at second subsequent estrus. Pregnancy was confirmed per-rectally 60 days after insemination.

Statistical analysis

Statistical analysis was done according to method described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994) by using normal deviate test.

Results and Discussion

In the present experiment, the recovery and conception rate of endometritic cows were 90% (27/30), 93.33% (28/30), 86.66% (26/30), 20% (4/20) and 77.77% (21/27), 89.28% (25/28), 76.92% (20/26) 25% (1/4), respectively, in Oxytetracycline hydrochloride, Levofloxacin + Ornidazole + [alpha]-Tocopherol, Cephalexin treated groups and normal saline infused control group of animals (Table 1). The recovery rate from endometris and further conception rate were significantly (P<0.05) higher in intrauterine infused antimicrobial agent groups as compared to normal saline infused control group.

In the present study, the cows with endometritis gave purulent or mucopurulent discharge prior to treatment. 100 % cows in all the groups (group 1-4) were positive to white side test prior to treatment. Positive reaction to white side test could be explained on basis of number of leucocytes present in uterine discharge (Popov, 1969). The normal discharges have less number of leucocytes to cause any change of colour whereas in clinical and subclinical cases of endometritis, discharge contains increased number of leucocytes causing colouring reaction (Pateria and Rawal, 1990). The pH of estrual cervico-vaginal mucus of all 4 groups was alkaline (above 8) prior to treatment. The increase in pH might be due to metabolites of bacteria and inflammatory exudates in estrual mucus (Sulphale et al., 1993) and once infection was eliminated, pH of cervical mucus returns towards the neutral side (Markusfeld, 1984). After treatment, pH declined in all treated animals at subsequent estrus (become 6.6-6.8) where as in control animals, pH remain towards alkaline side.

In group 1, intrauterine infusion of Oxytetracycline hydrochloride revealed 90% recovery rate from endometritis as indicated by negative colour reaction of estrual cervico-vaginal mucus to white side test at subsequent estrus and out of that 77.77% animals conceived. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride is a popular antibiotic used for uterine infection. The drug being irritant help in expelling debris from genital tract (Morrow, 1980). Bhat and Bhattachryya (2012) reported 75% clinical recovery and 77.78% first service conception rate in oxytetracycline hydrochloride treated metritic cows. The present finding showed higher recovery rate (90%) in endometritic cows but similar conception rate (77.77%). Shelden and Noakes (1988) observed 73% efficacy of intrauterine use of oxytetracycline hydrochloride.

In group 2, 92.33% animal treated with Levofloxacin + Ornidazole + [alpha] tocopherol discharged clear estrual cervico-vaginal mucus with negative colour reaction to white side test at subsequent estrus and 89.28% animals were conceived. Singh et al. (2011) reported 82% recovery rate from endometritis and further 68% conception rate by intrauterine use of Levofloxacin + [alpha]-Tocopherol in repeat breeders endometritic cross bred cows. The present finding showed higher recovery (92.33%) and conception rate (89.28%). Levofloxacin is a recently introduced second generation fluroquinolones possesses excellent activity against gram positive, gram negative and anaerobic bacteria (North et al., 1998) as compared to other fluroquinolones, Ofloxacin and Ciprofloxacin. It also has more pronounced bactericidal activity against organism viz Pseudomonas, Enterobacteriaceae and Klebsiella (Kunin et al., 1959). [alpha]-Tocopherol is an important lipid soluble antioxidant within membrane and influence both cellular and humoral immunity, thereby increasing the phagocytic activity of neutrophils. The bactericidal activity of Levofloxacin, antiprotozoal activity of Ornidazole with synergistic action on anaerobes with Levofloxacin and immune stimulant activity of [alpha]-Tocopherol might be the reason for higher efficacy than other treated groups. Markandeya et al. (2011) reported that synergism of Levofloxacin-Ornidazole and [alpha]-Tocopherol showed superior efficacy in treatment as well as prevention of post-partum affection and had favourable effect on the productivity in buffaloes.

In group-3, infusion of Cephalexin by intrauterine route in endometritic cows caused 86.66% recovery as indicated by negative colour reaction to estrual cervico-vaginal mucus to white side test at subsequent estrus followed by 76.92% conception rate (Table 1). Kusum et al. (2008) reported that conception rate was 55% in endometritic crossbred cows after intrauterine therapy of Cephalexin. However, Kumar et al. (2010) reported 80% conception rate within 3 cycles among repeat breeders buffaloes after intrauterine administration of 4 gm Cephalexin, 24 h post AI.

From the present study it is concluded that the recovery rate from endometris and further conception rate were significantly (P< 0.05) higher in intrauterine infused antimicrobial agent groups as compared to normal saline infused group.

