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Community Health Workers in Diabetes Care: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Introduction: Maintaining optimal self-care in managing Type 2 diabetes is a common struggle for patients due to several barriers, including access to quality services, financial insecurity and/or lack of insurance, and emotional distress. Consequently, morbidity and mortality rates are high, alongside rising health care costs. Alternative approaches that address common barriers require further investigation. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials examines the effectiveness of using community health workers (CHWs) in Type 2 diabetes care. This effort is warranted to orient practitioners and researchers to the state of existing knowledge, and to direct clinical practice and future research. Method: Data were extracted from 17 peer-reviewed articles; they were examined with respect to theory integration, CHW intervention design, outcome variables, and findings. Results: Approximately one-third of articles explicitly integrated theory into their research conceptualization and design. There was great variation across intervention dosages, attrition rates, and methods of CHW training. Main foci across studies' findings suggest that a CHW intervention has significant impacts on physical health outcomes, diabetes knowledge, self-care behaviors, and emotional distress and well-being. Discussion: Principal implications relate to the need for more research regarding CHW intervention types and methods, and further investigation about the mechanisms of change within a CHW-delivered intervention. Findings support the case for more CHWs in treatment teams to bridge patients with the medical system. This research will serve to better equip providers in the support of patients managing Type 2 diabetes and advance the Triple Aim of health care.

Keywords: chronic illness, community health workers, diabetes, type II diabetes

Consideration of nontraditional approaches in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) care is needed as patients continue to struggle with the intense and often complex responsibilities of managing this chronic illness. Many patients fail to achieve optimal outcomes (e.g., metabolic control, healthy weight, good dietary and exercise practices; Ali et al., 2013), which places them at increased risk for serious and potentially fatal disease-related complications. A major barrier to effective disease management is access to care (Carolan-Olah, Cassar, Quiazon, & Lynch, 2013; Chowdhury, Horsley, Zhang, & Satterfield, 2006). This is exacerbated by the fact that many patients also have mental health concerns and/or lack insurance coverage or adequate finances to cover out-of-pocket costs (National Institute of Mental Health, 2011; Santos-Longhurst, 2014; Zgibor & Songer, 2001).

Involving community health workers (CHWs) in patient care is a rapidly developing and innovative approach for extending the reach of the health care system (Perry, Zulliger, & Rogers, 2014). The United States Department of Labor (2015) outlined the role of CHWs as encompassing the conduct of outreach to promote individual- and community- health through the provision of resources, social support, informal counseling, and advocacy. CHWs bridge together patients/communities and medical providers/health care systems in an effort to reduce barriers that can interfere with the achievement of desired health outcomes.

The purpose of this review was to examine the effectiveness of CHW interventions for patients with T2D. Several other reviews that have included CHWs have been conducted (e.g., Chowdhury et al., 2006; Little, Wang, Castro, Jimenez, & Rosal, 2014), but these have included multiple professional types (e.g., "lay health worker", "peer counselors") and/or team-based interventions (e.g., nurse care manager + CHW team; pharmacist + CHW team). This review focuses specifically on CHWs evaluated within randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Such designs are well suited to test intervention effectiveness, as they require an unbiased comparison of treatment groups (Navaneethan, Palmer, Smith, Johnson, & Strippoli, 2010; Rosen, Manor, Engelhard, & Zucker, 2006). Anticipated outcomes of this review include efforts toward a more comprehensive approach to health care and future research that investigates types and methods of--and mechanisms for change within--CHW interventions that target diabetes.


Studies included in this review tested an intervention using CHWs in the care of adults with T2D. Inclusion criteria were: participants diagnosed with T2D, CHW-delivered intervention, intervention results presented, RCT design, and English language. CHWs were either the sole focus of the intervention under study (e.g., comparing the effectiveness of a CHW vs. a control group) or one component of a multi-component intervention (e.g., comparing the effectiveness of a peer leader vs. a CHW). Exclusion criteria were: non-CHW personnel (e.g., "peer supporters" or "lay educators" with different training backgrounds), team-based interventions, and unavailable full texts. To isolate the effects of the CHW, those delivered by teams of providers (e.g., CHW + Nurse Case Manager) were also excluded.

Search Strategy

Using Medical Subjects Headings and text words, including diabetes mellitus, Type II, Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, community health workers, community health worker (*), community health work (*), community health services, and health auxiliary, the following electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles from the dates first indicated until August 2016: CINAHL (1937), EMBASE (1947), Google Scholar (date range not reported), MEDLINE (1946), and PubMed (1946). A total of 17 articles were identified that met aforementioned inclusion criteria (Figure 1).


For each study included in this review, the authors examined sample characteristics, inclusion of theory, CHW training, intervention design, outcome variables, and study results.

Sample Characteristics

Studies in this review were published between 1997 and 2016. The majority of them were conducted in the United States, with the exception of McDermott et al.'s (2015) investigation in Australia. Sample sizes ranged from 107 to 360 participants (M = 173). Study samples were most commonly made up of middleaged female patients (mean of sample Ms = 53.8 years old) with less than a high school education and low annual household income. Several studies reported targeting populations in rural communities or minority populations (e.g., Babamoto et al., 2009; McDermott et al., 2015; Prezio et al., 2013; Rothschild et al., 2014). Interventions were conducted in primary care clinics, participants' homes, grocery stores, an outpatient department of a clinical research center, and via telephone. Studies varied in the degree to which they described characteristics of the CHWs and/or their prior training and experience. For example, Batts et al. (2001) did not report any descriptions, whereas Corkery et al. (1997) provided significant detail about the CHW's heritage, location at the time of the study, past volunteer experience, and concomitant skills (e.g., translator).

Theory Integration

Six of the articles included in this review explicitly identified a guiding theory, model, or framework (see Table 1). Discussion of researchers' use of theory is pertinent to fully understanding their investigative processes, from early conceptualizations of research design to interpreting findings (Kelly, 2010). Further, explicit identification of the theories) helps to avoids alternate interpretations of findings that do not align with authors' intentions.

It is noteworthy that several studies grounded their research in the stages-of-change model by Prochaska and Velicer (1997). This transtheoretical model assesses participants' readiness to adapt new (healthier) behaviors and outlines principles and processes of change at each stage to lower resistance, assist progress, and prevent or respond to relapse (Prochaska, Redding, & Evers, 2002). A diagnosis of T2D often demands immediate and significant behavior changes and then, later, continuous monitoring and adaptation of said changes.

Community Health Worker Intervention

To evaluate and compare CHW interventions across studies, CHW training, intervention topics, intervention dose (intensity and duration), attrition (total and within the CHW intervention group), and participant recruitment strategies were analyzed (see Table 2). Commonalities found across studies include intervention foci and recruitment strategies. Limitations and/or areas of discrepancy included a lack of reported experience and evaluation within CHW training, considerable variation in intervention dose, and high attrition rates.

Intervention focus. There was a great deal of overlap across studies with respect to the focus of the CHW interventions. These foci can be classified into four types of service: The first type involved patient education. For example, Perez-Escamilla and colleagues (2015) trained CHWs on T2D pathophysiology, risk factors, and lifestyle strategies for glycemic control (nutrition, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, medications, etc.). The second type involved patient care and health management (e.g., Heisler et al., 2014; Palmas et al., 2014). This type of service included developing self-management skills, creating goals and action plans, identifying potential barriers, and problem solving. The third type of service involved care coordination (e.g., McDermott et al., 2015; Spencer et al., 2011). In this role, CHWs reinforced instructions from participants' primary care providers, facilitated appointment- and referral-scheduling, and so forth The fourth type of service involved providing support regarding patients' mental, emotional, and social health and well-being (e.g., Rothschild et al., 2014; Tang, Brown, Funnell, & Anderson, 2014). For example, CHWs evaluated by Rothschild and colleagues (2014) provided social support that targeted stress management.

