Printer Friendly

Combination inorganic and organic fertilizer increased yield production of soybean in rain-field Malang, Indonesia.

Introduction

Soybean is important food commodities in Indonesia. Consumption of soybean in 2010 was 2,1 million tonnes, whereas the production of soybean in 2009 was 974.152 kg and the production decrease to 927.384 in 2010 (BPS, 2010). Data from Ministries of trade Indonesia showed that import of Soybean in 2010 was 1,2 million tones to provide for domestic demand (Anonymous (a), 2010). The decrease of yield production soybean was caused by cultivation techniques that not optimal, and long rainy season due to global warming.

Improving soybean production with intensification can be done with optimalization application of fertilizer, especially inorganic fertilizer. Inorganic fertilizer is compound fertilizer that consisted of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P),Potassium(K). The compound fertilizer that common in farmer was "Ponska", it consisted of NP-K:15-15-15. However, the used of inorganic fertilizer for long time caused decrease soil fertility that is disserve for sustainability of soybean production. The cultivation techniques should keep of soil fertility, it can be done by usage organic fertilizer or combining inorganic and organic fertilizers. Morover, organic fertilizer could increased C-organic, soil fertility, soil microorganism and stabilize soil pH(Yuliarty, 2009). Therefore, we compared the effect of organic fertilizer, inorganic fertilizer and combination of the fertilizers on growth and yield production of soyben. Here we used Petrogenic, organic fertilizer containsC--organic 12.5%, C-N Ratio10 -25, pH 4-8, granular form, black color and water content 4-12 %. The raw materials of petroganik were animal manure, chicken manure, waste of sugar industry (blotong), palm bunches, urban waste, household waste and filler (Rahman, 2009). The combination between inorganic and organic fertilizers increased soybean productivity in rainy season.

Material and Methods

The experimental was conducted in rain-field (Experiment Field, Faculty of Agricultural, University of Brawijaya, Malang-Indonesia). The height of area was 303 m asl, alfisol soil, dusty clay loam with composition sand 18%, dust 47% and clay 35%, pH 6-6.2, C-organic 0.8%. The research conducted at rainy season during February to May 2011. The experiment was designed based on Randomized Completed Block with following combination inorganic fertilizers at doses 75 kg [ha.sup.-1]; 150 kg [ha.sup.-1], 225 kg [ha.sup.-1], with organic fertilizers at doses 0.0 t [ha.sup.-1] (control); 0.5 t [ha.sup.-1]; 1 t [ha.sup.-1] on plot 40 x 15 cm each, with three replications(Adisarwanto, 2008). We used inorganic fertilizer Ponska (N-P-K:15-15-15), and organic fertilizer Petroganik (C-organic 12.5%, C/N ratio10-25, pH 4-8, granular form, black color and water content 4-12 %) to examine its effect on growth and yield production of soyben, variety of Grobokan. The inorganic fertilizers were applied on planting time and 30 days after planting (dap), which the organic fertilizers were applied on 4 days before planting. Stitch was done at 7 days after planting (dap), weeding was done at 14 dap and the next three weeks.

The soil analysis were done before tillage and after crop harvestas follow: soil samples taken 0-20 cm below the ground surface for analysis N, P, K, C/N ratio and C-organic (Rosmarkamdan Yuwono, 2001). The growth parameters based on number of leaves, leaf area index and dry weight whereas the yield parameter based on number of pods, dry weight of 100 seed and soybean production [ha.sup.-1]. The growth parameter assessed on 34, 44 and 54 dap and yield parameter assessed on soybean's harvest (Sitompul dan Guritno, 1995).Collected data was analyzed used ANOVA (F test) at level 5% followed by further analysis of LSDat level 5 % when significant effect of treatment was found.

Results and Discussion

The combination of inorganic and organic fertilizer has significant effect on growth of soybean at age 34, 44 and 54 dap. The increased dosage of inorganic fertilizer (NPK compound fertilizer) and organic fertilizer (petroganik) increased plant growth.

