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Columbian Consequences, vol. 3: The Spanish Borderlands in Pan-American Perspective.

I am on sabbatical. I am sitting in my study in Cambridge, England, overlooking the garden. I have recently concluded reading the three volumes of Columbian consequences. The view is both evocatively familiar and strangely discordant from that from my study at Amherst, New York. Similarly, pondering the Columbian consequences while residing in England brings a distinctly different perspective from undertaking the same exercise in the States. Probably Spanish, French, Costa Rican or Chilean sabbaticals would change my perspectives as well. In the United States, the Columbian quincentenary is an important event focusing on what has become a 'creation myth' for a 'New World'. In the 'Old World' one needs only travel across 20 miles of fen to Ely cathedral to see the battle flags and memorial lists of Cambridgeshire regiments which served in France, Spain, Canada, the American colonies, Africa, India and the Middle East. Making this trip, one rapidly realizes that from Europe the Columbian Exchange is just another in a long tradition of colonial enterprises. It succeeded temporarily and then floundered -- simply another example of failed colonial policy and faltering economic imperialism. Today, the European desentimentalization of this economic failure is expressed as 'why celebrate Columbus?', 'is it so important?' and more frequently 'enough, already'. It is the 'Goodbye Columbus' response.

A brief perusal of various computerized library databases found over 400 references to the Columbian Exchange and New World colonization published in 1991 and 1992. David Hurst Thomas' three volumes are just the tip of the Columbus quincentenary iceberg. They are the culmination of a very ambitious project in cooperation with a variety of institutions. They include the Society of American Archaeology, which sponsored a series of conferences at its annual meetings, the Smithsonian Institution, which published them, and a variety of funding sources. Columbian consequences contains 94 articles by some 107 authors. They range from review articles to reports on new findings, from substantive statements to new theoretical positions, and from analyses of large-scale research programmes to individual insights.

These volumes are good examples of what symposia volumes should be. As integrated analyses they make real contributions both to theory and substance. More importantly, they bring together a wide body of knowledge and data from a variety of disciplines and make it available to an even wider audience. I believe the effort was justified and that David Hurst Thomas, the participants, the Society of American Archaeology and the Smithsonian are to be commended. Overall, I am very impressed by these volumes. I learned from them.

In any effort of this size, variation abounds. If some parts are greater than the whole, then other parts are less than equal parts. At the most mechanical level, with such a range of important information, one must ask how the Smithsonian could publish these volumes without an index? I considered creating a brief index but realized the impossibility of the task within my limited space. Instead, I have created a summary table to assist the reader in finding the relevant material for their work. Thus Table 1 (appended to this review) summarizes the three volumes by listing authors' names, chapter titles, geographic area and temporal period covered and a short summary or conclusion for each chapter. One caveat; occasionally I found it impossible to summarize entire articles in a sentence. When this occurred I recorded the idea or conclusion which I though most interesting.

However, this is a review article and thus should focus on issues. The consequences of Columbus' explorations and his colonial descendants to the New World and to the Native Americans and their descendants were vast. I will discuss some of them under the subheadings 'Atlantic dynamic', 'economic engine', 'test site', 'cognition', 'theory or substance', 'demographic sink' and 'politically correct scenario'.

The 'Atlantic dynamic': an inequitable exchange

Perhaps the greatest weakness of these volumes reflects the greatest problems in the field; namely, how does one encompass the massive change which took place? The Columbian consequences were not limited to the New World. There was an 'Atlantic dynamic'. Clearly, the archaeologists, historians and other scholars in these volumes have focused far more on the impact of Europe on America than vice versa. They document both the intentional and unintentional destruction of the native polities, social norms and populations of the New World. However, the impact on Europe of the Columbian exchange was monumental, fundamentally changing the course of European history. For example, consider the change in the available resource base. Arable land is important to a growing agricultural economy. The colonization of the New World meant an 800% increase in arable land made available to Europe. For some individual countries it was far more. For example, England increased its arable holdings by some 3000% and Portugal 15,000%.

How the European powers viewed themselves was critical to how they expanded into the New World. This viewpoint was not static, and at various times sundry European nations with expansionist policies fancied themselves actors on the world stage. A few generations later, new rulers were more protectionist and more insular, changing both their nations' colonial policies and their imperial designs. The dynamic character of the interaction between Europe and the New World cannot be overemphasized. It is dynamic in both senses of the word -- 'change over time' and 'change over space'. This, then, was the Atlantic dynamic -- changes on one side of the Atlantic caused changes on the other side at an increasingly rapid rate.

