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Common holding errors: some common mistakes and misconceptions made by IFR students.

HOLD OR PROCEDURE TURN?

It's common for a student with whom I'm flying for the first time to ask if he/ she needs to fly a "full turn" around the holding pattern, or if it's okay to continue inbound on the approach once intercepting the inbound course. Controllers expect you to continue inbound from the hold entry without flying a complete circuit of the holding pattern. It's not a hard-and-fast rule, but courtesy demands telling controllers you will not continue inbound and will instead circle in the hold if for any reason you're not ready to continue inbound immediately from the hold entry.

Examples include not being on speed or altitude when approaching the fix while flying inbound, not having the airplane configured for a stabilized approach, or simply not being read to fly the procedure, for example, if you have not yet listened to ATIS or AWOS, or have not fully briefed the approach chart.

CONFUSING THE INBOUND AND OUTBOUND HEADINGS

This happens more often than you'd think. Drawing the picture. and comparing it to the direction you'll fly if the hold is part of an approach, a SID or a STAR, should help prevent this common IFR error.

INTERCEPT THE INBOUND COURSE WHILE FLYING OUTBOUND IN THE HOLD

The outbound leg of a holding pattern has no ground-based navigation guidance. You may well be flying around a holding pattern depicted on a GPS or MFD, in which case you'll always have an idea of whether you're on the proper track. But if you're not using GPS or you're holding in something other than a published holding pattern, you'll simply fly a heading that parallels the inbound course while you're flying outbound in the hold.

TIMING FAILURE

Timing on the outbound leg begins when wings level from the turn or when you can positively determine you're opposite the holding fix, whichever comes last.

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Title Annotation:instrument flight rules
Publication:Aviation Safety
Article Type:Brief article
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Dec 1, 2014
Words:314
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