Recruitment strategy. The primary recruitment strategy used in eight of the 17 studies was a medical chart review. The second most common approach, and frequently used to supplement efforts done via medical chart review, was recruitment during routine medical visits (e.g., Palmas et al., 2014; Wagner et al., 2015). Rothschild et al. (2014) recruited via direct mailings, outreach efforts, and through partnerships with primary care clinics. Four studies did not report their recruitment strategy.

CHW training. The majority of studies reported the training and education provided for their respective CHWs; however, few reported receiving any formal evaluation of their delivery of the intervention during their training. This information is critical to evaluating the quality of CHW interventions. Several researchers (e.g., Tang et al., 2014) reported using CHWs who had previously received rigorous training and had several years of prior experience prior experience, whereas other researchers (e.g., Corkery et al., 1997) reported little to no information regarding CHW training or prior experience.

Intervention dose. The documented dose intensity (i.e., how many total contacts participants had CHWs) ranged from three to 36 contacts, not including additional phone calls (made on an as-needed basis). The documented dose duration (i.e., how long participants met with CHWs) ranged from 8-10 weeks to 24 months, with two studies that had varied durations (Corkery et al., 1997; Wagner et al., 2015). The average length of time per meeting was not routinely reported. The majority of studies did not report a set intervention frequency (i.e., how often CHWs had contact with participants). The most common frequency noted was approximately one contact per month, but this did not account for additional phone calls. This variation in intervention dose across studies makes it difficult to compare study outcomes. An additional challenge presents itself in comparing dose intensity and duration across studies: secondary to differences in reporting, some studies reported the mean dose (e.g., Prezio et al., 2013) whereas others only reported goals set for the desired dose (e.g., Tang et al., 2014).

Attrition. Reporting attrition in RCTs is critical, as loss to follow-up can diminish the strength of a trial's findings (Dumville, Torgerson, & Hewitt, 2006). Further, high attrition can introduce bias if the characteristics of participants who left the study differ from those who stayed in the intervention and control groups (Fewtrell et al., 2008). Therefore, it is important to report the attrition rate for both the total sample and the respective intervention group(s). Of the 17 studies reviewed, nine reported both the total and intervention attrition rates. Five reported either the total or the intervention attrition rate, but not both. Three failed to report either attrition rate. Of the total rates reported, attrition ranged from 6% to 41%. Of the intervention rates reported, attrition ranged from 8% to 42.8%. According to Lyles et al. (2007), best-evidence behavioral interventions require attrition rates of 30% or less in each randomized group for the intervention outcomes to be considered seriously. There were three studies that reported a total sample attrition rate over 30% (Babamoto et al., 2009; Corkery et al., 1997; Tang et al., 2014), and one study that reported an intervention group attrition rate (Tang et al., 2014) over that threshold.

Outcome Variables

Outcome variables can be categorized by self-care behavior-, knowledge-, mental health and well-being-, physical health-, and other- outcomes not otherwise categorized (see Table 3). Data on self-care behaviors were provided in 13 studies; however, there was little consistency in the specific outcome variables measured and instruments used. The most commonly assessed variable was diabetes self-care practices. It should be noted that other studies, such as Kollannoor-Samuel et al. (2016), examined other such behaviors (e.g., physical activity, healthy eating) that would fall under a larger umbrella of self-care practices. Data about diabetes knowledge were presented in nine studies; the most common variable assessed was global diabetes knowledge. Data about mental health and well-being outcomes were provided in nine studies. The most common outcome variable assessed was diabetes distress. Data about physical health were provided in all studies; the most common outcome variables assessed were Alc and blood pressure. Noncategorized outcomes included diabetes care priorities, needs related to diabetes and nondiabetes care, quality of diabetes care, collaborative relationships with health providers, and therapeutic cohesion and alliance. Three of the 17 studies investigated these outcomes with no overlaps between them. Due to the limited presence of these outcomes in this literature, it is difficult to make informed conclusions regarding patients' experiences.


Results of the CHW interventions are presented in Table 4. Additionally, the following main foci across studies' results are presented below:

Physical health. The majority of studies reported a significant reduction in Alc levels for participants receiving a CHW intervention (see Table 5). This indicator is a hallmark gauge of long-term glycemic control (Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 2016). There was inconsistency in findings regarding the sustainability of improvements in Alc, however. Perez-Escamilla et al. (2015) reported improvements over 18 months; Prezio et al. (2013) found improvements ongoing for the duration of the study with greater improvements after the first six months; Rothschild et al. (2014) reported maintained improvements over two years; Tang et al. (2014) demonstrated improved Alc at 6-months post intervention, but these improvements were diminished at 18 months.

Food label use and diet quality were also found to mediate the relationship between a CHW intervention and improvements in glycemic control (Kollannoor-Samuel et al., 2016). Patients using food labels as a dietary tool and who reported a higher quality diet experienced a significant improvement in metabolic control. Additional physiological risk factors positively impacted by CHW interventions included reduced blood pressure (Gary et al., 2003), waist circumference (Tang et al., 2014), and weight (Rothschild et al., 2014).

Diabetes knowledge. Findings from the studies reviewed commonly concluded that CHW interventions had significant impacts on patients' diabetes knowledge (e.g., Babamoto et al., 2009; Corkery et al., 1997; Wagner et al., 2015). However, while Corkery et al. (1997) reported significant improvements upon completion of the diabetes education program in diabetes knowledge scores, they could not prove that the improved outcomes were a result of the CHW intervention per se.

Self-care behaviors. Several studies reported significant improvements in patients' medication adherence (Babamoto et al., 2009; Batts et al., 2001; Heisler et al., 2014), dietary adherence (i.e., fruit and vegetable intake; Babamoto et al., 2009; Batts et al., 2001; Kollannoor-Samuel et al., 2016; Rothschild et al., 2014), and physical activity (Batts et al., 2001; Gary et al., 2003; Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer et al., 2011). Corkery et al. (1997) noted significant changes in reported self-care behaviors at the end of the study, but a causal relationship between the CHW intervention and these behaviors was not supported. Additionally, Kenya, Lebron, Reyes Arrechea, Li (2014) found a discrepancy between patient reports of glucometer use and their blood glucose self-monitoring (BGSM) reports, concluding that the CHW intervention may improve glycemic control without demonstrating a change in BGSM practices.

Mental health and well-being. Five of the studies reviewed reported significant findings in participants' mental health and well-being. Heisler et al. (2014) found improvements in patients' self-efficacy and diabetes distress when the CHW used an e-Health tool as compared to print materials in providing decision-making support. Spencer et al. (2013) noted no impact from the intervention on PHQ-9 scores, but PHQ-2 scores did drop when researchers used the "average intervention effect" (i.e., combining the preintervention to postintervention effects for the immediate and delayed groups) and adjusted for demographics (gender, age, and education). Further, these researchers found diabetes-related emotional distress scores were reduced even further within the immediate intervention group from six to 12 months. Tang et al. (2014) also found improvements in diabetes distress at 18-month follow-up. Testing a CHW-delivered stress management intervention, Wagner et al. (2016) maintained that diabetes education was associated with significant improvements in depression and anxiety, and that increased attendance in said education was associated with greater improvements in both Alc and disease-related stress. Finally, Rothschild et al. (2014) evaluated a CHW-delivered intervention on self-management training; they found that self-efficacy increased significantly during the study in both intervention and control groups (with no significant between-groups differences).


