Comparative evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of chemotherapeutics against natural infestation of gastro-intestinal nematodes in caprines.
Goat is one of the most resourceful and efficient ruminant. Easy handling, adaptability to free living conditions, modest feed requirements and good tolerance to climate in semi-arid and arid regions, effective conversion of limited resources into meat, milk and hides are desired factors favouring goat as a stock animal for small-scale farmers (Balicka-Ramisz, 1999; Harper and Penzhorn, 1999). Gastro-Intestinal (GI) parasitic infections in small ruminants are of considerable economic importance because small ruminant rearing is a major source of income especially to small and marginal farmers and land less labours of country (Bandyopadhyay, 1999).
Goats like other grazing animals are infested with large number of gastrointestinal nematodes such as stomach worms, Haemonchus spp., (bloodsucking worms) that cause anaemia and weight loss and Trichostrongylus axei which causes gastritis, diarrhoea and weight loss; worms of the small intestine such as Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Cooperia spp., heavy infestations of which cause diarrhoea, loss of condition and loss of appetite; Bunostomum and Gaigeria, hookworms of small intestine, which can cause anaemia, diarrhoea and loss of condition and Oesophagostomum spp. worms of large intestine (Hall, 1985; Kimberling, 1988). In absence of effective vaccine against these GI nematodes, use of anthelmintic so far has been the most effective method to control parasites. A number of anthelmintics having different mode of actions are now available of which Ivermectin, Closantel and Oxyclosanide and Levamisole combination are widely used in field conditions for routine in deworming small ruminants. Prolonged use of a particular anthelmintic results in anthelmintic resistant strains of GI nematodes. Therefore, it was felt necessary to evaluate the efficacy of these three drugs against natural infection of GI nematodes in Ganjam goats.
Materials and Methods
A total of forty free ranging Ganjam goats reared in their home tract and found positive for GI nematodes were selected and divided into 4 groups as A,B,C and D each containing 10 animals and were maintained under similar nutritional and managemental conditions. Group 'A' goats were kept as untreated control. Group B goats were administered with Closantel @ 1 ml/ 15kg bw orally, Group C goats were administered with Oxyclozanide (6% w/v) + Levamisole (3% w/v) @ 0.33ml/ kg b.wt. orally and Group D goats were administered with Ivermectin @ 0.2 mg/ kg b. wt. subcutaneously as injection. Prior to treatment faecal sample from each individual animal was collected directly from rectum using disposable hand gloves and stored in separate labelled containers containing 5% formalin solution till further processing and evaluation. EPG for each animal of all four groups was determined prior to administration of medication and thereafter on 0,7,14 and 21 day post treatment using McMaster's technique. The efficacies of the above three drugs were evaluated by comparing the mean EPG of treated animals with that of control animals by using the formula:
FECR% = (1-Xt/Xc) x 100 (Coles et al., 1992)
Xt: Arithmetic mean EPG post treatment
Xc: Arithmetic mean EPG of control
Analysis of data was carried out by standard statistical procedures as per Snedecor and Cochran (1994).
Results and Discussion
The data on anthelmintic efficacy of Ivermectin, Closantel and Oxyclosanide and Levamisole in Ganjam goats have been summarised in Table-1 and Graph-1 and 2. There was significant increase in mean EPG in control group (group A) gradually from 0 day to 21 day. The goats treated with Closantel (group B) showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was further decreased to 0 at 14th DPT and maintained upto 21st DPT. The goats treated with combination of Oxyclozanide + Levamisole (group C) showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was maintained upto 14th DPT and then significantly increased at 21st DPT. The group of animals treated with Ivermectin inj. (group D) also showed significant decrease in mean EPG at 7th DPT (p < 0.01) which was maintained upto 14th DPT and then significantly increased at 21st DPT. Perusal of Table-1 and Graph-2 showed that all three were found to be effective with more than 95% efficacy on 7th DPT. However, Ivermectin was found to be most effective in comparison to others. Closantel gave longer protection against reinfection beyond 14th day.
Of three anthelmintic tried (Closantel, Oxyclozanide + Levamisole and Ivermectin inj.) against natural infestation of GI nematodes in Ganjam goats, all three were found to be effective with more than 95% efficacy on 7th DPT. Efficacy of Ivermectin was found to be highest i.e. 100% in comparison to other two. The present findings corroborate with the observations of several workers in India (Prakash et al., 2010; Kamaraj et al., 2011) and Ethiopia (Kumsa et al., 2010). Closantel gave longer protection against reinfection beyond 14 days with 100% efficacy. This was reported earlier by Dorny et al. (1994) who conducted similar experiment in Malaysia. The efficacy of Levamisole and Oxyclosanide combination was 98.7% and 98.83% on day 7 and 14 respectively. Similar observations were recorded by Waruiru et al. (1996) in Denmark who found that the efficacy was 98.6% on 10 day posttreatment. Campbell et al. (1978) and Yadav et al. (1993) had recorded efficacy of Levamisole against GI nematode infection at 98% and 95% in Austrilia and India respectively.
The authors thankfully acknowledge the facilities provided by the Dean, College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry and the Dean of Research, O.U.A.T for the above study.
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D. Sarangi, B.N. Mohanty (1), M.R. Panda, D.K. Karna (2) and M. Dehuri
Department of Veterinary Parasitology
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Bhubaneswar-751 003 (Orissa)
(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(2.) Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics
Table--1 Efficacy of Anthelmintics against GI Nematodes in caprines Group Mean EPG on different days (Post Treatment) 0 Day 7th Day A (Control) 3275 [+ or -] 45.41 (a) 5415 [+ or -]72.81 (b) B (Treated with 2775 [+ or -] 47.87 (a) 55 [+ or -] 5.0 (b) Closantel) C (Treated with 2675 [+ or -] 47.87 (a) 75 [+ or -] 8.33 (b) Oxyclozanide + Levamisole D (Treated with 2275 [+ or -] 47.87 (a) 0 (b) Ivermectin Inj.) Group Mean EPG on different days (Post Treatment) 14th Day 21st Day A (Control) 5550 [+ or -] 5685 [+ or -] 127.14 (c) 154.56 (d) B (Treated with 0 (c) 0 (c) Closantel) C (Treated with 65 [+ or -] 7.63 (b) 350 [+ or -] 28.86 (c) Oxyclozanide + Levamisole D (Treated with 0 (b) 65 [+ or -] 7.63 (c) Ivermectin Inj.) Group Percentage efficacy (%) 7th 14th 21st A (Control) 0 0 0 B (Treated with 99 100 100 Closantel) C (Treated with 98.7 98.83 93.85 Oxyclozanide + Levamisole D (Treated with 100 100 98.9 Ivermectin Inj.) (a/b/c)- means containing different superscripts differ significantly (p < 0.01) Mean FPG (Post-treatment in Ganjam goats 0 Day 7th Day 14th Day 21st Day Control 3775 5415 5550 5685 Treated with Closantel 2775 0 0 0 Treated with Oxyclozanide 2675 75 65 350 + Levamisole Treated with Invermectin 2275 55 0 65 Note: Table made from line graph. 7th Day 14th Day 21st Day Control 0 0 0 Treated with Closantel 99 100 180 Treated with Oxyclozanide 98.7 98.87 98.83 + Levamisole Treated with Invermectin 100 100 98.9 Note: Table made from bar graph.
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|Title Annotation:||Clinical Article|
|Author:||Sarangi, D.; Mohanty, B.N.; Panda, M.R.; Karna, D.K.; Dehuri, M.|
|Date:||Jan 1, 2014|
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