The effect of Inorganic fertilizer and organic fertilizer on plant growth:

A Combined inorganic and organic fertilizer :225 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1] has the highest effect on growth at 34, 44, 54 dap. The effect of combinations between inorganic and organic fertilizer on growt of soyben after 34 dap are listed on Table 1. Combinations inorganic and organic fertilezers at doses 225 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1], and 150 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1] have the highest growth parameter (crop height, number of leaves and leaf area). However, combination inorganic and organic fertilizer : 225 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1] has higerdry weight than combination 150 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1]. The effect of combination inorganic and organic fertilizer :225 kg [ha.sup.-1]+ 1t [ha.sup.-1] and 150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1t [ha.sup.-1] have the highest effect on crop height, number of leaves and leaf area on 44 dap(Table 2). The effect of combination inorganic and organic fertilizer at dose 225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1t [ha.sup.-1] has the highest effect on crop height, number of leaves, leaf area and crop dry weight on 54 dap (Table 3). It suggested that combining inorganic and organic fertilizers have beneficial to improve crop growth, and better compared application inorganic fertilizer without added with organic fertilizer. Theses phenomenone similar with experiment from Kimetu et al (2004) on maize, Mucheru-Muna et al (2007) on maize, Mugwe et al (2007) on maize, Ayeni (2008) on tomato, and Akanbi et al (2010) on okra.

The effect of combination inorganic and organic fertilizer on yield of soybean:

The higest yield production was on combination inorganic and organic fertilizer at doses225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5 t [ha.sup.-1] and 225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1 t [ha.sup.-1] respectively. The result similar with data from Akanbi et al (2009) on roselle, Nziguheba et al (2002) on maize in agroforesty system, Adekayode and. Olojugba (2009) on maize and Ikerra et al (2006) on maize. However, increasing doses of organic fertilizer form 0.5 t [ha.sup.-1] until 1 t [ha.sup.-1] have no significant different on yield production of soybean (tabel 4). The increase dosage inorganic fertilizer increased yield production of soybean because inorganic fertilizer contains N-P-K, whis is important for plant metabolism to produces organic matter in crop. Nitrogen has role in vegetative growth, Phosphate has role in pods formation and Potassium has role to improve grain quality and makes grain more dense and large (Lamina, 1989; Rosmarkamdan Yuwono, 2002). However, application inorganic together with organic fertilizer increased yield production compared with inorganic alone. Combination inorganic and organic fertilizer significantly increased yield production of soybean (number of flowers, number of pods, weight of 100 grains and yield [ha.sup.-1]).

Organic fertilizer increased C/N ratio (6:1), whereas application the organic fertilizer dosage 1 t [ha.sup.-1] increased C-organic until 26.4 % (tabel 5.). It improved quality of soil, it easy to be decomposed so the nutrients can be absorbed by plant fastly. Furthermore the nutrient would spur the growth of vegetative (Sugitoet al. 1995; Hairiahet al. 2000; Buckman dan Brady, 1990). Application organic fertilizer will substitute new organic materials for soil depending on the physical, biological, chemical and soil type (Pramono, 2004; Achadi, 2001). This phenomenone suggested that the organic fertilizer improved soil structure and provide organic nutrient for microorgaism and plant grow. Moreover, application organic fertilizer caused change of soil structure, soil particles become smaller, increase C-organic and improve soil texture (Syukur dan Harsono, 2008).

Conclusions:

Application inorganic together with organic fertilizer increased yield production compared with inorganic alone. Combination inorganic and organic fertilizer significantly increased yield production of soybean (number of flowers, number of pods, weight of 100 grains and yield [ha.sup.-1]).Organic fertilizer improved fertility and C- organic of soil.

References

Achadi, T., 2009. Dynamica of Weed and Production of Soybean in Varian dose organic fertilizer. Journal Agria in Indonesia, 5(1): 1-2.

Akanbi, W.B., A.B. Olaniyan, A.O. Togun, Ilupeju, A.E.O and O.A. Olaniran, 2009. The Effect of Organic and Inorganic Fertilizer on Growth, Calyx Yield and Quality of Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). American Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(4): 652-657

Akanbi, W.B., A.O. Togun, J.A. Adediran and E.A.O. Ilupeju, 2010. Growth, Dry Matter and Fruit Yields Components of Okra under Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nutrients, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 4(1): 1-13.

Adekayode, F.O. and M.R. Olojugba, 2009. The Utilization of Wood Ash as Manure for Improved Performance of Maize (Zea Mays L.) As Measured in the Chlorophyll Content and Grain Yield. American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 3(4): 737-742.

Ayeni, L.S., 2008. Integrated Application of Cocoa Pod Ash and NPK Fertilizer on Soil Chemical Properties and Yield of Tomato, American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 2(3): 333-337.

Buckman, H.O. and N.C. Brady, 1990. The Nature and Properties of Soil 10. The Mc millan. Pup. Co. New York.

Foth, Henry, D., 1994. Principles of Soil Science. Erlangga. Jakarta.

Gardner, F.P., R.B. Pearce and R.L., Mitchell, 1991. Plant physiology. UI Press.

Ginting, E., S.S. Antarlinaand S. Widowati, 2009. Superior Varity of Soybean for Food Industry Raw Material. Journal Agriculture of Research and Development in Indonesia, 28(3): 2009.