This systematic review highlights several important findings within the RCTs that have been conducted studying the effectiveness of CHW-delivered interventions on T2D care. Our results have implications for both clinical practice and future research. Implications for clinical practice are discussed on a more global level regarding the larger shift in health care toward a more comprehensive approach. Additionally, more specific implications are also presented with respect to the design and implementation of CHW-led diabetes interventions.


The Triple Aim of health care--improving patients' experiences of care, improving the health of populations, and reducing per capita costs of care--should be at the heart of comprehensive care (Katon & Uniitzer, 2013). The findings of this review highlighted psychological and social factors often contributing to patients' T2D management. While one response to boost comprehensiveness is to layer-on an abundance of screenings and tests, this effort fails in respect to the third aim of reducing costs and would likely hurt patients' care experience (s). Medical providers, mental health providers, and the larger health care system are tasked to be knowledgeable about the primary concerns research has highlighted for the population being served (e.g., patients with T2D), and must be strategic in their delivery of screenings and interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness.

With the growing need to provide comprehensive health care, more research investigating nontraditional approaches that simultaneously enhance patient care and boost cost savings is warranted. Further investigation targeting the mechanisms of change in the delivery of a CHW intervention (e.g., optimal dosage) would advance these aims. Furthermore, three of the 17 studies reviewed addressed the social contributions and/or complications to patients' management of diabetes. Managing T2D is a social issue. Spousal and family support and involvement can be the biggest predictor of treatment adherence (Tang et al., 2008; Whittemore, Melkus, & Gray, 2005); conversely, it can present major obstacles, such as difficult changes in family roles and responsibilities (Batts et al., 2001). There is a need to evaluate the social impact of this disease on the patient as well as on the patient's social network. Consideration of the bidirectional impact between the patient and his or her social network is supported by foundational theories/models in the field (e.g., biopsychosocial model of health, symbolic interactionism theory, social networks and social support model). CHWs are uniquely positioned as a bridge between the patient and medical system to assist patients in improving the social support received and managing implications of their disease on their social network (McEwen, Pasvogel, Gallegos, & Barrera, 2010).

An additional direction for future research geared toward improving patient care and cost savings is to further examine the impact of CHWs on emergency department (ED) or hospital admissions. In the studies reviewed, there was very limited attention to this type of resource utilization, and in the few studies that examined it there was a discrepancy in findings. As alternative approaches to support patient care for T2D and other chronic conditions continue to gain momentum, examining their impact(s) on outcomes such as ED and hospital admissions provide valuable information about potential changes in the physical and psychological/social health of patients.

Strengths and Limitations

The studies included in this review were strengthened by their robust research designs (i.e., RCTs), which served to maximize internal validity and provide objective information about the effectiveness of CHWs. Focusing solely on CHWs allowed us to tease out the effectiveness of CHW-delivered interventions, also increasing internal validity. Additionally, researchers tested the effectiveness of a CHW intervention on patients' physiological outcomes, mental health outcomes, and knowledge and behaviors, which provided valuable data about the interconnectedness of the mind and the body.

There are also important limitations of this review. The impact of the intervention is dependent on its delivery. In failing to report information about CHW training and evaluation, confidence in some of the results is weakened. This is primarily due to the consumer not knowing how closely the CHW adhered to the study protocol and design. Further, in working toward streamlining the process of using CHWs in patients' care and determining the minimum dose needed to produce the desired patient health outcomes, consistency in intervention dose reporting is needed. Our reporting and assessment of RCTs was limited to published data; therefore, the results of evaluations done by health departments, community programs, or private health care organizations that were not published were not included in this review, potentially limiting its scope. We also did not include studies referring to this work by another name (e.g., lay health workers) and studies including other team members as a part of the intervention to provide a more focused assessment of the effectiveness of CHWs in particular. This potentially limited the scope, but not the specificity, of this review.


As T2D continues to increase in prevalence, an assessment of the effectiveness of alternative approaches to patient care is needed. Literature evaluating the impacts of CHW interventions has reported positive findings on patients' bio-psychosocial health outcomes; however, research has not gotten to the point yet where the most important and effective methods of CHW training and intervention foci and dosages are well understood. The advancement of comprehensive health care alongside future research that evaluates social factors and resource utilization will further inform and advance our efforts.


(*) Indicates articles included in review

Ali, M. K., Bullard, K. M., Saaddine, J. B., Cowie, C. C., Imperatore, G., & Gregg, E. W. (2013). Achievement of goals in U.S. Diabetes Care, 1999-2010. The New England Journal of Medicine, 368, 1613-1624.

Anderson, R. M., & Funnell, M. M. (2005). Art of empowerment: Stories and strategies for diabetes educators (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Diabetes Association.

(*) Babamoto, K. S., Sey, K. A., Camilleri, A. J., Karlan, V. J., Catalasan, J., & Morisky, D. E. (2009). Improving diabetes care and health measures among Hispanics using community health workers: Results from a randomized controlled trial. Health Education & Behavior, 36, 113-126.

Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory of mass communication. Media Psychology, 3, 265-299.

(*) Batts, M. L., Gary, T. L., Huss, K., Hill, M. N., Bone, L., & Brancati, F. L. (2001). Patient priorities and needs for diabetes care among urban African American adults. Diabetes Educator, 27, 405-412.

Carolan-Olah, M. C., Cassar, A., Quiazon, R., & Lynch, S. (2013). Diabetes Care and service access among elderly Vietnamese with type 2 diabetes. BMC Health Services Research, 13, 447-456.

Chowdhury, F. M., Horsley, T., Zhang, X., & Satterfield, D. W. (2006). Effectiveness of community health workers in the care of persons with diabetes. Diabetic Medicine, 23, 544-556.

(*) Corkery, E., Palmer, C., Foley, M. E., Schechter, C. B., Frisher, L., & Roman, S. H. (1997). Effect of a bicultural community health worker on completion of diabetes education in a Hispanic population. Diabetes Care, 20, 254-257.

Dumville, J. C., Torgerson, D. J., & Hewitt, C. E. (2006). Reporting attrition in randomised controlled trials. British Medical Journal, 332, 969-971.

Fewtrell, M. S., Kennedy, K., Singhal, A., Martin, R. M., Ness, A., Hadders-Algra, M.,... Lucas, A. (2008). How much loss to follow-up is acceptable in long-term randomized trials and prospective studies? Archives of Disease in Childhood, 93, 458-461. .127316

(*) Gary, T. L., Bone, L. R., Hill, M. N., Levine, D. M., McGuire, M., Saudek, C., & Brancati, F. L. (2003). Randomized controlled trial of the effects of nurse case manager and community health worker interventions on risk factors for diabetes-related complications in urban African Americans. Preventive Medicine: An International Journal, 37, 23-32.

Green, L. W., & Kreuter, M. W. (1991). Health promotion today and a framework for planning. In L. W. Green & M. W. Kreuter, (Eds.), Health promotion planning: An educational and environmental approach (22-43). Mountain View, CA: Mayfield Publishing Co.