The importance of empire to the European societies cannot be overestimated, and as different empires rose and fell, partially dependent upon their New World holdings, both the seeds of the development of the Industrial Revolution and the seeds of the destruction of European colonialism began. The Columbian exchange ultimately meant that the bases of world power and economy, as well as their location, shifted during the late 19th and early to middle 20th century.

Columbian consequences as economic engine

The discovery of the New World was an engine which powered the rise and fall of international empires, the economies of countries, the development of great companies, and individual fortunes. Conversely, it also meant the destruction of native empires, compelled migration and the enforced exploitation of native populations as slaves or economic serfs. Whether it was agricultural or forestry empires, the conscription of labour, the great mining syndicates, the Asiatic trading partnerships or the great companies such as the Holland Land Company or the Hudson Bay Company, the discovery transformed both the New and the Old World's economic bases. Consider that between 1550 and 1650 Europe imported about 181 tons of gold and 16,000 tons of silver from the New World; it meant that Asian goods would become commonplace in Europe, and that capital existed for a large number of projects. If Dobyns is right the native population was reduced 30:1 with the remnants becoming slaves or serfs. Simultaneously, there was the importation of large numbers of African slaves, indentured Europeans, second sons and immigrants. The stage is set for unparalleled long-term population growth and one of the greatest changes in labour distribution ever seen. Whether it was disease, warfare or exploitation which caused the depopulation is significant. However, in economic terms what is more significant is that a native labour-force was transformed into a European-style labour-force which grew rapidly in a resource-rich, populationpoor environment. It provided a tremendous competitive advantage. Boyd Black, an Irish economist, has suggested the depopulation sets the stage for rapid economic growth in the New World relative to Europe. He suggests there is not only differential growth, but that marginal returns on increased labour is greater. Thus, rapid population growth means more rapid economic growth in the New World than Europe. Although beginning behind, the speed of economic growth resulted in a rapid 'catching-up'. The end of colonial control in country after country in the New World signifies the success of this 'catching-up process' and denotes a major change in the politico-economic environment of the Western World.

Columbian consequences as test site

The New World was 'new' and this had many consequences. It was a test site. Here, experiments with new economic, political and social organizations could be investigated. Old class structures could be demolished and new ones take their place. It became for many societies not only an escape hatch for their criminals, their dissenters and their unwanted, but the symbol of the progressive and the radical fringe particularly in an applied manner. Explorers, miners, inventors and pioneers were the 'new' heroes. It was the locus to refine concepts of colony, mission, encomienda and revista. Similar to modern research and development projects, information on location and resources was at times highly guarded, secrets for which considerable care had to be taken or else spies would take advantage. At other times, the same information was the focus of large publicity campaigns and attempts were made to recruit capital, labour and colonists. In one sense, descriptions of the New World were 'the science fiction of the time' having a tendency to be partially false and partially true but based upon a reality which became more and more realizable.

Columbian consequences and cognition

The discovery of the New World caused people to change the way they thought in some important ways. It was clear that the earth being round meant that it was all connected, and being circumscribed, more limited. Recently, for another paper, I read all the expedition logs published in the Hakluyt series of voyages to the New World. One of the more interesting insights obtained by this exercise was the realization that, for most voyagers, the New World was not a 'curious', 'alien' place. After the first few voyages they knew what to expect -- bays, forests, mountains, deserts, hunter-gatherers, horticulture, tribes, etc. Only the exact forms were different, and few were beyond the expected range. There is a 'matter-of-fact' character to their descriptions, a de-emphasizing of the diverse. This was to be expected, for it was the less diverse European cultures meeting the highly diverse New World ones. These travellers' descriptions contrast with the writings of the non-travellers who made the New World into a 'strange and exotic' place. One result of the simplification of diversity was that from the 17th to the early 20th century the natives of the new world were seen as 'the new people', 'the primitives' and 'the original people' by the Europeans. Native Americans were not only thought to be 'noble savages', but being similar to the 'original people' represented a stage in human development. This view was manifested in a variety of forms, including the placing of anthropological exhibits in Natural History Museums, the use of ethnographic analogy and creating what Don Fowler has called the 'ethnological zoo', i.e. Native Americans doing arts and craft shows at museums or on reservations and refuges.