Hairiah, K., S.R. Widianto, D. Utami, Suprayoga, S.M. Sunaryo, B. Sitompul, R. Lusiana, M.V. Mulia, Noordjwijk and G. Cadisch, 2000. Management of Acid Soils in Biology. SMT GrafikaDesaPutera. Jakarta

Ikerra, S.T., E. Semu and J.P. Mrema, 2006. Combining Tithoniadiversifolia and MinjinguPhosphate Rock for Improvement of P Availability and Maize Grain yields on a Chromic Acrisol in Morogoro, Tanzania. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems., 76: 249-260.

Kimetu, J.M., D.N. Mugendi, C.A. Palm, P.K. Mutuo, C.N. Gachengo, A. Bationo, S. Nandwa and J.B. Kungu, 2004. Nitrogen fertilizer equivalencies of organics of differing quality and optimum combination with inorganic nitrogen source in Central Kenya, Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems., 68: 127-135.

Lamina. 1989. Soybean and Development. CV.Simplex. Jakarta

Mbah, E.U., C.O. Muoneke and D.A. Okpara, 2007. Effect of compound fertilizer and productivity of soybean and maize in soybean or intercrop in soutestern Nigeria. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Agroecosystems, 7: 87-95.

Mucheru-Muna, M., AE. D. Mugendi, AE J. Kung'u, AE. J. Mugwe and AE A. Bationo, 2007. Effects of organic and mineral fertilizer inputs on maize yield and soil chemical properties in a maize cropping system in Meru South District, Kenya. Agroforest System, 69: 189-197.

Mugwe, J., D. Mugendi, J. Kungu And M. Mucheru-Muna, 2007. Effect of Plant Biomass, Manure and Inorganic Fertiliser on Maize Yield in the Central Highlands of Kenya. African Crop Science Journal, 15(3): 111-126.

Nziguheba, G, R. Merckx, C.A. Palm and P. Mutuo, 2002. Combining Tithoniadiversifolia and fertilizers for Maize Production in a Phosphorus Deficient Soil in Kenya. Agroforestry Systems, 55: 165-174.

Pramono, J., 2004. The Use of Organic Fertilizer in Rain-Field. Agrosainsin Indonesia, 6(1): 11-14.

Sitompul, S.M., B. Guritno, 1995. Analysis Plant Growth. UGM Press. Yogyakarta.

Sugito, Y., M. Dewani and D. Warsiati, 2004. The Effect of Compost and Plant Spacing on Growth and Yield of Groundnut. Jornal Habitat in Indonesia, 15(1): 1-7.

Syukur, A and E.S. Harsono, 2008. The effect animal manure and inorganic fertilizer on Chemical and Physic structure at sand soil on The Samas Beach Bantul. Journal of Soil Science and Environment in Indonesia, 8 (2): 138-145.

(1) Yamika W.S.D. and (1) K.R. Ikawati

Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural University of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

Corresponding Author: Yamika, W.S.D., Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agricultural, Universitas of Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia

E-mail: wiwinyamika@gmail.com and wiwin.fp@ub.ac.id
Table 1: Effect of combination inorganic and organic
fertilizer on growth parameters of soybean at 34 dap

Treatment (combination      Crop     Number   Leaf Area      Dry
inorganic + organic         height   of       ([cm.sup.2])   weight/
fertilizer)                 (cm)     leaves                  crop (g)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0       49.4 b   7.2 d    795.1 c        3.2 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5     54.8 b   7.2 d    817.7 c        3.6 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1       53.0 b   8.0 cd   830.2 c        4.5 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      52.0 b   9.2 c    999.5 b        4.6 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    52.2 b   8.7 c    873.5 c        4.5 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      68.7 a   12.2 a   1172.8 a       6.2 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      64.6 a   10.8 b   1134.0 a       6.5 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    68.0 a   11.0 b   1193.6 a       6.4 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      65.3 a   11.8 a   1184.7 a       7.7 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

LSD                         5.4      0.82     127.1          0.5

Remarks: number followed by same letter in
same column are not significantly different at
LSD 5%

Table 2: Effect of combination inorganic and organic fertilizer on
growth parameters of soybean at 44 dap

Treatment                  Crop      Number    Leaf           Dry
(combination inorganic     heigh     of        Area           weight/
+ organic fertilizer)      (cm)      leaves    ([cm.sup.2])   crop
                                                              (g)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      46.3 d    12.0 de   1030.0 e       5.8 f
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    50.7 c    12.7 d    1184.2 d       7.6 e
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      51.1 c    13.2 d    1261.8 d       8.9 de
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     51.4 c    14.2 bc   1413.5 bc      9.3 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   61.8 ab   15.0 b    1459.8 b       10.2 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     62.4 a    17.2 a    1608.4 a       14.2 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     57.6 b    15.7 b    1585.0 a       14.8 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   65.7 a    15.5 b    1507.8 ab      16.0 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     65.9 a    16.7 a    1632.1 a       18.9 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