(*) Heisler, M., Choi, H., Palmisano, G., Mase, R., Richardson, C., Fagerlin, A.,... An, L. C (2014). Comparison of community health worker-led diabetes medication decision-making support for low-income Latino and African American adults with diabetes using e-health tools versus printed materials: A randomized controlled trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 161, S13-S22.

Katon, W. J., & Unutzer, J. (2013). Health reform and the Affordable Care Act: The importance of mental health treatment to achieve the triple aim. Psychosomatic Research, 74, 533-537.

Kelly, M. (2010). The role of theory in qualitative health research. Family Practice, 27, 285-290.

(*) Kenya, S., Lebron, C., Reyes Arrechea, E., & Li, H. (2014). Glucometer use and glycemic control among Hispanic patients with diabetes in southern Florida. Clinical Therapeutics, 36, 485-493. http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.clinthera.2013.12.009

(*) Kollannoor-Samuel, G., Shebl, F. M Segura-Perez, S., Chhabra, J., Vega-Lopez, S., & Perez-Escamilla, R. (2016). Effects of food label use on diet quality and glycemic control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes in a community health worker-supported intervention. American Journal of Public Health, 106, 1059-1066.

Little, T. V., Wang, M. L., Castro, E. M., Jimenez, J., & Rosal, M. C. (2014). Community health worker interventions for Latinos with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Current Diabetes Reports, 14, 558-574.

Lyles, C. M., Kay, L. S., Crepaz, N., Herbst, J. H., Passin, W. F., Kim, A. S., ... Mullins, M. M. (2007). Best-evidence interventions: Findings from a systematic review of HIV behavioral interventions for US populations at high risk, 2000-2004. American Journal of Public Health, 97(1), 133-43.

Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. (2016). Test ID: HBA1C, hemoglobin Alc, blood. Retrieved from

(*) McDermott, R. A., Schmidt, B., Preece, C., Owens, V., Taylor, S., Li, M., & Esterman, A. (2015). Community health workers improve diabetes care in remote Australian Indigenous communities: Results of a pragmatic cluster randomized controlled trial. BioMed Central Health Services Research, 15, 68-76.

McEwen, M. M., Pasvogel, A., Gallegos, G., & Barrera, L. (2010). Type 2 diabetes self-management social support intervention in the U.S.-Mexico border. Public Health Nursing, 27, 310-319.

Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (1991). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people to change addictive behavior. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

National Institute of Mental Health. (2011). Depression and diabetes. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from

Navaneethan, S. D., Palmer, S. C., Smith, A., Johnson, D. W., & Strippoli, G. F. (2010). How to design a randomized controlled trial. Nephrology, 15, 732-739. http://dx.doi.Org/10.l 111/j.1440-1797.2010.01428.x

(*) Palmas, W., Findley, S. E., Mejia, M., Batista, M., Teresi, J., Kong, J., . . . Carrasquillo, O. (2014). Results of the northern Manhattan diabetes community outreach project: A randomized trial studying a community health worker intervention to improve diabetes care in Hispanic adults. Diabetes Care, 37, 963-969.

(*) Perez-Escamilla, R., Damio, G., Chhabra, J., Fernandez, M. L., Segura-Perez, S., Vega-Lopez, S., ... D'Agostino, D. (2015). Impact of a community health workers-led structured program on blood glucose control among Latinos with type 2 diabetes: The DIALBEST trial. Diabetes Care, 38, 197-205.

Perry, H. B., Zulliger, R., & Rogers, M. M. (2014). Community health workers in low-, middle-, and high-income countries: An overview of their history, recent evolution, and current effectiveness. Annual Review of Public Health, 35, 399-421. 146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182354

(*) Prezio, E. A., Cheng, D., Balasubramanian, B. A., Shuval, K., Kendzor, D. E., & Culica, D. (2013). Community diabetes education (CoDE) for

uninsured Mexican Americans: A randomized controlled trial of a culturally tailored diabetes education and management program led by a community health worker. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 100, 19-28. http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j diabres.2013.01.027

Prochaska, J. O., Redding, C. A., & Evers, K. (2002). The transtheoretical model and stages of change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer & F. M. Lewis, (Eds.) Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (3rd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Prochaska, J. O., & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12, 38-48. 171-12.38

Rosen, L., Manor, O., Engelhard, D., & Zucker, D. (2006). In defense of the randomized controlled trial for health promotion research. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 1181-1186.

(*) Rothschild, S. K., Martin, M. A., Swider, S. M., Tumialan Lynas, C. M. T., Janssen, I., Avery, E. F., & Powell, L. H. (2014). Mexican-American trial of community health workers: A randomized controlled trial of a community health worker intervention for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus. American Journal of Public Health, 104, 1540-1548. Retrieved from

Santos-Longhurst, A. (2014). Type 2 diabetes statistics and facts. Retrieved from

(*) Spencer, M. S., Hawkins, J., Espitia, N. R., Sinco, B., Jennings, T., Lewis, C.,... Kieffer, E. (2013). Influence of a community health worker intervention on mental health outcomes among low-income Latino and African American adults with type 2 diabetes. Race Social Problems, 5, 137-146.

(*) Spencer, M. S., Rosland, A. M., Kieffer, E. C., Sinco, B. R., Valerio, M., Palmisano, G., ... Heisler, M. (2011). Effectiveness of a community health worker intervention among African American and Latino adults with type 2 diabetes: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Public Health, 101, 2253-2260.

Tang, T. S., Brown, M. B., Funnell, M. M., & Anderson, R. M. (2008). Social support, quality of life, and self-care behaviors among African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Educator, 34, 266-276.

(*) Tang, T. S., Funnell, M., Sinco, B., Piatt, G., Palmisano, G., Spencer, M. S., ... Heisler, M. (2014). Comparative effectiveness of peer leaders and community health workers in diabetes self-management support: Results of a randomized controlled trial. Diabetes Care, 37(6) 1525-1534.

United States Department of Labor. (2015). Occupational employment statistics. Retrieved from

(*) Wagner, J., Bermudez-Millan, A., Damio, G., Segura-Perez, S., Chhabra, J., Vergara, C., & Perez-Escamilla, R. (2015). Community health workers assisting Latinos manage stress and diabetes (CALMS-D): Rationale, intervention design, implementation, and process outcomes. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 5, 415-424.

(*) Wagner, J. A., Bermudez-Millan, A., Damio, G., Segura-Perez, S., Chhabra, J., Vergara, C., ... Perez-Escamilla, R. (2016). A randomized, controlled trial of a stress management intervention for Latinos with type 2 diabetes delivered by community health workers: Outcomes for psychological wellbeing, glycemic control, and Cortisol. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 120, 162-170. http://dx.doi.Org/10.1016/j.diabres.2016.07.022

Whittemore, R., Melkus, G. D., & Grey, M. (2005). Metabolic control, self-management and psychosocial adjustment in women with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 14, 195-203.

Zgibor, J. C., & Songer, T. J. (2001). External barriers to diabetes care: Addressing personal health systems issues. Diabetes Spectrum, 14, 23-28.

Lisa J. Trump, PhD, LMFT, and Tai J. Mendenhall, PhD, LMFT

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

This article was published Online First June 22, 2017.

Lisa J. Trump, PhD, LMFT, and Tai J. Mendenhall, PhD, LMFT, Department of Family Social Science, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities.