Given the 'rational world' of the late 16th and 17th centuries, the New World must fit into the new rational 'world view' of the European or colonist. Discussion of the New World was characterized with 'rational discourse' which was very unified from European country to country. From the native's perspective perceptions of Europe and Europeans were more diverse, but unifying themes of conqueror, exploiter and destroyer are common. Ultimately, the New World changed the European concept of humanity as the end of slavery was endorsed by religious and humanist forces that ultimately overwhelmed the business and agricultural forces. Of course, business and agriculture had already found new ways to ensure cheap labour. Other common themes are the concepts of European metropolis and rural New World, ancestral Europe and descendant New World, and the ever-moving frontier.

Columbian consequences as theory or substance

Perhaps one of the more interesting issues which the Columbian consequences have revived is refocusing on the problem of continuity and discontinuity between prehistory and ethnography and between archaeology and ethnohistory. What is the time of contact? Although the Columbian consequences are localized in space and time, they need to be understood in relationship to the antecedent and subsequent conditions. There is a variety of entrenched opinions. For some, it is impossible to relate the prehistoric past to the ethnohistoric past. The evidence is so different and the changes which contact make are so fundamental that attempts to do so are doomed to failure. For others, the processes of cultural continuity overwhelm the discontinuities in such a manner that the localized phenomena are examples of understandable processes which make the discontinuities unimportant. David Hurst Thomas' volumes are entitled the Columbian consequences, and one of their clear deficiencies is the lack of determinants. Perhaps this reflects the essential continuity--discontinuity problem. Without continuity, determinants and causality are very difficult to determine. One of the areas where this is most apparent regards the issues surrounding the demographic catastrophe which occurred to a greater or lesser degree in the New World.

Columbian consequences as demographic sink

Ever since its discovery, people have been estimating the size of the population of the New World. There can be no question about the relative decline in New World population, but there is a variety of positions with regard to its scale and cause. This is not the place to discuss numbers nor the methodological problems with particular estimates. However, the issues may be succinctly put. First, the size of the decline of population is dependent upon the size of the prehistoric--precontact population. Large prehistoric populations imply large decline; small prehistoric populations, smaller losses. There are general agreements among the authors about the size of the high and low estimates. Those who believe in catastrophic epidemics with large loss of life accept the higher figures, while those who believe in more gradual demographic change accept the lower. Secondly, there is a difference of opinion regarding the methodology of disease transmittal. For the group believing in greater population loss, disease transmittal is not dependent upon direct European contact. Once the disease has entered the native population, it may travel from one Native American group to the next. In this scenario, its speed and distribution are much greater than if it needs to follow the actual paths or waves of European contact. The other side believes the isolation of the Native American populations was so great that it would be very difficult for disease to move through the populations without some sort of exogenous transmitting agent, such as the Europeans. Thirdly, the two groups differ on the importance of the social and other exogenous factors in the spread of disease. These include such issues as the importance and maintenance of native medical systems, the role of the missions as mechanisms of population centralization and disease concentration, as well as the role of missionaries as disease transmitters or health-care givers. Similarly, there are scholars who believe that the rapid growth of chiefdoms and the creation of large-scale empires just prior to contact made a particularly vulnerable population. Others feel that it is irrelevant.

From a very personal view, one of the more disappointing aspects of these volumes is the small proportion of the pages which are directed to these demographic issues. On the other hand, where demographic evidence is presented it is new work and of a very high quality. As I review the entirety of the literature, the weight of evidence still supports the large-scale population decline.

Columbian consequences: publicity, ethical issues and political

correctness

There are a few issues surrounding the Columbian consequences which I found bothersome. Surely not bothersome enough to discount what is very good work, but bothersome nevertheless. One is left with a feeling of 'faddishness' because it is connected to the Columbian quincentenary. One wishes that the work was simply published independently, for it is excellent scholarship and does not need to ride 'piggy-back' on a popular celebration. In fact, all the volumes were published prior to 1992.

Similarly, Thomas seems to be stuck on the horns of a dilemma regarding political correctness. On the one hand, he makes the reader aware that he has given South America, women, Native American and Hispanic scholarship short shrift, but he does not correct it. 'Any objective assessment of the Columbian consequences inquiry (if there is such a thing) would point out that not only are the Native American, Latin American, and Hispanic perspectives seriously underrepresented, but less than a third of the participants are women ...' (vol. 3; pp. xx). I might add that European writers are also missing. Whether his choice of participants was based upon his perception of the field, upon available scholars or upon other criteria is not really relevant. He has produced the best compilation of research on the consequences of European contact with the New World in the English language, and he should be proud of it.

