Commentary: When it comes to tics, parents need to chill.
As with other parent concerns, both empathizing with their worry and providing evidence-based information is helpful in relieving their distress.
Habits are complex behaviors done the same way repeatedly. Habits can have a strong protective effect on our lives and be a foundation for success when they ensure that we wash our hands (protection from infection), help us know where the keys are (efficiency), or soothe us to sleep (bedtime routines).
Tics are "involuntary" (meaning often, but not always, suppressible), brief, abrupt, repeated movements usually of the face, head, or neck. More complex, apparently meaningless movements may fall into the category of stereotypies. If they last more than 4 weeks, are driven, and cause marked dysfunction or significant self-injury, they may even qualify as stereotypic movement disorder.
It is good to know that repeated behaviors such as thumb sucking, nail/lip biting, hair twirling, body rocking, self-biting, and head banging are relatively common in childhood, and often (but not mostly) disappear after age 4. I like to set the expectation that one habit or tic often evolves to another to reduce panic when this happens. Thumb and hand sucking at a younger developmental age may be replaced by body rocking and head banging, and later by nail biting and finger and foot tapping.
Even in college, habits are common and stress-related such as touching the face; playing with hair, pens, or jewelry; shaking a leg; tapping fingers; or scratching the head. Parents may connect some of these to acne or poor hygiene (a good opening for coaching!) but more importantly they may be accompanied by general distress, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and impulsive aggressive symptoms, which need to be looked for and addressed.
Stereotypies occur in about 20% of typically developing children (called "primary") and are classified into:
* Common behaviors (such as, rocking, head banging, finger drumming, pencil tapping, hair twisting).
* Head nodding.
* Complex motor movements (such as hand and arm flapping/waving).
Habits--including nail biting, lip chewing, and nose picking--also may be diagnosed as stereotypic movement disorders, although ICD-10 lists includes them as "other specified behavioral and emotional disorders."
For both conditions, the behavior must not be better accounted for by a compulsion, a tic disorder, part of autism, hair pulling (trichotillomania), or paroxysmal dyskinesias.
So what is the difference between motor stereotypies and tics (and why do you care)? Motor stereotypies begin before 3 years in more than 60%, whereas tics appear later (mean 5-7 years). Stereotypies are more fixed in their pattern, compared with tics that keep shifting form, disappearing, and reappearing. Stereotypies frequently involve the arms, hands, or the entire body, while tics involve the eyes, face, head, and shoulders. Stereotypies are more fixed, rhythmic, and prolonged (most more than 10 seconds) than tics, which are mostly brief, rapid, random, and fluctuating.
One key distinguishing factor is that tics have a premonitory urge and result in a sense of relief after the tic is performed. This also means that they can be suppressed to some extent when the situation requires. While both may occur more during anxiety, excitement, or fatigue, stereotypic movements, unlike tics, also are common when the child is engrossed.
Tics can occur as a side effect of medications such as stimulants and may decrease by lowering the dose, but tics also come and go, so the impact of a medication can be hard to sort out.
One vocal or multiple motor tics occurring many times per day starting before age 18 years and lasting more than 1 year are considered chronic; those occurring less than 1 year are transient. Chronic multiple motor tics accompanied by vocalizations, even sniffing or throat clearing, qualify as Tourette syndrome. The feared component of Tourette of coprolalia (saying bad words or gestures) is fortunately rare. These diagnoses can be made only after ruling out the effects of medication or another neurological condition such as Sydenham's chorea (resulting from infection via group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, the bacterium that causes rheumatic fever) or PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections).
The importance of distinguishing tics from stereotypies is in the treatment options, differential diagnosis, and prognosis. Some families (and certainly the kids themselves) do not even notice that they are moving abnormally even though 25% have at least one family member with a similar behavior. But many parents are upset about the potential for teasing and stigmatization. When you ask them directly what they are afraid of, they often admit fearing an underlying diagnosis such as intellectual disability, autism, or Tourette syndrome. The first two are straightforward to rule in or out, but Tourette can be subtle. If parents don't bring up the possibilities, it is worth telling them directly which underlying conditions can be ruled out.
There are many conditions co-morbid with tics including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD); learning disorder (LD); behavioral, developmental, or social problems; and mood or anxiety disorders. This clearly means that a comprehensive evaluation looking specifically for these conditions is needed when a child has chronic tics. Typically developing children with complex arm or hand movements also are more likely to have ADHD (30%), LD (20%), obsessive-compulsive behaviors (10%), or tics (18%).
Tics and stereotypies may be annoying, but generally are not harmful or progressive, although repeated movements such as skin or nose picking may result in scars or infections, and severe head banging can lead to eye injuries. Frequently repeated motor acts can cause significant muscle pain and fatigue. The most common problems are probably injury to self-esteem or oppositional behavior as a result of repeated (and fruitless) nagging or punishment by parents, even if well-meaning.
Since they occur so often along with comorbid conditions, our job includes determining the most problematic aspect before advising on a treatment. Both tics and stereotypies may be reduced by distraction, but the effect on stereotypies is faster and more certain. You can make this intervention in the office by simply asking how the child can tell when they make the movement and have them plan out what they could do instead. An example might be to shift a hand flapping movement (that makes peers think of autism) into more acceptable fist clenching. Habit reversal training or differential reinforcement based on a functional analysis can be taught by psychologists when this simple suggestion is not effective. When tics are severe, teacher education and school accommodations (504 Plan with extended time, scribe, private location for tic breaks) may be needed.
Medication is not indicated for most tics because most are mild. If ADHD is present, tics may actually be reduced by stimulants or atomoxetine rather than worsened. If the tic is severe and habit reversal training has not been successful, alpha agonists such as Clonidine or guanfacine, or typical or atypical neuroleptics may be helpful. Even baclofen, benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, nicotine, and Botox have been used. These require consultation with a specialist.
As for other chronic medical conditions, tics and persisting stereotypies deserve a comprehensive approach, including repeated education of the parent and child, evaluation for comorbidity, school accommodations, building other strengths and social support, and only rarely pulling out your prescription pad.
Dr. Howard is an assistant professor of pediatrics at The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, and creator of CHADIS (www.CHADIS.com). She has no other relevant disclosures. Dr. Howard's contribution to this publication was as a paid expert to Frontline. E-mail her at email@example.com.
BY BARBARA J. HOWARD, M.D.
Caption: DR. HOWARD
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|Title Annotation:||CHILD & ADOLESCENT HEALTH|
|Author:||Howard, Barbara J.|
|Publication:||Family Practice News|
|Date:||Feb 15, 2015|
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