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Comparative Study of Peace Process between Pakistan and India in The News, Daily Dawn, and The Times of India: A Case study of "Aman Ki Asha".

Byline: Sumera Batool, Zaeem Yasin and Tabinda Khurshid

Abstract

This study aims to analyze and compare the peace process between Pakistan and India in the News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India considering Aman ki Asha. It also investigates whether the government policies of India and Pakistan have any effect on the print media coverage of the issue and policies of selected newspapers regarding Aman ki Asha. Content analysis has been employed as method of investigation. Framing and agenda setting theory give the theoretical underpinning to the research finding which illustrates It has been concluded that Print media of both countries is playing positive role to build peaceful relations between the two countries whereas the print media of Pakistan gives more coverage to Aman ki Asha in this regard. It is also concluded that the government policies of India and Pakistan have an effect on the print media coverage of the peace process to some extent.

Keywords: Print media, Peace process, Pakistan and India Relations, Aman ki Asha.

Introduction

The study is basically a comparison between the coverage of The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India related in promoting peace process between Pakistan and India during January 2010 to Jan 2014. Print Media of both countries i.e. Jang group and The Times of India, took an initiative for the promotion of peace process between both countries, Aman ki Asha which emphasize an exchange program, cultural gatherings, social impact and most important trade between both countries. The insight to the related literature highlighted the importance of dialogues to build the peace between the two countries and also helped to relate the study with the existing body of knowledge. Padder, S. (2012) in the study, "The Composite Dialogue between India and Pakistan: structure, process and agency" said that the participation of former Prime Ministers, Mr. Inder Kumar and Mr. Nawaz Sharif, gave birth to a composite dialogue process between two countries.

And such peace process between India and Pakistan always put forward some positive change. In this dialogue, all the conflicting issues between India and Pakistan were discussed. Burki. (2004) in the research article "Pakistan, India and regional cooperation" discussed that to have good and friendly relations or for the enhancement of good will relations between India and Pakistan, they should promote it through context information and regional arrangement. The old rivalry cannot be removed easily but with the tool of regional arrangement and regional entity, a new way towards the peace process can be achieved. J.N. Dixit. (2002) presented a historical view of Pakistan and India in the book "India-Pakistan in War and Peace" and sketched out all the major peaceful and tensed situations of Pakistan and India. It also discussed that how we were able to compete the different chaos in the history.

Now days after the peace process started by the Pervez Musharraf, it was seen that many steps were utilized towards the friendly relations. Hayat. J. (2001) in "Comparative study of editorial content of Times of India and The News with especial reference to Pakistan and India Ties", sketched the ties that have been kept by the governments of both Pakistan and India.

The main purpose of taking Aman ki Asha is to find out the credibility and importance of this campaign for future perspective. Moreover, the research has discussed various elements like government policies behind maintaining media agendas of Pakistani and Indian print media and their reflection in editorial statement of The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India.

Objectives of the study

- To find out that how peace process between India and Pakistan is covered by Pakistani print media in a given time period.

- To evaluate that how peace process between India and Pakistan is covered by Indian print media in a given time period.

- To analyze whether the government policies of India and Pakistan are affecting the print media (The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India) in a given time period.

- To compare the coverage of peace process in both countries print media (The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India) in a given time period.

- To measure the policies of The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India regarding Aman ki Asha in a given time period.

Theoretical Framework

Theoretical framework of the study is a structure that holds the theory of the research work. Agenda setting and framing theories have been implemented in accordance with the objectives of the study. Agenda setting theory elaborates the importance given to the peace process and making the readers to think about the issue. Whereas the framing elaborates different techniques and frames used in the news that is going to tell the consumers how to think about.

Methodology

Content analysis is a kind of methodology that is used in the social sciences to study the content of communication. It is basically a study of the recorded human communications that can be in any form like books, paintings, laws and websites. The purpose of selecting content analysis is to examine the treatment of print media contents regarding the peace process (Aman ki Asha) between Pakistan and India.

Universe

The universe of this study comprised of The News, Daily Dawn and The Times of India from January 2010 to January 2014.

Sample

In the present study the universe is the sample of study as only Aman Ki Asha campaign is considered in the selected newspapers.