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References

Arora, A.K., Singh, J., Pangaonkar, G.R. and Nanda, A.S. (2002). Bacteriological studies on the genital infection in repeat breeder bovines.Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 21: 146-147.

Bhat, F.A. and Bhattacharyya, H.K. (2012).Management of Metritis in Crossbred cattle of Kashmir using Oxytetracycline, Cephalexin and Prostaglandin [F.sub.2[alpha]]. Indian J. Anim. Res., 46: 187-89.

Dabas, Y.P.S and Maurya, S.N. (1988). A field method for collection of bovine cervical mucus for microbiological studies.Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 9: 138-39.

Kumar, Rajesh, Dhami, A.J. Bhutani, M. G., Kavani, F.S., Sarvaiya, N.P. and Ankita Killedar (2010). Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 31: 30-32.

Kunin, C. M., Dornbush, A.C. Finland, M. (1959). Distribution and excretion of four tetracycline analogues in normal young men. J. Clin. Invest 38: 1950-63.

Kusum, K., Roy, G.P., Kunj, V., Asthana, R.K., and Akhtar, M.H. (2008). Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 29: 92-94.

Markandeya, N.M., Muley, V.D., Digaraskar, S.U. and Bhattacharyya, J. (2011). Efficacy of levofloxacin-ornidazole and a-tocopherol combination in the treatment as well as prevention of post-partum affections in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).Vet. Practitioner.12: 260-63.

Markusfield, O. (1984). Factors responsible for post parturient metritis in dairy cattle. Vet. Rec. 114: 539-42.

Marrow, D.A. (1980). In: Current in therapy in Theriogenology. W.B. Saunders Company Philladelphia, London, p.23.

North, D.S., Fish, D.N. and Rawal, C.V.S. (1990). Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 26: 17.

Popov, Yu. N. (1969). Diagnosis of occult endometritis in cows (using white side test on cervical mucous). Veterinariya Moscow 4: 85-87.

Salphale, G.V., Kadu, M.M., Fasihddin, M. and Kadu, M.S. (1993). Study of some physical properties of estrual cervical mucus in synchronized normal and repeat breeder crossbred cows with reference to fertility. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 14: 77-78.

Sheldon, I. M. and Noakes, D.E. (1988). Comparison of three treatments for bovine endometritis.Vet. Rec. 142: 575-79.

Singh, B., Singh, K.P., Singh, S.V., Singh, J.P. and Singh, H.N. (2011). Indian Vet. J. 88: 72-73.

Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods, 8th edn. The Iowa State University Press. Ames, Iowa, U.S.A.

K.P. Singh (1), Bhoopendra Singh (2), S.V. Singh (3), J.P. Singh (3), Praneeta Singh (4) and H.N. Singh (5)

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Narendradev University of Agriculture and Technology

Kumarganj

Faizabad--224229 (Uttar Pradesh)

(1.) Veterinary Officer, Government Veterinary Hosptal, Deoranian, Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh and Corresponding author E mail: drkpsvet@rediffmail.com

(2.) Assistant Professor, Deparment of Animal Reproduction, Gynaecology and Obstetrics,

(3.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Medicine

(4.) Assistant Professor, Department of Livestock Product Technology, C.V.A.Sc., Pantnagar, Uttrakhand

(5.) Professor and Head, Department of Surgery and Radiology

(a)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
Table 1. Effect of antimicrobial agents on recovery and
conception rate in endometritic cows

Group     Number of   Treatment followed          Number of
of cows   animals                                 animals
                                                  recovered
                                                  from
                                                  endometritis

1         30          Oxytetracycline hcl (50     27
                        mg / ml) 60 ml
                        intrauterine daily for
                        3 days
2         30          Levofloxacin (20 mg /       28
                        ml) + Ornidazole (40 mg
                        / ml) +
                        [alpha]-tocopherol (5
                        mg / ml) 30 ml
                        intrauterine daily for
                        3 days
3         30          Cephalexin (4 gm)           26
                        intrauterine daily for
                        3 days
4         30          60 ml normal saline         4
                        solution intrauterine
                        for 3 consecutive days

Group     Recovery rate           Number of
of cows   from endometritis       animals
                                  conceived (%)

1         27 / 30 (90 % (a))      21
2         28 /30 (93.33 % (a))    25
3         26 / 30 (86.66 % (a))   20
4         4 / 20 (20 % (b))       1

Group     Conception rate (%)
of cows

1         21 / 27 (77.77 % (a))
2         25 / 28 (89.28 % (a))
3         20 / 26 (76.92 % (a))
4         1 / 4 (25 % (b))

(a,b)--Difference was found significant (P < 0.05).
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Singh, K.P.; Singh, Bhoopendra; Singh, S.V.; Singh, J.P.; Singh, Praneeta; Singh, H.N.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:1962
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