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Lisa J. Trump, PhD, LMFT, or Tai J. Mendenhall, PhD, LMFT, Department of Family Social Science, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, 1985 Buford Avenue, 290 McNeal Hall, Saint Paul, MN 55108. E-mail: or

Received January 3, 2017

Revision received March 16, 2017

Accepted May 1, 2017
Table 1
Inclusion of Theory


Explicit Use  1. Babamoto et al.
  of Theory   (2009)
              2. Gary et al. (2003)
              3. Perez-Escamilla et al.
              4. Prezio et al. (2013)
              5. Spencer et al. (2011);
              Spencer et al. (2013)
Missing       1. Batts et al. (2001)
  Theory      2. Corkery et al. (1997)
              3. Heisler et al. (2014)
              4. Kenya et al. (2014)
              5. Kollannoor-Samuel et
              al. (2016)
              6. McDermott et al.
              7. Palmas et al. (2014)
              8. Rothschild et al.
              9. Tang et al. (2014)
              10. Wagner et al. (2016)
              11. Wagner et al. (2015)

              Theories identified

Explicit Use  1. Transtheoretical Stages of Change model (Prochaska &
  of Theory   Velicer, 1997)
              2. Precede-Proceed model (Green & Kreuter, 1991)
              3. Stages of Change model (Prochaska & Velicer, 1997);
              Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 1991);
              Chronic Care Model framework (Wagner et al., 2001)
              4. Social Cognitive theory (Bandura, 2001)
              5. Socioecological model and empowerment theory (Anderson
              & Funnell, 2005)
Missing       1. --
  Theory      2. --
              3. --
              4. --
              5. --

              6. --

              7. --
              8. Described elsewhere


Table 2
Community Health Worker Intervention

Article               Training (*)

Babamoto et al.       Education: 6-week training
(2009)                curriculum
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Batts et al. (2001)   Education: NR
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Corkery et al.        Education: NR
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Gary et al. (2003)    Education: NR
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: Met bi-weekly with
                      nurse case manager
Heisler et al.        Education: 80 hours + 4-8
(2014)                hours of booster training
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Kenya et al. (2014)   Education: NR
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Kollannoor-Samuel     Education: Additional training
et al. (2016)         in unknown amount
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: Interviews and
                      educational sessions
McDermott et al.      Education: 3-week training + 2
(2015)                workshops during intervention
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Palmas et al.         Education: NR
(2014)                Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Perez-Escamilla et    Education: 65 hours of
al. (2015)            training + 25 supplemental
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: Weekly meetings
                      with field supervisor and
                      health management team
Prezio et al. (2013)  Education: 27 hours of training
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: Competency
                      assessment and clinical
Rothschild et al.     Education: 100 hours of training
(2014)                Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Spencer et al.        Education: 80 hours of training
(2011)                Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Spencer et al.        Education: 80 hours of training
(2013)                Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Tang et al. (2014)    Education: 160 hours of
                      community outreach
                      training + 80 hours of
                      specific training
                      Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Wagner et al.         Education: NR
(2016)                Experience in training: NR
                      Evaluation: NR
Wagner et al.         Education: 150 hours of training
(2015)                Experience in training:
                      Delivered intervention to pilot
                      Evaluation: Supervision of
                      training experience

Article               Intervention topics

Babamoto et al.       Diabetes knowledge (1st role)
(2009)                Identified problems (2nd role)
                      Level of Progress
                      Barriers and Issues
Batts et al. (2001)   Healthy eating
                      Physical activity
                      Medication adherence
                      Appointment adherence
                      (3rd role)
                      SMBG (**)
                      Foot care
                      Smoking cessation
Corkery et al.        Reinforced self-care
(1997)                instructions
                      Appointment adherence
                      Appointment adherence
Gary et al. (2003)    Diabetes knowledge
                      Behavior monitoring
                      Adherence to treatment
                      Social support (4th role)
                      Physician Feedback
Heisler et al.        Diabetes knowledge
(2014)                Medication adherence
                      Patient goals
                      Action plans
Kenya et al. (2014)   BGSM
                      Medication adherence
                      Lifestyle behaviors
Kollannoor-Samuel     Nutrition knowledge
et al. (2016)         Physical activity
                      Diabetes knowledge
                      Mental and cardiac health
                      Medication adherence
                      Appointment adherence
McDermott et al.      Appointment adherence
(2015)                Medication knowledge
                      Smoking cessation
                      Foot care
                      Self-management skills
Palmas et al.         Barriers to care
(2014)                Goal setting
                      Needs assessment
                      Nutrition and exercise
Perez-Escamilla et    Diabetes knowledge
al. (2015)            Healthy lifestyle behaviors
                      Medication adherence
                      Appointment adherence
                      Mental health
Prezio et al. (2013)  BC.SM
                      Medication adherence
                      Smoking cessation
                      Physical activity
                      Diabetes knowledge
Rothschild et al.     Diabetes knowledge
(2014)                Diabetes management skills
                      Goal setting
                      Problem-solving skills
                      Modifying home environment
                      to support behavior change
                      Social support
                      Stress management
Spencer et al.        Diabetes knowledge
(2011)                Diabetes management skills
                      Communication skills with
                      medical providers
Spencer et al.        Stress reduction
(2013)                Physical activity
                      Goal setting
                      Communication skills with
                      medical providers
Tang et al. (2014)    Goal setting
                      Mental health
                      Diabetes self-management
                      Action plans
                      Emotional support
                      Resource utilization
Wagner et al.         Diabetes knowledge
(2016)                Nutrition
                      Medication adherence
                      Physical activity
                      Physical relaxation
Wagner et al.         Nutrition
(2015)                Physical activity Skills
                      Relaxation exercise

Article                Dose (Intensity/Duration)

Babamoto et al.        10 individual education sessions +
(2009)                 follow-up phone calls (M = 11
                       sessions)/6 months
Batts et al. (2001)    3 visits/2 years
Corkery et al.         NR number of clinic visits + NR
(1997)                 number of diabetes education
                       sessions/duration varied
Gary et al. (2003)     6 visits + additional contacts as
                       needed (mode = < 3 visits)/2
Heisler et al.         1-2 hour session + 2 follow-up
(2014)                 calls/2 years
Kenya et al. (2014)    Visits as needed (M = 8 visits)/1
Kollannoor-Samuel      17 visits/1 year
et al. (2016)
McDermott et al.       Visits as needed (mean NR)/2
(2015)                 years
Palmas et al.          4 individual visits + 10 group
(2014)                 sessions + 10 follow-up phone
                       calls (medians = 3 visits, 0
                       group sessions, and 10 phone
                       calls)/l year
Perez-Escamilla et     17 sessions/1 year
al. (2015)
Prezio et al. (2013)   7 sessions (M = 7)/l year
Rothschild et al.      36 visits (mode = < 13 visits)/2
(2014)                 years
Spencer et al.         2 home visits per month + 1
(2011)                 medical visit + 11 education
                       classes (M = 8 classes) +
                       follow-up phone calls every two
                       weeks/6 months
Spencer et al.         2 home visits per month + 1
(2013)                 medical visit + 11 education
                       classes (M = 8 classes) +
                       follow-up phone calls every two
                       weeks/6 months
Tang et al. (2014)     11 2-hour group classes in initial 6
                       months + 2 home visits per
                       month + monthly follow-up
                       phone calls/18 months
Wagner et al.          8 group education sessions (M = 5
(2016)                 sessions)/8-10 weeks
Wagner et al.          8 group education sessions (M = 5
(2015)                 sessions)/varied duration

                      Attrition (% total/%
                      in CHW
Article               intervention)         Participant Recruitment