In conclusion, Walt Whitman began his poem

'Oh Captain! my Captain!

Our fearful trip is done.'

In the case of Columbus, it is not. The trip is not done, for the consequences continue to impact individuals and families as well as national and world affairs every day.

author

Volume 1: The Californias, Texas, & the Southwestern Heartland D.H. Thomas The article defines concepts & points out the need for multiple, simultaneous 'cubist' views.

short title

Columbian consequences

area

general Spanish borderlands

time

pre- & post-contact

author

L.S. Cordell In the mining area with souls the currency, the repartimento system provided no benefits for natives.

short title

Durango to Durango

area

Southwest heartland

time

contact-1853

author

C.F. Merbs Even without European infections, pre-contact native health was not idyllic.

short title

Health & sickness

area

Southwest

time

pre-contact

author

S. Upham & L.S. Reed Equidistant (50-70 km) settlement clusters existed during the 14th & 15th centuries.

short title

Regional systems

area

central & northern

Southwest

time

pre-contact

author

E.C. Adams Because of the distance from the Spanish centres of power, the Hopi were able to accept selected elements of Spanish cutlure.

short title

Passive resistance

area

Hopi

time

contact

author

H.H. Lomawaima There is a conscious process of incorporation of alien cultural traits by clans.

short title

Hopification

area

Hopi

time

contact

author

K.A. Spielmann 'Plains to Pueblo' exchange shifts to 'Plains to Spanish' exchange.

short title

Plains Pueblo interaction

area

Plains & Southwest

time

17th century

author

M.T. Lycett Pathogens created discontinuity & demographic instability resulting in a new organization.

short title

Spanish contact & Pueblo organization

area

Rio Grande Valley

time

contact

author

J.L. Kessell There was a fundamental shift from crusading intolerance to pragmatic accommodation by the clergy.

short title

Spaniards & Pueblos

area

Southwest

time

contact-present

author

D.E. Doyel This paper favours discontinuity & suggests the Spanish accommodated while Anglos separated from the Pima, Papago & Gilenos.

short title

Transition to history

area

northern Pimeria Alta

time

contact-present 1687-1910

author

R.H. McGuire & M.E. Villalpando The less organized northwest of Mexico made conquest more difficult.

short title

Prehistory & making history

area

time

Sonora contact

author

C.W. Polzer The documentary record of the Southwest is a very rich, underutilized resource.

short title

Spanish colonial Southwest

area

Southwest

time

contact

author

T.R. Hester There were a large number of hunting/gathering groups who were not successfully missionized.

short title

Texas & north-eastern Mexico

area

Texas & north-eastern Mexico

time

contact-1850s

author

T.R. Hester Tribes maintained material traditions throughout the missionization process.

short title

Material culture of misssion Indians

area

Texas & north-eastern Mexico

time

contact

author

K. Gilmore Karankawans successfully resisted missionization & through revitalization created a new chiefdom.

short title

Indians of Mission Rosario

area

Texas Gulf Coast

time

contact

author

J.D. Eaton The gateway missions failed to control access but succeeded in 'native enclosure'.

short title

Gateway missions

area

Lower Rio Grande

time

contact

author

A.A. Fox Archaeological work shows similar life style for Native Americans on & off missions.

short title

Indians at Rancho de las Cabras

area

Texas

time

contact

author

J.E. Corbin After missionization initially failed, there was a melded Spanish-Indian culture until the Anglo invasion.

short title

Spanish-Indian interaction

area

Eastern frontier of Texas

time

contact

author

S.A. Turpin Rock art shows evidence of increasing hostility at time of contact.

short title

Iconography of contact

area

Middle Rio Grande

time

contact

author

J.G. Costello & D. Hornbeck Until 1833 when secularization became law, the institutions of mission, presidio & pueblo were not successful.

short title

Alta California

area

Alta California

time

contact-1850

author

G.J. West The introduction of alien plants & domestic grazing were devastating to native flora.

short title

Early historic vegetation

area

Alta California

time

prehistoric-present

author

P.L. Walker, P. Lambert & M.J. DeNiro The largest decreases in population occurred during and after missionization as the result of increased disease exposure and violence.