Unit of Analysis

Unit of analysis is that unit or element of recorded information that are under the investigation. This study has the following units:

- Editorials

- News

Categories

The news and editorials are further divided into positive (+), negative (-), and neutral (0) categories.

Operationalization of Categories

Positive The news and editorials published in The News, Daily Dawn and The Times of India that has discussed peace process in a positive manner and reflected the positive coverage of peace process, promotion of relations, new step taken, cultural concerts, awards and successful dialogues have been operationalized as positive.

Negative The news and editorials in The News, Daily Dawn and The Times of India regarding peace process that show the criticism, don not supporting the good will gestures, and are not creating a sense of harmony, different views of fundamentalists and calling Aman ki Asha with bad names have been considered as negative.

Neutral The news and editorials that do not support and are not against the peace process are considered as neutral as any conference that ended up without any solution, obituary news and the coverage of traditional events or national days.

Peace process indicates all the developments, procedures and methods that show the peace between Pakistan and India. These included events, dialogues, meeting, etc.

Hypotheses

H1: Pakistani and Indian print media are building peace through Aman ki Asha.

H2: Pakistani Print gives more positive coverage to peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian print media.

H3: Pakistani print media gives more coverage regarding peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian print media.

Research question

- Which newspaper (The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India) gives more coverage to peace process between India and Pakistan

- To what extent The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India are affected by the policies of government regarding peace process in Pak-Indo relations

- What type of (positive, negative, neutral) coverage has been given to the peace process between Pakistan and India in The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India

- To what extent the policies of The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India are affecting news coverage regarding Aman ki Asha

Findings and Results

This study evaluated the print media coverage of Aman ki Asha in Pakistani and Indian Print Media from Jan 2010 to Jan 2014. It has been observed that print media has tremendous power to influence public opinion and due to its immense capacity, it can assist in respect to peace process between India and Pakistan. The researcher had examined the news items and editorials of selected dailies. After analyzing the whole content the researcher has represented the data in graphs to make it convenient for others to observe representation of Aman ki Asha in The News, Daily Dawn and The Times of India.

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of positive news that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Positive news regarding Aman ki Asha in The News are 216 (54.90%), positive news in Daily Dawn are 30 (7.60%) and positive news in Times of India are 147 (37.40%).

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of positive editorials that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Positive editorials regarding AmankiAsha in The News are 19 (42.20%), positive editorials in Daily Dawn are 3 (6.60%) and positive editorials in Times of India are 23 (51.10%).

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of negative news that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Negative news regarding Aman ki Asha in The News are 7 (21.20%), negative news in Daily Dawn are 17 (51.50%) and negative news in Times of India are 9 (27.20%).

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of negative editorials that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Negative editorials regarding Aman ki Asha in The News are 1 (25%), negative editorials in Daily Dawn are 3 (75%) and negative editorials in Times of India are 0 (0%).

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of neutral news that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Neutral news regarding AmankiAsha in The News are 56 (60.80%), neutral news in Daily Dawn are 8 (8.60%) and neutral news in Times of India are 28 (30.40%).

Figure shows that during 2010-2014, the number of neutral editorials that are published in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India newspapers. Neutral editorials regarding AmankiAsha in The News are 3 (75%), neutral editorials in Daily Dawn are 0 (0%) and neutral editorials in Times of India are 1 (25%).

Hypothesis Testing

Hypotheses' testing has been done in SPSS software whereas Chi-square is being used to test the liability of data gathered.

H1: Pakistani and Indian print media are building peace through AmankiAsha

Ho: Pakistani and Indian print media are not building peace through AmankiAsha.

Chi-Square Tests

###Value###Df###Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

'Pearson Chi-Square'###'10.290a'###'2'###'.005'

'N of Valid Cases'###'3'

Table 1: Shows that by applying Chi-Square test relationship between peace process and the coverage of Pakistani and Indian Print Media related to AmankiAsha is statistically significant (P-Value=0.005). This means that there is an element of association between Pakistani and Indian print media and peace process. Hence, first hypothesis of the study which explains that AmankiAsha (a step taken by Pakistani and Print media) is helpful in building peace between two states is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected.

H2: Pakistani Print media gives more positive coverage to peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian print media.

Ho: Pakistani Print Media doesn't give more positive coverage to peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian Print Media.