Babamoto et al.       41%/28%               Recruited during routine
(2009)                                      clinic visits
Batts et al. (2001)   NR/NR                 NR
Corkery et al.        37%/20%               NR
Gary et al. (2003)    16%/NR                Medical chart review
Heisler et al.        6%/NR                 Medical chart review
Kenya et al. (2014)   NR/NR                 NR
Kollannoor-Samuel     17%/NR                Recruited during routine
et al. (2016)                               clinic visits at
                                            primary care clinic
McDermott et al.      10%/17%               Recruited during routine
(2015)                                      clinic visits at
                                            primary care clinics
Palmas et al.         15.5%/18.8%           Recruited during routine
(2014)                                      clinic visits at
                                            primary care clinics
Perez-Escamilla et    29%/24.8%             Medical chart review
al. (2015)
Prezio et al. (2013)  14.4%/8%              NR
Rothschild et al.     16%/20.5%             Direct mailings,
(2014)                                      outreach at
                                            community events
                                            and churches,
                                            partnerships with
                                            primary care clinics,
                                            and direct outreach
                                            by CHW
Spencer et al.        17.7%/18%             Medical chart review
Spencer et al.        17.1%/NR              Medical chart review
Tang et al. (2014)    41%/42.8%             Medical chart review
Wagner et al.         NR/NR                 Medical chart review
Wagner et al.         NR/22.9%              Medical chart review
(2015)                                      and recruited during
                                            routine clinic visit in
                                            a primary care clinic

(*) Experience in training did not include experience gained prior to
the study. (**) BGSM is blood glucose self-management.

Table 3

Quantitative Outcome Variables

Category           Outcome Variable

Behavior           1. Behavioral risk factors (Babamoto et al.,
Outcomes           2009; Kenya et al., 2014; Spencer et al.,
                   2011; Spencer et al., 2013)
                   2. Medication adherence (Babamoto et al., 2009;
                   Heisler et al., 2014; Rothschild et al., 2014)
                   3. Health behaviors (Batts et al., 2001)
                   4. Diabetes self-care practices (Corkery et al.,
                   1997; Gary et al., 2003; Perez-Escamilla et
                   al., 2015; Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer et
                   al., 2011; Spencer et al., 2013; Wagner et al.,
                   5. Physical activity (Gary et al., 2003;
                   Kollannoor-Samuel et al., 2016; Spencer et
                   al., 2013)
                   6. Healthful eating (Gary et al., 2003;
                   Kollannoor-Samuel et al., 2016; Spencer et
                   al., 2013)
                   7. Self-reported health status (Wagner et al.,
                   8. Home skills (Wagner et al., 2015)
Knowledge          1. Diabetes knowledge (Babamoto et al., 2009;
Outcomes           Corkery et al., 1997; Kollannoor-Samuel et
                   al., 2016; Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015;
                   Wagner et al., 2015)
                   2. Medication knowledge and decision-making
                   (Heisler et al., 2014)
                   3. Health Literacy (McDermott et al., 2015)
                   4. Diabetes self-management knowledge
                   (Spencer et al., 2011)
                   5. Medication changes (Prezio et al., 2013)
Mental Health and  1. Diabetes self-efficacy (Heisler et al., 2014;
Weil-Being         Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer et al., 2011)
Outcomes           2. Diabetes distress (Heisler et al., 2014;
                   Spencer et al., 2011; Spencer et al., 2013;
                   Tang et al., 2014; Wagner et al, 2016)
                   3. Quality of life (McDermott et al., 2015)
                   4. Acculturation (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015;
                   Rothschild et al., 2014)
                   5. Social support (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015;
                   Rothschild et al., 2014; Tang et al., 2014)
                   6. Diabetes attitudes (Perez-Escamilla et al.,
                   2015; Spencer et al., 2013)
                   7. Mental health (Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015)
                   8. Depression (Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer
                   et al., 2013)
                   9. Stress (Rothschild et al., 2014)
                   10. Anxiety (Rothschild et al., 2014; Wagner et
                   al., 2016)
                   11. Treatment expectations (Wagner et al., 2015)
                   12. Affect (Wagner et al., 2015)
                   13. Treatment satisfaction (Wagner et al., 2015)
Physical Health    1. HbAlc (Babamoto et al., 2009; Corkery et
Outcomes           al., 1997; Gary et al., 2003; Heisler et al.,
                   2014; Kenya et al., 2014; Kollannoor-Samuel
                   et al., 2016; McDermott et al., 2015; Palmas
                   et al., 2014; Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015;
                   Prezio et al., 2013; Rothschild et al., 2014;
                   Spencer et al., 2011; Spencer et al., 2013;
                   Tang et al., 2014; Wagner et al., 2016;
                   Wagner et al., 2015)
                   2. Weight, height, and/or body mass index
                   (Babamoto et al., 2009; Perez-Escamilla et al.,
                   2015; Prezio et al., 2013; Tang et al., 2014)
                   3. Blood pressure (Batts et al., 2001; Gary et al.,
                   2003; McDermott et al., 2015; Palmas et al.,
                   2014; Perez-Escamilla et al., 2015; Prezio et
                   al., 2013; Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer et
                   al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014)
                   4. Lipid profile (Gary et al., 2003; Perez-
                   Escamilla et al., 2015; Prezio et al., 2013;
                   Tang et al., 2014)
                   5. Self-monitored blood glucose (Kenya et al..
                   6. Cholesterol (Palmas et al., 2014; Spencer et
                   al., 2011)
                   7. Hip/waist circumference (Perez-Escamilla et
                   al., 2015; Tang et al., 2014)
                   8. Diabetes-related complications (Spencer et al.,
                   9. Urinary Cortisol (Wagner et al., 2016)
Non-Categorized    1. Diabetes care priorities (Batts et al., 2001)
Outcomes           2. Needs related to diabetes care and non-
                   diabetes care (Batts et al., 2001)
                   3. Quality of diabetes care (Spencer et al., 2013)
                   4. Relations with health providers (Spencer et
                   al., 2013)
                   5. Therapeutic cohesion and alliance (Wagner et
                   al., 2015)

Category           Instrument (*)

Behavior           1. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance
Outcomes           System; Michigan Diabetes
                   Knowledge Scale
                   2. Morisky Self-Reported Medication
                   Behavior Scale; 4-Item Self-Reported
                   Adherence Measure; MEMS 6 Track
                   3. NR
                   4. Patient Self-Reported Behaviors
                   Rating Scale of Diabetes Self-Care
                   Practices; Summary of Diabetes Self-
                   Care Activities Scale
                   5. Dietary Risk Assessment; ADA
                   6. Food Frequency Questionnaire; Food
                   Label Questionnaire, Healthy Eating
                   7. 1-item from National Health
                   Interview Survey
                   8. Weekly diary entries
Knowledge          1. Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire;
Outcomes           Diabetes knowledge test developed
                   for Gary et al. (2003); Diabetes-
                   related knowledge survey developed
                   by Kollannoor-Samuel et al. (2016);
                   10-items from DIALBEST
                   2. The Diabetes Mellitus Medication
                   Choice Aid; Decisional Conflict
                   Scale; Statin Choice
                   3. Functional Health Literacy for Adults
                   4. 1-item validated question
                   5. Computerized pharmacy records
Mental Health and  1. Diabetes Empowerment Scale;
Weil-Being         Perceived Competence for Diabetes
Outcomes           Scale
                   2. Diabetes Distress Scale; Problem
                   Areas in Diabetes Scale
                   3. Assessment of Quality of Life
                   4. Marin Instrument to Assess for
                   5. Personal Resource Questionnaire;
                   Diabetes Support Scale
                   6. NR
                   7. NR
                   8. Beck Depression Inventory; Patient
                   Health Questionnaire-9 item; Patient-
                   Health Questionnaire-8 item
                   9. Perceived Stress Scale; PROMIS
                   Emotional Distress/Anxiety Scale
                   10. Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory
                   11. Credibility Expectancy Scale
                   12. Affect reports
                   13. Developed for Wagner et al. (2015)
Physical Health    1. Clinical data
Outcomes           2. Clinical data
                   3. Clinical data
                   4. Clinical data
                   5. Stanford Patient Education Research
                   Center Diabetes Questionnaire
                   6. Clinical data
                   7. Clinical data
                   8. NR
                   9. Clinical data
Non-Categorized    1. Developed for Batts et al. (2001)
Outcomes           2. Developed for Batts et al. (2001)
                   3. NR
                   4. NR
                   5. 4-item Outcome Alliance Scale

(*) The instruments listed only include those that were reported by
the authors in their manuscripts.

