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Comparative analysis of chemical composition of three ecotypes of Chenopodium botrys L. in Iran.


Chenopodiaceae is a large family Comprising about 102 genera and 1400 species [1]. Most of the Chenopodiaceae are halophytes and these plants show xerophytic characters [2]. The genus Chenopodium Linn. is native plant of western Asia [3]. Many species of Chenopodium are being used traditionally in native systems of medicine for the treatment of many ailments [3]. The Chenopodium genus were reported to contain: minerals, carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, hormones, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes, sterols, alkaloids and vitamins [1].

Maksimovic et al. (2005) reported that the essential oil isolated from aerial parts of collected Chenopodium botrys from southern Serbia exhibited significant bactericidal and fungicidal activity [4].

Chenopodium botrys is used in traditional medicine as antispasmodic, onthelmintic and as a spice. Chenopodium botrys can grow in some heavy metal contaminated soils and is a high accumulator plant species for Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn. C.botrys has five flavonoids, comprise: hispidulin, salvigenin, 5-methyl-salvigenin, 7-methyl eupatulin and sinensetin [5].

Herbal medicine plays an important role in human healthcare and due to that they belong to the natural resource, hence they are a leader constituent in traditional medicine [6]. Essential oils are coplex natural mixtures which can contain some components at really different concentrations. They are determined by two or three major components at high concentrations compared to others components present in trace amounts [10]. The essential oils biological effects are the result of a synergism of all components ar reflect of the major components. However, it is possible that the activity of the major componenets is modulated by other minor components [10].


Collection of plants:

The aerial parts of wild Chenopodium botrys were collected in August, 2013 from Isfahan (Chadegan), Mazandaran (Kelardasht), Fars (Abadeh) in Iran. The plants were identified by Dr. Feizi, Research Institue of Agriculture, Isfahan, Iran. The samples were separated and they were air-dried in shade at room temperature. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectametry (GC-MS) Analysis:

The chemical composition of the flowers and leaves essential oil was analyzed using GC and GC-MS. The GC/MS analysis was carried out with an 20 Agilent 5975 GC-MSD system in research laboratory of Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan, Iran. HP-5MS column (30m x 0.25mm. 0.25mm film thickness) 20 was used with helium as carrier gas (1.2mL/min). GC oven temperature was kept 20 at 50 C2 B0C for 3 min and programmed to 280 C2 B0C at a rate of 5 C2 B0C/min, and kept 20 constant at 290 C2 B0C for 3 min, at spilitless mode. The injector temperature was at 20 280 C2 B0C. Transfer 20 line temperature 280 C2 B0C. MS were taken at 70 20 eV. Mass ranger was from m/z 35 to 450. Head space GC-MS was used in this study. This method can use plant dry matter for chemical analysis.


GC-MS analysis of aerial parts essential oil from 3 sample (Isfahan, Fars, Mazandaran) identified 33, 19, 21 main compounds, respectively.

The results obtained in our study showed that major compounds of Chenopodium botrys aerial parts of Isfahan sample were: Camphene (24.785%), [beta]-Myrcene (11.250%), 1,8-Cineole (10.823%), L-Fenchone (7.205%), Naphthalene (5.846%), cis-Ocimene (4.427%), (Table 1& Figure 1). The major compounds of Chenopodium botrys aerial parts of Fars sample were: 1,8-Cineole (27.650%), Camphor (20.047%), [alpha]-pinene (18.292%), Camphene (11.095%), [beta]-Pinene (8.935%), Thujone (3.410%), (Table 1& Figure 2).

The major compounds of Chenopodium botrys aerial parts of Mazandaran sample were: 1,8-Cineole (39.873%), P-Myrcene (11.246%), Camphor (10.509%), [alpha]-pinene (10.346%), Camphene (4.984%), Cyclohexane (4.110%). (Table 1& Figure 3). Therefore, among the terpenes in Chenopodium botrys aerial parts of Isfahan sample, the Camphene content was highest and in Chenopodium botrys aerial parts of Fars and Mazandaran samples, 1,8-Cineole content was highest.


The results obtained in our study showed that thirty-three, nineteen and twenty- one compounds were identified in dried aerial parts of Chenopodium botrys from Isfahan, Fars and Mazandaran samples, respectively.