Chi-Square Tests

###Asymp. Sig. (2-

###Value###Df###sided)

'Pearson Chi-Square'###'22.100a'###'2'###'.000'

'N of Valid Cases'###'3'

Table 2: Overall 438 stories were found with positive peace coverage related to AmankiAsha among which about 268(61.18%) were published in Pakistani print media and about 170 (38.8%) stories published in Indian print media. The chi square table shows that Pakistani print media is giving significantly positive coverage to peace process between Pakistan and India as compare to Indian print media. (P-Value=0.000). Hence, second hypothesis of the study is also accepted and null hypothesis is rejected.

H3: Pakistani print media gives more coverage regarding peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian print media.

Chi-Square Tests

###Asymp. Sig. (2-

###Value###Df###sided)

'Pearson Chi-Square'###'12.099a'###'2'###'.000'

'N of Valid Cases'###'3'

Ho: Pakistani print media does not give more coverage regarding peace process between India and Pakistan than Indian print media.

Table 3: Shows that by applying Chi-Square third hypothesis of the study is accepted and null hypothesis is rejected. This table shows the contents related to peace process between Pakistan and India in Pakistani and Indian newspapers is statistically significant (P-Value=0.000). Hence accepting the current hypothesis.

Qualitative Analysis

Under this heading, analysis of news and editorials related to AmankiAsha in The News, Daily Dawn and Times of India from January 2010 to January 2014 has been carried out.

News and editorials are taken under investigation through the use of themes. Different themes are made under which news and editorials have been treated.

Joint statement of the editorial board of Jang and Times of India says that

"The Times of India Group and the Jang Group have come together to energize the process of peace between our two countries. We believe that this is an intervention whose time has come." (The News)

The editorial statement clearly shows that this initiative is for the sake of peace and promotion of good relations. Intervention is only a way to start peace process between both countries. Joint statement of JG and TOI explains that now there is a need of peaceful relations and every one should join their hands for this.

"Anything that war can do, peace can do better" (Daily Dawn)

Supporting the arguments, researcher has further used another news content to support the analysis. In above mentioned headline, peace has been taken as more important as compare to the war. Writer has replaced war with the peace and peaceful environment.

"Peace needs to be underwritten by politicians; at the same time, it's too important to be left solely to them" (Times of India).

People of India has shown their solidarity with the people of Pakistan and said that they will be with them in continuing the peace process till the time, when both countries will become friends forever.

"Aman ki Asha sensitizes youth about bilateral trade." (The News) News published under this heading is about the meeting of youth in which they were told about the importance of trade in a country. In this meeting about 38 students from different institutions were the volunteers. They not only had a informatics and knowledgeable information from the summit but also had an argumentation with the guests appearing in the meeting youth of both countries had interactions with them who have come from all over South Asia and are top level icons in the history of trade.

"The prime minister said Pakistan wanted to enhance people- to-people contacts to promote peace and prosperity." (Daily Dawn)

He said that there is a need of improvement in the relations with India and for this purpose; everyone should put forward their step at individual level also. People to people interaction are a necessary thing to bring out change.

"Breaking barriers of border with trade" (Times of India)

Barriers can be broken by using trade as a power to overcome tensions between both states. Under the above mentioned headline, researcher has examined that Pakistan and India both countries are in a race to maintain the relations and to resolve the problems.

"The new visa regime announced by India and Pakistan is a welcome step forward, and both the governments are to be sincerely congratulated for making this historic move." (The News)

Visa Regime is a new step taken by the governments of both countries under the campaign Aman ki Asha. It's a new and most important step that is congratulated and appreciated by many people. Making visa regime easy is the best thing to promote between both states. This step will raise more expectations towards more positive steps taken.

Pakistan and India agreed on Friday to introduce a liberalised visa regime, but put off the signing of the document to an unspecified date. (Daily Dawn).

Visa restriction is considered a major hurdle by traders in the normalisation of bilateral trade ties, he said (Times of India).

It is necessary to remove visa restrictions so that natives can enjoy freedom and can move easily from one place to another. It can result in a normalization of bilateral relations between Pakistan and India. It's a hope of both country and struggle has also made by JGP and TOI to run Aman ki Asha- campaign at level best. This campaign is working without having any bias and helping to maintain the relations.