short title

Health of Alta California Indians

area

Alta California

time

prehistoric-post contact

author

J.R. Johnson The missions were demographic sinks that resulted in depopulating the countryside.

short title

Chumash & missions

area

Southwest central California

time

contact

author

E.D. Castillo Missionization was a military, religious and political conquest that met with resistance, fugitivism and assassination.

short title

Native response

area

Alta California

time

contact-1830

author

R.E. Hoover The missions were neither 'bucolic paradises' nor 'concentration camps' and the Native Americans were not 'passive but creative adopters' of new cultural traits.

short title

Spanish-native interaction & acculturation

area

Alta California

time

contact

author

W.M. Mathes This area was unusual in that it was known for two centuries prior to missionization by the Jesuits.

short title

Baja California: a special area

area

Baja California

time

1537-1697

author

D. Hornbeck The mission system has a life cycle in which growth occurs 1776-1805, transformation occurs 1805-23 and decline occurs 1823-1846.

short title

Economic growth & change

area

Alta California

time

1769-1846

author

J. Costello There was mission growth prior to 1823 that generally did not continue after secularization.

short title

Variability among Alta California Missions

area

Alta California

time

1784-1832

author

R.S. Greenwood Prior to secularization, the ranchos could not compete with the missions but became more important after 1823 with some exceeding 700,000 acres.

short title

California ranchero

area

Alta California

time

1773-1880

author

G. Lee & N. Neurburg Native work emulated European work with native motifs being condoned.

short title

California Indians as artists

area

Alta California

time

contact

author

G.J. Farris The Russian expeditions and colonies engendered a greater Spanish reaction to protect the empire.

short title

Russian imprint on colonization

area

Oregon & Alta California

time

contact-1842

author

Volume 2: Archaeological & historical perspectives on the Spanish borderlands east D.H. Thomas The function is to explore range of contemporary thought and provide accurate information on New World encounters.

short title

Columbian consequences

area

Spanish Borderlands East

time

pre- & post-contact

author

J.T. Milanich At differential rates, all the great chiefdoms of La Florida disappear.

short title

European Entrada into La Florida

area

southeastern United States

time

1513-1587

author

A.F. Ramenofsky A Darwinian selection theory of 'descent with modification' and 'disease as a selective agent' is used to develop a testable model of consequences.

short title

Loss of innocence

area

southeastern United States

time

pre- through post-contact

author

J.M. Mitchem Given no excavated European sites, one uses contact trade items in aboriginal sites as an indicator of native contact with expeditions.

short title

Initial Spanish-Indian contact

area

west peninsular Florida

time

contact

author

D.L. Hutchinson Skeletal evidence suggested wounds by metallic objects.

short title

Post-contact biocultural change

area

Central gulf coast Florida

time

protohistoric

author

R.A. Marrinan, J.F. Scarry & R.L. Majors The de Narva'ez expedition was a failure but an instructive prelude for de Soto.

short title

Prelude to de Soto

area

Florida

time

1527-1536

author

C.R. Ewen The Martin site, the first winter campsite of de Soto, represents a chronological anchor and provides a basis of seriation.

short title

Soldier of fortune

area

Martin site, Florida

time

October 1539-March 1540

author

J.F. Scarry Artefacts of European manufacture found as offerings in native burials indicate contact but are not from one of the major expeditions, Spanish settlements or missions.

short title

Beyond Apalachee Province

area

Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida

time

16th century

author

C.M. Hudson, J.E. Worth & C.B. DePratter route Corrections of the route based on recent evidence also shed light on the differences divided by the Flint River among the native cultures of Capachequi and the Toa.

short title

Refinements in de Soto's

area

southeast

time

1539-1540

author

D.J. Hally, M.T. Smith & J.B. Langford Population estimates and nearest neighbour analysis indicate 7 clusters of sites with towns having residential populations averaging 350 people integrated into sub-chiefdoms and a paramount chiefdom of Coosa.

short title

Archaeological reality of de Soto's Coosa

area

Alabama, Georgia & Tennessee

time

prehistory-1540

author

J.B. Langford, Jr A plate found buried with an Indian child appears to have been made by Aztecs in the metal shops of Mexico city and brought to Georgia by a member of the Luna expedition.