The chemical composition of the aerial parts oil of Chenopodium botrys L. from Greece was examined by GC/MS. Fifty-four compounds were identified. Major components include: elemol acetate (16.3%), elmol (14.1%), botrydiol (11.1%), [alpha] chenopodiol (9.5%) and [beta]-eudesmol (7.0%) [8]. The essential oil of Chenopodium botrys which grows in California, Consists of [alpha] and [beta]- chenopodiol (36%), botrydiol (9.0%), elemol (6.5%), elemol acetate (5.5%), [gamma]-eudesmol (5.4%) and [alpha] -and [beta]- eudesmol (3.7%) [9]. The composition of the essential oil obtained from the drive flowering aerial parts of Chenopodium botrys L. from Mazandaran in Iran was analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-one components were identified. The major components of the essential oil were [gamma]-Terpineol (52.8%), [rho]-cymene (19.0%) and iso-ascaridole (7.0%) [10]. The essential oil from the aerial parts of Chenopodium botrys L. collected from two different localities in Iran (East of Tehran, Khakhal-Ardebil) were analyzed by GC/MS. The main components of the two oils were juniper camphor (16.5% and 25.7%), elemol (14.3% and 13.4%) and X-Cadinol (8.2% and 11.6%), respectively [11].

Several factors change yield and substance quality of medicinal and aromatic plants. Nutrition is one of the most important factors that has a basic role in biosynthesis and yield in medicinal plants [12]. Thus, another factors that determine the composition and yield of the essential oil obtained in aromatic plants are numerous. These factors may include: seasonal, genetic and maturity variation, growth stages, geographical origin, part of plant utilized [13].

Therefore, medicinal plants growing in different geographical locations show a marked variation in active ingredients during different seasons, these have environmental variables such as temperature and rain [14]. Golparvar and Hadipanah (2013) reported variation in essential oil content from Thymus vulgaris L. and Salvia officinalis L. collected from Isfahan climatic locations, so that, their results showed that the harvest time, ecological and climatical conditions can be influenced in essential oil composition [15].

Golparvar et al, (2013) reported variation in the yield and chemical profile of essential oils from Mentha longifolia L. ectotypes, collected from different geographical locations (Isfahan and Lorestan) [16].

Van Vuuren et al. 2007 reported the variation in the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil with regard to geographical regions [17]. Habibi et al. 2006 repoted the correlation between essential oil content and lower altitude from Thymus kotschyanus Boiss. collected from Taleghan region.

Evaluation between these results and the results of the other researchers showed differences in essential oil components. Differences observed may be due to the different environmental and genetic factors, different chemotypes and the nutritional status of plants [18].





Evaluation between these results and the results of the other researchers showed differences in essential oil components. Differences observed may be due to the different environmental and genetic factors, different chemotypes and the nutritional status of plants.


Article history:

Received 11 October 2014

Received in revised form 21 November 2014

Accepted 25 December 2014

Available online 16 January 2015


This work was supported by Islamic Azad University, Falavarjan Branch; the authors also thank Dr. Gheisari from Islamic Azad University, Khorasgan Branch, Isfahan for their kindly aid.


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[8] Tzakou, O., A. Pizzimenti, FC. Pizzimenti, V. Sdrafkakis, EM. Galati, 2007. Composition and antimicrobial activity of Chenopodium botrys L. essential oil from Greece. Journal of Essential oil Research, 19(3): 292-294.

[9] Bedrossian, AG., PS. Beauchamp, B. Bernichi, 2001. Analysis of north American Chenopodium botrys essential oil isolation and structure of two new sesquiterpene alcohols. Journal of Essential oil Research, 13(6): 1-8.

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(1) Nasrin Mokhtari-Karchegani, (2) Leila Amjad, (2) Monireh Ranjbar

(1) Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

(2) Department of Biology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran

Corresponding Author: Leila Amjad, Department of Biology, Falavarjan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan, Iran.

Table 1: Chemical composition of Chenopodium
botrys aerial parts from Iran different area.

(*) Compound           Rt (a)   Isfahan %   Fars %    Mazandaran %

[alpha]-Pinene         6.663      2.922     18.292       10.346
Camphene               7.024     24.785     11.095        4.984
[beta]-Pinene          7.906      1.110      8.935        2.979
[beta]-Myrcene         7.913     11.250      1.054       11.246
1,8-Cineole            8.807     10.823     27.650       39.873
L-Fenchone             9.921      7.205       --          2.624
Thujone                10.506      --        3.410         --
Cis-Ocimene            10.602     4.427       --          1.553
Camphor                11.042     0.724     20.047       10.509
Cyclohexane            15.457     2.324       --          4.110
Naphthalene            17.415     5.846       --          1.083
Cyclohexanemethanol    17.928     3.661       --          1.414
Ethanone               19.308     0.847       --          3.076

(b) Rt(Retention time)

(*) Compounds listed in order of elution
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Article Details
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Author:Mokhtari-Karchegani, Nasrin; Amjad, Leila; Ranjbar, Monireh
Publication:Advances in Environmental Biology
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:7IRAN
Date:Dec 1, 2014
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