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Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of chemotherapeutics against natural infestation of gastro-intestinal nematodes in caprines.

Introduction

Goat is one of the most resourceful and efficient ruminant. Easy handling, adaptability to free living conditions, modest feed requirements and good tolerance to climate in semi-arid and arid regions, effective conversion of limited resources into meat, milk and hides are desired factors favouring goat as a stock animal for small-scale farmers (Balicka-Ramisz, 1999; Harper and Penzhorn, 1999). Gastro-Intestinal (GI) parasitic infections in small ruminants are of considerable economic importance because small ruminant rearing is a major source of income especially to small and marginal farmers and land less labours of country (Bandyopadhyay, 1999).

Goats like other grazing animals are infested with large number of gastrointestinal nematodes such as stomach worms, Haemonchus spp., (bloodsucking worms) that cause anaemia and weight loss and Trichostrongylus axei which causes gastritis, diarrhoea and weight loss; worms of the small intestine such as Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia spp., heavy infestations of which cause diarrhoea, loss of condition and loss of appetite; Bunostomum and Gaigeria, hookworms of small intestine, which can cause anaemia, diarrhoea and loss of condition and Oesophagostomum spp. worms of large intestine (Hall, 1985; Kimberling, 1988). In absence of effective vaccine against these GI nematodes, use of anthelmintic so far has been the most effective method to control parasites. A number of anthelmintics having different mode of actions are now available of which Ivermectin, Closantel and Oxyclosanide and Levamisole combination are widely used in field conditions for routine in deworming small ruminants. Prolonged use of a particular anthelmintic results in anthelmintic resistant strains of GI nematodes. Therefore, it was felt necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these three drugs against natural infection of GI nematodes in Ganjam goats.

Materials and Methods

A total of forty free ranging Ganjam goats reared in their home tract and found positive for GI nematodes were selected and divided into 4 groups as A,B,C and D each containing 10 animals and were maintained under similar nutritional and managemental conditions. Group 'A' goats were kept as untreated control. Group B goats were administered with Closantel @ 1 ml/ 15kg bw orally, Group C goats were administered with Oxyclozanide (6% w/v) + Levamisole (3% w/v) @ 0.33ml/ kg b.wt. orally and Group D goats were administered with Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/ kg b. wt. subcutaneously as injection. Prior to treatment faecal sample from each individual animal was collected directly from rectum using disposable hand gloves and stored in separate labelled containers containing 5% formalin solution till further processing and evaluation. EPG for each animal of all four groups was determined prior to administration of medication and thereafter on 0,7,14 and 21 day post treatment using McMaster's technique. The efficacies of the above three drugs were evaluated by comparing the mean EPG of treated animals with that of control animals by using the formula:

FECR% = (1-Xt/Xc) x 100 (Coles et al., 1992)

where:

Xt: Arithmetic mean EPG post treatment

Xc: Arithmetic mean EPG of control

Statistical Analysis

Analysis of data was carried out by standard statistical procedures as per Snedecor and Cochran (1994).

Results and Discussion

The data on anthelmintic efficacy of Ivermectin, Closantel and Oxyclosanide and Levamisole in Ganjam goats have been summarised in Table-1 and Graph-1 and 2. There was significant increase in mean EPG in control group (group A) gradually from 0 day to 21 day. The goats treated with Closantel (group B) showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was further decreased to 0 at 14th DPT and maintained upto 21st DPT. The goats treated with combination of Oxyclozanide + Levamisole (group C) showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was maintained upto 14th DPT and then significantly increased at 21st DPT. The group of animals treated with Ivermectin inj. (group D) also showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was maintained upto 14th DPT and then significantly increased at 21st DPT. Perusal of Table-1 and Graph-2 showed that all three were found to be effective with more than 95% efficacy on 7th DPT. However, Ivermectin was found to be most effective in comparison to others. Closantel gave longer protection against reinfection beyond 14th day.

Of three anthelmintic tried (Closantel, Oxyclozanide + Levamisole and Ivermectin inj.) against natural infestation of GI nematodes in Ganjam goats, all three were found to be effective with more than 95% efficacy on 7th DPT. Efficacy of Ivermectin was found to be highest i.e. 100% in comparison to other two. The present findings corroborate with the observations of several workers in India (Prakash et al., 2010; Kamaraj et al., 2011) and Ethiopia (Kumsa et al., 2010). Closantel gave longer protection against reinfection beyond 14 days with 100% efficacy. This was reported earlier by Dorny et al. (1994) who conducted similar experiment in Malaysia. The efficacy of Levamisole and Oxyclosanide combination was 98.7% and 98.83% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Similar observations were recorded by Waruiru et al. (1996) in Denmark who found that the efficacy was 98.6% on 10 day posttreatment. Campbell et al. (1978) and Yadav et al. (1993) had recorded efficacy of Levamisole against GI nematode infection at 98% and 95% in Austrilia and India respectively.

Acknowledgement

The authors thankfully acknowledge the facilities provided by the Dean, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry and the Dean of Research, O.U.A.T for the above study.