short title

The Coosawattee plate

area

Poarch Farm site, Georgia

time

1540-1560

author

J.E. Levy, J.A. May & D.G. Moore Archaeological evidence from the Catawba-Wateree valley supports the interpretation it was not a unified polity.

short title

From Ysa to Joara

area

North & South Carolina

time

14th-16th centuries

author

K.J. Little & C. Curren 8 archaeological phases are correlated with 9 aboriginal polities from documents.

short title

Conquest archaeology of Alabama

area

Alabama

time

prehistory-contact

author

D.F. Morse & P.A. Morse In order to create a new reconstruction of de Soto's route archaeological sites are related to aboriginal polities.

short title

Spanish exploration of Arkansas

area

Arkansas

time

prehistory-contact

author

D.H. Dye The de Soto expedition reported Native American warfare and coping strategies which may be understood through hegemonic warfare.

short title

Warfare in the 16th century

area

southeast

time

1539-1543

author

K.A. Deagan The colonization of the New World resulted in sustained adaptive measures creating the Hispanic American, Anglo-American and Afro-American traditions which replaced the rapidly disappearing Native American tradition.

short title

16th-century Spanish American Colonization

area

southeast & Caribbean

time

16th century

author

J.M. Cruxent Excavations at Columbus' first colony suggest that defensive, domestic, religious and domestic activities were not all located at the same place.

short title

Origin of La Isabela

area

Hispaniola

time

1493

author

C.R. Ewen Puerto Real, whose utility was limited to the export of metals and the import of slaves, was on the fringe of the Spanish Empire.

short title

The rise & fall of Puerto Real

area

Hispaniola

time

1504-1578

author

M. Garcia-Arevalo Archaeological evidence shows that Spanish ceramic forms influenced aboriginal forms resulting in the removal of symbolic iconographic traits.

short title

Transculturation

area

Hispaniola

time

contact-present

author

E. Lyon Spanish conquest was a cultural transfer and by 1577 there was a considerable degree of mutual acculturation.

short title

Enterprise of Florida

area

Florida

time

contact-16th century

author

K.A. Deagan Archaeological work demonstrates the disappearance of native wares correlates with extreme population decline.

short title

Accommodation & resistance

area

St Augustine, Florida

time

1565-1765

author

J. Landers Archaeological work at Mose shows the changing relationship among slaves, free blacks, Hispanic and Anglo communities including resistance, accommodation and alliance.

short title

African presence in early Spanish colonization

area

Spain, south-eastern states & Caribbean

time

1711-1764

author

S. South Using a labour input, energy cost index to determine status of goods, it is possible to define two classes: the 'governmen-trader' class and the 'settler, slave, soldier, craftsman, farmer' class.

short title

Thermodynamics to status

area

Santa Elena, South Carolina

time

1566-1587

author

C.M. Scarry & E.J. Reitz Comparing numbers of native and imported species of animals and plants shows the curtailment of Iberian species and incorporation of native species with addition of Old World fruits.

short title

Herbs, fish, scum & vermin

area

Florida

time

16th century

author

D.H. Thomas The mission system lacked sufficiency and civil-church discord complicated the relationships with the seven major Native American groups missionized.

short title

Spanish missions of La Florida

area

Florida, Georgia, South Carolina

time

1521-1763

author

J.W. Griffen Professional interest in missions has varied until the rise of historical archaeology in the 1960s dispelled myths regarding buildings mis-labelled missions.

short title

Changing perspectives on the Spanish missions of La Florida

area

Florida, Georgia, South Carolina

time

19th & 20th centuries

author

C.S. Larsen, M.J. Schoeninger, D.L. Hutchinson, K.F. Russell & C.B. Ruff Skeletal biochemistry and dental analysis show that the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as well as the shift to sedentism reduced the quality of life.

short title

Beyond demographic collapse

area

La Florida

time

1100-contact

author

D.J. Weber Hispanicizing natives was accomplished far more effectively by the governor's soldiers than by missionaries.

short title

Blood of martyrs, blood of indians

area

La Florida

time

17th century

author

M.V. Gannon Franciscans defended both Native Americans and themselves against the governors.

short title

Defense of Native Americans & Franciscan rights

area

La Florida

time

1595-1700

author

C. Harkins Franciscans have a strong interest in the archaeology of the missions as it pertains to the history, martyrdom and evangelical success of their predecessors.