"The apex court sought explanation till August 2 from five Pemra officials for levelling allegations against Jang/Geo Group of receiving 20 million pounds sponsorship for its programme 'Zara Sochiye' and Aman ki Asha." (The News)

On the answer of this allegation, senior journalists of Jang group and Geo raised their voices and demanded for proper inquiry. They said that these campaigns are run by JGP and are funded by the own asset of Geo and JGP.

"It was revealed that lots of funds were pouring into media outlets from abroad in the form of sponsorship and that the programme 'Zara Socheay' had received sponsorship to the extent of 20 million pounds," (Daily Dawn)

Zara Sochiye has gained aid and funds from foreign organization. This aid was about 20million pounds. The campaign was about the importance of education in a life and JGP has done a lot of work on launching this campaign. It has also gained very much popularity.

All above contents have been critically treated under different themes like promotion of peace through AKA, trade and economy promotion, supporting culture and socialism, exchange programs and challenges to Aman ki Asha.

Discussion and Analysis

Present research had investigated the comparative analysis of peace process between Pakistan and India in The News, Daily Dawn and The Times of India: A case study of Aman ki Asha. The study highlighted the role of print media regarding peace initiative Aman ki Asha.

RQ1: Which newspaper (The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India) gives more coverage to peace process between India and Pakistan

The News published 301 (news and editorials) content related to Aman ki Asha. Daily Dawn has given 61 (news and editorials) and in the end Times of India has given 208 (news and editorials). Hence, proved that Pakistani print Media have given more coverage and have given more importance to the peace process between Pakistan and India. Aman ki asha has been more highlighted by The News newspaper comparatively.

RQ2: To what extent The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India are affected by the policies of government regarding peace process in Pak- Indo relations

Current PM Nawaz Shareef said that there is a need of friendly relation between both countries rather than doing tussle with one another. During a meeting PM said that

"Prime Minister Sharif has stressed that the main dynamic in South Asia should be cooperation, not confrontation."

"We need strong leadership in both nations, says Pakistan Tehrik-e-Insaf chief Imran Khan"

This news has been taken from The News newspaper. Here it is clearly mentioned in the headline that chairman PTI wants to have good relations with India. Former PM of India Atal Bihaari Vajpai was a great supporter of peace process. During his tenure he has generated many steps to resolve the conflict between both rivals.

"Atal Bihaari said that I want to have friendly relations with every state of South Asia, it means that i want to keep relations smooth. Pakistan is welcomed to provide peace talks so that some betterment can be seen."

Sonia Gandhi, who is a president of Congress party in India, views Pakistan friendly relationship in a positive manner. This is not a talk but she has always been supported to the offers of peace.

"Sonia Gandhi said that, better and closer relations with our immediate neighbors will not only make for regional peace - they will also have a positive impact on some of our own border states."

Quantitative data has shown that maximum coverage has been given to peace process between Pakistan and India. Positive coverage has been seen more as compare to negative one. 62.50% positive coverage has been given by Pakistani media and about 37.40% positive coverage has been given by Indian print media and the government policies of both the countries had and effect the print media coverage of the issue.

RQ3: What type of (positive, negative, neutral) coverage has been given to the peace process between Pakistan and India in The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India

Positive contents (news and editorials) published in The News during Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 were 235 with the percentage of 53.60%, negative contents (news and editorials) published in The News were 8 with the percentage of 21% and neutral content (news and editorials) were 59 (61.40%). Hence overall analysis of newspaper contents taken from The News have more positive content as compare to any other.

Positive contents (news and editorials) published in Daily Dawn during Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 were 33 with the percentage of 7.50%, negative contents (news and editorials) published in Daily Dawn were 20 with the percentage of 52.60% and neutral content (news and editorials) were 8 (8.33%). Overall analysis of newspaper contents taken from Daily Dawn have shown more negative content as compare to any other.

Positive contents (news and editorials) published in Times of India during Jan 2010 to Jan 2014 were 170 with the percentage of 38.80%, negative contents (news and editorials) published in Times of India were 9 with the percentage of 3.60% and neutral content (news and editorials) were 29 (30.20%). Overall analysis of newspaper contents taken from TOI has shown more positive content as compare to any other.