References

Balicka--Ramisz, A. (1999). Studies on coccidiosis in goats in Poland. Vet. Parasitol. 81:347-49.

Bandopadhyaya, B. (1999). GI parasites of sheep and goats at Salboni, West Bengal. J. Vet. Parasitol. 13: 79-80.

Campbell, N.J., Hall, C.A., Kelly, J.D., Martin, I.C. (1978). The anthelmintic efficacy of non-benzimidazole anthelmintics against benzimidazole resistant strains of Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis in sheep. Aust Vet J. 54:23-25.

Coles, G.C., Bauer, C., Borgsteede, F.H.M., Geerts, S., Klei, T.R., Taylor, M.A. and Waller, P.J. (1992). World association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) methods for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet. Parasitol. 44: 35-44.

Dorny, P., Vercruysse, J., Jalila, A., Sani, R. and Symoens, C. (1994). Control of haemonchosis in Malaysian goats with closantel. Vet. Parasitol. 53: 233-41.

Hall, H.T.B. (1985). Disease and parasites of livestock in the tropics. Longman Scientific and Technical: 328.

Harper, C.K. and Penzhorn., L.B. (1999). Occurrence and diversity of coccidian in indigenous, Saanen and crossbred goats in South Africa. Vet. Parasitol. 82:1-9.

Kamaraj, C., Rahuman, A.A., Elango, G., Bagavan, A. and Zahir, A.A. (2011). Anthelmintic activity of botanical extracts against sheep gastrointestinal nematodes, Haemonchus contortus. Parasitol Res. 109: 37-45.

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Kumsa, B., Debela, E. and Megersa, B. (2010). Comparative Efficacy of Albendazole, Tetramisole and Ivermectin against Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Naturally Infected Goats in Ziway, Oromia Regional State (Southern Ethiopia). J. Anim. Vet. Advan. 9: 2905-11.

Prakash, V., Bano, S., Yadav, M. P. S. and Singh, S. P. (2010). Therapeutic management of helminthic infection in goats. Asian J. Anim. Sci. 5: 85-86.

Snedecor, G.W. and Cochran, W.G. (1994). Statistical Methods. 8th Ed.pp. Affiliated East West Press. New Delhi, India.

Waruiru, R.M., Weda, E.H., Otieno, R.O., Ngotho, J.W., Bogh, H.O. (1996). Comparative efficacies of closantel, ivermectin, oxfendazole, thiophanate and levamisole against thiabendazole resistant Haemonchus contortus in sheep. Trop. Anim. Health. Prod. 28:216-20.

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D. Sarangi, B.N. Mohanty (1), M.R. Panda, D.K. Karna (2) and M. Dehuri

Department of Veterinary Parasitology

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology

Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa)

(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author E-mail: bijayendranath@gmail.com

(2.) Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Table--1 Efficacy of Anthelmintics against GI Nematodes in caprines

Group                Mean EPG on different days (Post Treatment)
                     0 Day                     7th Day

A (Control)          3275 [+ or -] 45.41 (a)   5415 [+ or -]72.81 (b)

B (Treated with      2775 [+ or -] 47.87 (a)   55 [+ or -] 5.0 (b)
  Closantel)
C (Treated with      2675 [+ or -] 47.87 (a)   75 [+ or -] 8.33 (b)
  Oxyclozanide +
  Levamisole
D (Treated with      2275 [+ or -] 47.87 (a)   0 (b)
  Ivermectin Inj.)

Group                Mean EPG on different days (Post Treatment)
                     14th Day               21st Day

A (Control)          5550 [+ or -]          5685 [+ or -]
                       127.14 (c)             154.56 (d)
B (Treated with      0 (c)                  0 (c)
  Closantel)
C (Treated with      65 [+ or -] 7.63 (b)   350 [+ or -] 28.86 (c)
  Oxyclozanide +
  Levamisole
D (Treated with      0 (b)                  65 [+ or -] 7.63 (c)
  Ivermectin Inj.)

Group                Percentage efficacy (%)
                     7th    14th    21st

A (Control)          0      0       0

B (Treated with      99     100     100
  Closantel)
C (Treated with      98.7   98.83   93.85
  Oxyclozanide +
  Levamisole
D (Treated with      100    100     98.9
  Ivermectin Inj.)

(a/b/c)- means containing different superscripts differ
significantly (p < 0.01)

Mean FPG (Post-treatment in Ganjam goats

                            0 Day   7th Day   14th Day   21st Day

Control                     3775    5415      5550       5685
Treated with Closantel      2775    0         0          0
Treated with Oxyclozanide   2675    75        65         350
  + Levamisole
Treated with Invermectin    2275    55        0          65

Note: Table made from line graph.

                            7th Day   14th Day   21st Day

Control                     0         0          0
Treated with Closantel      99        100        180
Treated with Oxyclozanide   98.7      98.87      98.83
  + Levamisole
Treated with Invermectin    100       100        98.9

Note: Table made from bar graph.
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Sarangi, D.; Mohanty, B.N.; Panda, M.R.; Karna, D.K.; Dehuri, M.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2014
Words:1599
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