short title

On Franciscans, archaeology & Old Missions

area

La Florida

time

1595-present

author

A.T. Bushnell The rationale for restricting native mobility was the necessity for Christians to live within reach of the sacraments.

short title

The sacramental imperative

area

La Florida

time

contact

author

B.C. Jones & G.N. Shapiro The survey and excavation showed the model was appropriate, for 6 sites were located where productive upland soils were close to navigable creeks and 8 sites were oriented east-west.

short title

Nine Mission Sites

area

Apalachee

time

1539-1704

author

G.N. Shapiro & J.H. Hann Archaeological excavation of the council house at San Luis de Talimali corresponds to documentary evidence with the exception of daub walls.

short title

Documentary image of the council houses

area

San Luis de Talimali

time

1656-1704

author

R. Saunders A combination of formal plans and informal building techniques was used to construct missions.

short title

Ideal & innovation

area

southeast

time

contact

author

E.J. Reitz Faunal summaries show that there was a fusion of Native American and Spanish subsistence strategies after contact.

short title

Zooarchaeological evidence for subsistence

area

La Florida

time

contact

author

D.L. Ruhl The impact of European cultivation subsistence economies was a less varied diet particularly among those groups which were already horticulturist.

short title

Spanish Mission palaeoethnobotany & culture change

area

La Florida

time

prehistoric, contact & post-contact

author

Volume 3: The Spanish borderlands in pan-American perspective D H. Thomas The cubist perspective was academically successful, there were 64 archaeologists, 11 historians, 9 physical anthropologists, 9 ethno-historians, 6 cultural anthropologists, 5 art historians, and 3 geographers (4 Latin Americans, 2 Native Americans, 1 Jesuit, and 1 Franciscan but less successful in that only 1/3 were women.

short title

Cubist perspectives

area

Spanish borderlands

time

prehistoric-future

author

D.J. Weber Bolton's Spanish Borderlands developed in stages from Spanish, hispanophobic, and finally hispanophilic history.

short title

Idea of Spanish borderlands

area

Spanish borderlands

time

1700 to present

author

D.P. Crouch Roman models of colonization underlay Spanish colonization in which an 8-stage system of enabling legislation, delegating responsiblity, enrolling settlers, nominating officials, selecting city site, building defences, laying out fields, and then building the town was used.

short title

Roman models for Spanish colonization

area

New Spain

time

contact

author

D.D. Fowler & C.S. Fowler Native Americans were conceived of as 'good savages' who were transformed into 'noble savages' and in turn into the 'vanishing savage' and as such were exhibited in 'natural history museums' and 'ethnological zoos'.

short title

The uses of natural man in natural history

area

United States & Europe

time

19th & 20th centuries

author

R,D. Fogelson Native Americans were used as markers of white progress at the Chicago Exposition of 1893.

short title

Red man in white city

area

Chicago

time

1893

author

I. Jacknis Kwakiutl exhibition at the World's fair was a process of cultural objectification.

short title

Northwest Coast Indian culture & the world's Columbian exposition

area

Chicago

time

1893

author

D.H. Thomas The Ramona myth not only help create mission revival architecture but ultimately transformed Victorian romanticism into regional identity.

short title

Harvesting Ramona's garden

area

California & southwest

time

1884-present

author

G.D. Jones & D.M. Pendergast Although the environment and cultures of pre-contact Southern Mesoamerica and Central America were diverse, the European invaders never entirely lost their perception of a single cultural entity.

short title

Native context of colonialism

area

Southern Mesoamerica & Central America

time

prehistoric-historic

author

W.R. Fowler Pipil strategies of survival were based upon pre-Columbian continuities and were mediated by the social relations of production as exemplified by the conflict among the economenderos and the clergy, both of whom were interested in taking maximum advantage of the Indians.

short title

The political economy of Indian survival

area

Izalco, El Salvador

time

16th century

author

W. Van Davidson The Pech survived because they occupied a location peripheral to Spanish settlement and dominated by rugged topography.

short title

Geographical perspectives on Spanish-Pech Indian relationships

area

Northeast Honduras

time

16th century

author

G.L. Pinto Nahua groups in the Aguan and Agalta valleys survived after neutralization by the Spanish by incorporating themselves into the Taguzgalpa.

short title

Change for survival

area

Northeast & mideast Honduras

time

16th century

author

J.M. Weeks & N.J. Black Mercedarain friars provided an alternative mission system for Hispano-Indian interaction and a mechanism for organizing indigenous labour.