RQ4: To what extent the policies of The News, Daily Dawn and the Times of India are affecting news coverage regarding Aman ki Asha

The News is a sister publication of Jang Group of Publication who are founder of Aman ki Asha. The News is an English newspaper who has given about 19 positive editorials. There were very few negative editorials (1) and neutral editorials (3). So the policy of The News regarding the coverage of Aman ki Asha is positive and in a favor of the campaign.

In Dawn only three positive editorials and 3 negative and no neutral editorials were published. So Dawn published editorials without following any specific policy regarding Aman ki Asha.

Indian print media is a media partner of Aman ki Asha. There were about 23 positive editorials that were encouraging campaign by giving constructive ways to develop more relations. About 0 negative and 1 neutral editorials published in Times of India so it is in a favor of Aman ki Asha as it has published more editorials in a positive way.

Conclusion

This study compared and analyzed the media coverage regarding peace process between India and Pakistan considering Aman Ki Asha, a peace initiative between the print media of both countries. Since the partition, both India and Pakistan has remained in the hostile relations because of many issues like immigrants, security and territory. Among these issues, Kashmir remained a bone of contention between both countries. Both countries have taken an initiate solve conflicting issues and to create peace and harmony among them is through negotiations. Through Peace talks and promotion of different peace processes both countries try to settle their issues and tensions and trying to set a foundation for a peaceful future. The print media of both countries is playing very positive and constructive role in this regard.

End Notes

Aman Ki Asha (2014). AmankiAsha - a peace initiative by Jang Group, Pakistan and Times of India, India. Retrieved on September 30, 2013, from http://amankiasha.com/default.asp

Bose, D. (2001). Journalism Caught in Narrow Nationalism: The India- Pakistan Media War. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved on January 2, 2014, from https://reutersinstitute.politics. ox. ac.uk/fileadmin/documents/Publications/fellows__papers/2010-011/Journalism _Caught_in_ Narrow_Nationalism.pdf

Burki.(2004). Pakistan, India and regional cooperation.JSTOR. Retrieved on December 30, 2014, from http://www.jstor.org/discover/10. 2307/41393699uid=3738832anduid=2129anduid=2anduid=70anduid=4andsid=2110438 8573803

Dixit. J. N. (2002). India-Pakistan in War and Peace. USA: Rotlegde. Retrieved on March 4, 2013, from http://books.google.com. pk/bookshl=enandlr=andid=mdWCAgAAQBAJandoi=fndandpg=PP1anddq=peace+proc ess+between+india+and+pakistanandots=IryOUZZHPzandsig=XiFsFohL8DeYyMJ zc0X9G-vDXRQ#v=onepageandqandf=false

Fairhurst, G. and Star, R. (1996).The art of Framing. San Francisco: Jossey- Bass. Retrieved on January 10, 2013, from http://www.utwente.nl/cw/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Communication%20Processes/F raming/

Katherine. (2012). Agenda Setting Theory- Introduction.StudyMode. Retrieved on December 30, 2013, from http://www.studymode.com/ essays/Agenda- Setting-Theory-Introduction-1167886.html

Paddar and Sajjad. (2012). The Composite Dialogue between India and Pakistan: structure, process and agency. Heidelberg Papers in South Asian and Comparative Politics. Retrieved on January 2, 2014, from http://archiv.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/volltextserver/13143/

Peace. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved on November 30, 2013, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/peaceq=peace

Process.Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved on November 30, 2013, from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/processq=proces

Shendurnikar, N. (2011). Content analysis of Aman Ki Asha, A peace journalism campaign by Times of India and Jang Group, Pakistan.Academia.edu. retrieved on January 5, 2014, from http://www.academia.edu/3237852/CONTENT_ANALYSIS_OF_AMAN_KI_A SHA_-A_PEACE_JOURNALISM_CAMPAIGN_BY_THE_TIMES _OF_INDIA_AND_JANG_GROUP_PAKISTAN

Spring, M., S. (2002).Agenda Setting. Retrieved on March 5, 2014, from http://zimmer.csufresno.edu/~johnca/spch100/7-4-agenda.html
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Author:Batoo, Sumera; Yasin, Zaeem; Khurshid, Tabinda
Publication:Journal of Political Studies
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9PAKI
Date:Dec 31, 2015
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