Table 4

CHW Intervention Results

                      Sample                     Participant mean
Article               size (N)  Region           age in years

Babamoto et al.       189       Los Angeles,     50
(2009)                          CA
Batts et al. (2001)   119       Baltimore, MD    59
Corkery et al.        64        New York City,   53
(1997)                          NY
Gary et al. (2003)    149       Baltimore, MD    59
Heisler et al.        1 x 8     Detroit, MI      52
Kenya et al. (2014)   117       Miami, FL        55
Kollannoor-Samuel     203       New Haven, CT    57
et al. (2016)
McDermott et al.      213       Adelaide, South  48
(2015)                          Australia
Palmas et al.         360       New York City,   58
(2014)                          NY
Perez-Escamilla et    211       Hartford, CT     56
al. (2015)
Prezio et al. (2013)  180       Dallas, TX       46
Rothschild et al.     144       Chicago, IL      54
Spencer et al.        164       Detroit, MI      50 (intervention).
(2011)                                           55 (control)
Spencer et al.        164       Detroit, MI      53
Tang et al. (2014)    116       Detroit, MI      49
Wagner et al.         107       Hartford, CT     61 (DE), 60
(2016)                                           (SM + DE)
Wagner et al.         107       Hartford, CT     60

Article               Sex (% Female)

Babamoto et al.       64
Batts et al. (2001)   75
Corkery et al.        74
Gary et al. (2003)    77
Heisler et al.        76 (iDecide); 66
(2014)                (printed
Kenya et al. (2014)   55
Kollannoor-Samuel     73
et al. (2016)
McDermott et al.      62
Palmas et al.         63 (control),
(2014)                61 (intervention)
Perez-Escamilla et    74
al. (2015)
Prezio et al. (2013)  67 (control), 54
Rothschild et al.     67
Spencer et al.        75 (intervention),
(2011)                67 (control)
Spencer et al.        71
Tang et al. (2014)    58.6
Wagner et al.         72 (DE), 74
(2016)                (SM + DE)
Wagner et al.         73

                      Significant changes in constructs measured for
Article               CHW Intervention group

Babamoto et al.       a. Self-reported health status of "very good" or
(2009)                "excellent" increased from 5% at baseline to 57%
                      at follow-up
                      b. Intake of fatty foods decreased from 29% at
                      baseline to 16% at follow-up
                      c. Intake of 2 + servings of fresh fruit per day
                      and fresh vegetables per day increased from 47%
                      and 39% at baseline to 73% and 76% at follow-up,
                      d. Exercise 3 + days per week increased from 28%
                      at baseline to 63% at follow-up
                      e. Mean Diabetes Knowledge Scale score increased
                      from 10.6 at baseline to 14.7 at follow-up
                      f. Mean Alc decreased from 8.6% at baseline to
                      7.2% at follow-up
Batts et al. (2001)   a. Percentages of needs addressed in first,
                      second, and third visits decreased for healthy
                      eating, physical activity, medication adherence,
                      and insurance
Corkery et al.        a. Alc levels decreased from 11.7 at baseline to
(1997)                9.9 at post-intervention and sustained at 9.5 at
                      b. Self-reported knowledge scores improved from
                      74.4% at baseline and 95.4% at post-test
                      c. Improvements from baseline to follow-up in
                      self-reported adherence to the meal plan,
                      carrying a fast-acting sugar, and performing
                      daily foot care
Gary et al. (2003)    a. A .26-unit increase in leisure-time physical
                      activity from baseline
Heisler et al.        a. Within-group mean improvements from baseline
(2014)                to follow-up in medication decisional conflict
                      (11.5, 14.1), knowledge about medications (10.8,
                      12.8), satisfaction with clarity of medication
                      information (13.0, 22.2), and satisfaction with
                      helpfulness of medication information (10.2,
                      21.5) for printed materials and iDecide,
                      b. Within-group mean improvements from baseline
                      to follow-up in diabetes self-care efficacy
                      (4.8, 81), medication adherence (5.7, 3.4), and
                      Alc (-.3, -.4) for printed materials and
                      iDecide, respectively
                      c. Within-group mean improvement of 14.1
                      for iDecide group from baseline to follow-up in
                      diabetes distress
                      d. Between-group differences in improvement
                      found to be greater for iDecide than printed
                      materials for satisfaction with clarity of
                      information on medications and satisfaction with
                      helpfulness of information on medications
                      e. Between-group difference in improvement
                      of 15.7 in mean diabetes distress score for
                      iDecide than printed materials
Kenya et al. (2014)   a. Alc values decreased from 10.04 at baseline
                      to 8.80 at follow-up
Kollannoor-Samuel     a. Food label use improved 16.4% from baseline to
et al. (2016)         follow-up
                      b. Alc levels decreased .52% from baseline to
                      c. 15% of the decrease in Alc levels from
                      baseline to follow-up was associated with food
                      label use to diet quality path
                      d. Within-individuals, Alc values decreased 12%
                      between baseline and follow-up and with respect
                      to diet quality (.11%)
McDermott et al.      a. Alc levels decreased from 10.8 at baseline to
(2015)                9.8 at follow-up
Palmas et al.         a. When separated out from in-person contacts,
(2014)                phone contacts were associated with greater Alc
                      reduction from baseline to follow-up
Perez-Escamilla et    a. Ale levels decreased .42% from baseline to 3
al. (2015)            months, .47% at 6 months, .57% at 12 months, and
                      .55% at 18 months
                      b. An overall group effect of--.51% was found
                      for Alc with the intervention group having lower
                      Ale levels than the control group
                      c. Fasting glucose was lower for the intervention
                      group than the control group
Prezio et al. (2013)  a. Alc levels decreased .7% from baseline to
                      follow-up. with a greater reduction in Alc for
                      intervention group than the control group
Rothschild et al.     a. Alc levels decreased .55 points lower for the
(2014)                intervention group than the control group from
                      baseline to year one (8.35 to 7.87 for
                      intervention group, 8.23 to 8.42 for control
                      group) and .69 points lower from year one to year
                      two (7.87 to 7.64 for intervention group. 8.42 to
                      8.33 for control group)
                      b. Glucose self-monitoring increased from
                      baseline to year two for both groups
                      c. Self-efficacy increased a mean of 4.4 units
                      from baseline to year two for both groups
                      d. Weight decreased 4.82 pounds from baseline to
                      year one and 5.02 pounds from year one to year
                      e. Social support increased 6.7 points from
                      baseline to year one and 12.7 points from year
                      one to year two
Spencer et al.        a. Mean Alc levels decreased from 8.6 at baseline
(2011)                to 7.8 at follow-up
                      b. Mean LDL cholesterol levels decreased from 105
                      at baseline to 95 at follow-up
                      c. Self-management knowledge improved from
                      baseline to follow-up, with improvements seen in
                      self-management score, knowledge about how food
                      affects blood sugar, and how exercise helps blood
                      d. Percent that met guidelines for physical
                      activity increased from 37% at baseline to 53% at
                      e. Adherence to inspecting the inside of shoes
                      daily increased from 49% at baseline to 77% at
                      f. Testing blood sugars as recommended improved
                      from 74% at baseline to 87% at follow-up
Spencer et al.        a. With age and ethnicity added to the model,
(2013)                problem areas in diabetes decreased 6.5 points
                      from baseline to 6 months, with a total reduction
                      of 12.3 months from baseline to follow-up
                      b. In calculating an "average intervention
                      effect" by combining the immediate and delayed
                      groups, problem areas in diabetes decreased from
                      baseline to follow-up regardless of whether
                      demographics were added to the model
                      c. When problem areas in diabetes analyses were
                      stratified by race/ethnicity, the outcome was
                      only significant for Latino/as
                      d. Depression symptoms decreased by .4 units from
                      baseline to 6 months for the delayed group, with
                      a difference between the immediate and delayed
                      group of .7
                      e. For Latino/as, depression symptoms decreased
                      1.0 units from baseline to 6 months
                      f. With the "average intervention effect", a
                      decrease in depression symptoms was seen from
                      baseline to 6 months
Tang et al. (2014)    a. Alc levels decreased 5.5 units from baseline
                      to 6 months and maintained a decrease of 4.4
                      units at 12 months
                      b. Waist circumference decreased 1.4 inches from
                      baseline to 6 months and sustained a 1.3 inch
                      reduction at 18 months
                      c. Social support improved .6 units from baseline
                      to 6 months and sustained .4 unit improvement at
                      12 months and .3 units at 18 months
                      d. High diabetes distress decreased from baseline
                      to 6 months
                      e. Moderate diabetes distress levels decreased
                      from 28.6% at baseline to 14.5% at 6 months, and
                      was sustained at 16.2% at 12 months and at 18.8%
                      at 18 months
Wagner et al.         a. Depression symptoms increased from 5.3 units
(2016)                at baseline to 6.2 units at post-treatment for
                      diabetes education (DE) group and decreased from
                      6.7 units at baseline to 4.7 units at
                      post-treatment for stress management and diabetes
                      education (SM + DE)
                      b. Anxiety symptoms increased froml.8 units at
                      baseline to 2.9 units at post-treatment for
                      DE group and decreased from 1.9 units at baseline
                      to 1.7 units at post-treatment for SM + DE
                      c. Self-reported health worsened from 3.3 units
                      at baseline to 3.4 units at post-treatment for DE
                      group and decreased from 3.5 units at baseline to
                      3.1 units at post-treatment for SM + DE
                      d. Number of sessions attended was associated
                      with Ale; compared to baseline, at post-treatment
                      each additional session attended was associated
                      with a .21 decrease in Alc and at follow-up was
                      associated with a .19 decrease in Alc
                      e. Compared to baseline, at post-treatment each
                      additional SM session was associated with a .6
                      point decrease in diabetes distress score
Wagner et al.         a. Diabetes knowledge scores increased from 62%
(2015)                correct at baseline to 76% correct at follow-up
                      b. In-session relaxation exercises increased
                      positive affect and decreased negative affect
                      from baseline to follow-up