LSD                        4.8       0.92      91.9           1.0

Remarks : number followed by same letter in
same column are not significantly different
at LSD 5%

Table 3: Effect of combination inorganic and organic
fertilizer on growth parameters of soybean at 54 dap

Treatment                  Crop      Number    Leaf           Dry
(combination inorganic     height    of        Area           weight/
+ organic fertilizer)      (cm)      leaves    ([cm.sup.2])   crop
                                                              (g)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      59.2 c    11.7 b    1367.7 e       11.9 e
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    64.3 b    12.7 b    1371.7 e       13.6 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      65.7 ab   15.7 a    1400.2 e       14.9 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     64.0 b    13.7 ab   1502.6 cd      17.0 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   63.8 b    14.5 ab   1572.3 c       20.5 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     69.7 a    15.5 a    1646.7 b       21.8 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     71.0 a    14.7 a    1606.0 bc      21.0 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   71.7 a    14.7 a    1736.4 b       23.6 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     71.2 a    15.8 a    1910.1 a       23.6 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

LSD                        4.5       1.2       99.3           1.4

Remarks: number followed by same letter in
same column are not significantly different
at LSD 5%

Tabel 4: The number of pods/crop, number of grain,
weight of 100 grain/crop and yield (t[ha.sup.-1])

Treatment                  Number     Number    weight     Yield
(combination               of pods/   of        of 100     (t[ha.
inorganic +                crop       grain/    grain/     sup.-1])
organic fertilizer)                   crop      crop (g)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      23.4 e     62.9 d    15.0 d     2.1 e
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    24.5 e     70.4 c    16.4 c     2.4 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      27.3 d     69.8 c    17.2 c     2.5 d
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     24.9 e     79.1 a    18.4 b     2.8 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   29.8 c     71.3 c    18.9 b     3.0 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     37.5 b     77.9 b    20.2 a     3.1 c
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0     31.9 c     78.5 ab   20.9 a     3.3 b
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5   36.1 b     81.6 a    20.5 a     3.5 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1     42.9 a     82.8 a    20.3 a     3.5 a
t[ha.sup.-1]

LSD                        2.3        4.7       1,1        0.2

Remarks : number followed by same letter in same
column are not significantly different at LSD 5%

Tabel 5: Organic fertilizer analysis, soil
analysis before planting and at harvest time

Sample of analysis          pH        C-org   C/N   N Total

Organic fertilizer                    5.55    6     0.94

Soil analysis before        5.5-6.2   0.80    10    0.08
planting

Soil analysis at harvest
time on treatment
(combination Inorganic
+ organic fertilizer)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0       5.2-6.2   0.70    12    0.06
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5     5.1-6.2   0.79    9     0.08
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1       5.1-6.0   0.88    11    0.08
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      5.3-6.4   0.71    10    0.07
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    5.2-6.3   1.02    13    0.08
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      5.2-6.1   1.03    14    0.07
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      5.0-6.0   0.51    7     0.07
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    5.2-6.2   0.87    12    0.08
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      5.2-6.3   0.71    9     0.08
t[ha.sup.-1]

Sample of analysis          P       K      CEC

Organic fertilizer          1.67    0.87   37.67

Soil analysis before        20.45   0.23   14.75
planting

Soil analysis at harvest
time on treatment
(combination Inorganic
+ organic fertilizer)

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0       20.67   0.20   11.72
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5     21.28   0.22   15.36
t[ha.sup.-1]

75 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1       20.41   0.25   12.62
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      14.30   0.28   11.85
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    23.94   0.42   12.79
t[ha.sup.-1]

150 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      30.79   0.25   12.92
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0      19.21   0.26   12.90
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 0.5    26.65   0.22   13.57
t[ha.sup.-1]

225 kg [ha.sup.-1] + 1      22.60   0.39   10.80
t[ha.sup.-1]

Remarks : number followed by same letter in same
column are not significantly different at LSD 5%
COPYRIGHT 2012 American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2012 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:Original Article
Author:Yamika, W.S.D.; Ikawati, K.R.
Publication:American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDO
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:3431
Previous Article:Progress in Jatropha curcas tissue culture.
Next Article:Comparative growth and yield of okra with cowdung and poultry manure.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2019 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters