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Comparative efficacy of different antibiotics against calf diarrhea.

Introduction

Calf diarrohea is characterized by profuse watery faeces, progressive tissue dehydration and acidosis (Kaske, 1994). Naylor (2005) reported that Escherchia Coli is the most common etiological agent for calf diarrhea. The primary treatment of calf diarrhea depends upon choice of the therapeutic regime concurrent with suitable electrolyte-cum fluid replacement therapy. The therapeutic efficacy of different antibiotics is based on homeostasis and restoration of the normal clinical parameters.

Materials and Methods

A total of twenty four diarrhoeic bovine calves of either sex, upto six months of age were presented with the history of passing loose feces for 3-5 days. The calves were dull depressed, dehydrated and inappetant to anorectic. The fecal examination of all the calves in this study were negative for any parasitic eggs. The clinical parameters of all the calves revealed subnormal temperature (99.6[degrees]F to 100[degrees]F), increased respiration rate (14-16/ minutes) and reduced pulse rate (30-36/ minutes). The calves were divided randomly into three equal groups.

Treatment and Discussion

The calves of group-I treated with Sulphadiazine-trimethoprim @ 15-20 mg/kg body weight, group-II treated with Ciproflaxacin-Tinidazole @ 20-30 mg/kg body weight and group-III treated with Norfloxacin-Tinidazole @ 20 mg/kg body weight. Calves of all the groups were given supportive rehydration therapy with infusion Ringer lactate (450 ml, IV) for two days and Injection Tribivet (a) ([B.sub.1], [B.sub.6] and [B.sub.12]) @ 3 ml. IM for three days.

In the present study, all the three therapeutic regimens showed similar efficacy for the management of calf diarrhea. In the present study, all the affected calves became normal after three days of therapy. The physiological parameter of all of the affected calves returned to normal and calves started normal feeding. In the present study, oral antibiotics eliminated the root cause of infectious bovine calf diarrhea, use of Ringer Lactate restored the rehydration status and injection of Tribivet (a) ([B.sub.1], [B.sub.6] and [B.sub.12]) increase the tonicity of alimentary tract and improve the general body condition. Different workers used various oral antimicrobial agents for the treatment of bovine calf diarrhea. Dubey and Rao (1991) used oral Cotrimoxazole for treatment of bovine calf diarrhea.

Dupont et al. (1982) and Hill and Pearson (1988) reported that sulphonamides are not very effective against E. coli. However, trimethoprim is highly effective against Gram's positive and Gram's negative bacteria and sulphonamide-trimethoprim combination potenti-ates the antimicrobial activity. Ciprofloxacin and Norfloxacin are effective against Gram's negative organism and in combination with tinidazole, it is also effective against Gram's positive, anaerobes and aerobes and protozoans.

Fernandes et al. (2009) observed comparative efficacy of three groups of antibiotic viz. Sulphadizine-Trimethoprim, Ciprofloxacin-Tinidazole and Amoxycillin and reported that Sulphadizine-Trimethoprim combination as a drug of choice. However, in their study calves treated with Ciprofloxacin-Tinidazole showed least efficacy among the three groups with recurrence of diarrhea in 33% cases. In contrary in the present study all the three antibiotics were equally effective against calf diarrhea and re-occurance of diarrhea was not observed in any treatment groups.

References

Dubey, G. K. and Rao, K. N. P. (1991). Some observations on the therapeutic applicability of norfloxacin in enteric collibacillosis. Indian Vet. J. 68: 761-64.

Dupont, H. L., Reves, R. R., Galindu, E., Sullivan, P. S., Wood, L. V. and Mendolia, J. G. (1982). Treatment of traveller's diarrhea with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and with trimethoprim alone. New England J. Med. 307:841-44.

Fernandes, C. E., Roy, K., Shukla, P. C. and Rao, M. L. V. (2009). Comparative efficacy of different antibiotics against neonatal calf diarrohea. Indian J. Vet. Med. 29 :35-36.

Hill, D. R. and Pearson, R. D. (1998). Health advice for international tavellers.. Ann. Internal Med. 108: 839-52.

Kakse, M (1994). Patho-physiological aspect of neonatal calf diarrhea. Tierarzliche Umchan. 49: 336-344 and 346-348.

Naylor, J. M. (2005). Diseases of Neonatal calves: An update. In: Large Animal Veterinary Rounds 5, Western College of Veterinary Medicine, Calgary, Canada.

K. P. Singh, S. V. Singh (1), J. P. Singh (2), P. Singh (3), H. N. Singh (4)

Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex

College of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry

Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology

Kumarganj

Faizabad--224229 (Uttar Pradesh)

(1.) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary Clinical Medicine, Ethics and Jurisprudence

(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine

(3.) Assistant Professor, Dept. of LPM, CVSC., GBPUAT, Pantnagar

(4.) Dean, College of Veterinary Sciences.

(a)-Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Singh, K.P.; Singh, S.V.; Singh, J.P.; Singh, P.; Singh, H.N.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:732
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