                      Associated statistical
                      significant (p; respective)
Article               /Effect size (if reported)

Babamoto et al.       a. < .05
(2009)                b. < .05
                      c. < .05
                      d. < .05
                      e. < .05
                      f. < .05
Batts et al. (2001)   a. < .001; < .001; < .05;
                      < .001
Corkery et al.        a. = .004; < .001
(1997)                b. < .001
                      c. = .013; < .001; < .001
Gary et al. (2003)    a. < .05
Heisler et al.        a. All < .001/< .001
(2014)                b. = .002/< .001; < .001/
                      = .036; = .016/= .001
                      c. < .001
                      d. = .03; = .007
                      e. < .001
Kenya et al. (2014)   a. < .001
Kollannoor-Samuel     a. < .001
et al. (2016)         b. < .05
                      c. < .01
                      d. < .01; < .05
McDermott et al.      a. = .018
Palmas et al.         a. = .04
Perez-Escamilla et    a. = .043; = .050;
al. (2015)            = .021; = .009
                      b. = .002
                      c. = .002
Prezio et al. (2013)  a. = .02; < .001
Rothschild et al.     a. = .021; = .005
(2014)                b. Significant (p value
                      c. Significant (p value NR)
                      d. = .041; = .036
                      e. = .015; < .001
Spencer et al.        a. < .01
(2011)                b. < .05
                      c. < .01; < .01; < .05,
                      OR = 11.4; < .01,
                      OR = 4.3
                      d. < .05
                      e. < .01, OR = 3.3
                      f. < .05
Spencer et al.        a. = .05
(2013)                b. < .05
                      c. .30 effect for African
                      Americans and Latino/
                      as combined; .53 effect
                      for Latino/as
                      d. < .05; .44 effect
                      e. .53 effect
                      f. .21 effect for everyone;
                      .31 effect for Latino/as
Tang et al. (2014)    a. = .004; = .011
                      b. = .0001; = .0001
                      c. < .0001; = .0001;
                      = .050
                      d. Significant (p value
                      e. = .013; = .003; = .030
Wagner et al.         a. .002, [r.sup.2] = .082
(2016)                b. = .005, [r.sup.2] = .077
                      c. = .023, [r.sup.2] = .048
                      d. = .002, [r.sup.2] = .092; =
                      e. = .047, [r.sup.2] = .060
Wagner et al.         a. = .000
(2015)                b. = .001

Note. OR = odds ratio; r = R-squared; effect = Cohen's D effect size;
NR = not reported.

Table 5

Main Foci in Findings

Theme                                Articles supporting theme

Significant impact on physical       Corkery et al., 1997; Gary et al.,
health                               2003; Heisler et al., 2014; Kenya
                                     et al., 2014; McDermott et al.,
                                     2015; Perez-Escamilla et al.,
                                     2015; Prezio et al., 2013;
                                     Rothschild et al., 2014; Spencer
                                     et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2014; &
                                     Wagner et al., 2016
Significant impact on diabetes       Babamoto et al., 2009; Corkery
knowledge                            et al., 1997; Kenya et al., 2014;
                                     & Wagner et al., 2015
Significant impact on self-care      Babamoto et al., 2009; Batts et
behaviors                            al., 2001; Corkery et al., 1997;
                                     Gary et al., 2003; Heisler et al.,
                                     2014; Kollannoor-Samuel et al.,
                                     2016; Rothschild et al., 2014; &
                                     Spencer et al., 2011
Significant impact on mental health  Heisler et al., 2014; Rothschild
and well-being                       et al., 2014; Spencer et al.,
                                     2013; Tang et al., 2014; & Wagner
                                     et al., 2016
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Author:Trump, Lisa J.; Mendenhall, Tai J.
Publication:Families, Systems & Health
Article Type:Report
Date:Sep 1, 2017
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