short title

Mercedarain missionaries & the transformation of Lenca

area

Western Honduras

time

1550-1770

author

W. Kramer, W.G. Lovell & C.H. Lutz De Espinar fired a native town on his encomienda in order to force the native population into living on fertile plains where his interests were more secure.

short title

Fire in the mountains

area

Huehuetenango

time

1525-1560

author

R.M. Hill II The adoption of the new Colonial writing techniques perpetuated pre-conquest document types (histories, festival calendars, auguries, baptismal records, ceremony descriptions), and developed new ones (bills of sale, covenants and testamentos).

short title

Social uses of writing

area

Highland Guatamala

time

colonial

author

J. Gasco The Ladinoization of the Spanish-speaking Native Americans and later including other Spanish-speaking non-indigenous groups took place during the 18th and 19th centuries.

short title

Indian survival & Ladinoization

area

Sonconusco or coastal chiapas

time

contact-present

author

E. Graham Excavations and ethnohistory show ceramic and religious continuity from the Mayan to Colonial periods creating syncretism which does not correspond to the lack of continuity in architectural forms.

short title

Archaeological insights into Maya life

area

Tipu, Belize

time

colonial period

author

D.M. Pendergast Excavations at Lamanai and Tipu show Spaniards succeeded in Christianizing but not Hispanicizing the Maya.

short title

Southern Maya lowlands contact experience

area

Lamanai, Belize

time

post-classic & early historic

author

A.P. Andrews More than 30 churches and chapels are classified by architectural design into ramada chapels, open ramada churches, enclosed ramada churches, and undetermined ramada churches.

short title

Rural chapels & churches

area

Yucatan & Belize

time

1540-1650

author

M.J. MacLeod Native American revolts were rationalizations for Spanish encroachment as in the Tzeltal Revolt of 1712.

short title

Indian riots & rebellions

area

Central America

time

1530-1720

author

R.M. Carmak Taking a Weberian viewpoint he contrasts the 'mode of production' explanations for conquest with 'political and cultural interest explanations' in Momostenango and Buenos Aires.

short title

Spanish conquest of Central America

area

Guatemala & Costa Rica

time

1500-1600

author

M.W. Helms The indigenous populations were alternatively destroyed if directly contacted by the Spanish, and were able to resist if resident in the lowlands or central mountains, or to adjust positively as in groups from eastern Nicaragua.

short title

Survivors of conquest

area

Lower Central America

time

16th & 17th centuries

author

A.F. Ramenofsky Commonalities from different disciplines on native population decline, historiography, and analyses of trade mask major differences about the continuity of prehistory and history as well as demonstrating how incomplete is the knowledge of the contact period.

short title

Beyond bias

area

North & South America

time

prehistory-present

author

A.F. Ramenofsky The development of needed theory for interdisciplinary contact period research makes possible both the historical description of cultural change and the explanation of cultural persistence.

short title

Historical science studies

area

North & South America

time

last 500 years & contact period

author

P. Galloway Anthropologists and archaeologists should not accept texts at face value but should 'decode' and 'excavate' them.

short title

Archaeology of the ethnohistorical narrative

area

Southeast

time

last 500 years

author

W.R. Swagerty Trade is examined through substantivist, formalist and combined literature emphasizing and examplifying the contributions made by trade centre, commodity and 'geographic' -- cultural regional approaches.

short title

Protohistoric trade

area

Western North America

time

protohistoric

author

T.K. Perttula By compiling the chronology of known diseases, the 'pro and anti Dobyns' population estimates, and the archaeological evidence, one concludes neither the disease nor depopulation was as severe in the rural areas as elsewhere.

short title

European contact & its effects on aboriginal Caddoan populations

area

Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, Arkansas & Missouri

time

1520-1680

author

D.E. Stannard Using Hawaiian ethnohistorical, New World and comparative Aids data, the evidence for large populations and massive depopulation is supported.

short title

The consequences of contact

area

New World & Hawaii

time

contact & post-contact

author

H.F. Dobyns The 'new historic demographic paradigm' makes archaeological ethnographic analogy extremely difficult if not impossible because of discontinuities.

short title

New Native World

area

New World

time

pre- & post-contact

author

R.C. Dunnell Catastrophic depopulation demonstrates the importance of the discontinuity between the archaeological and the ethnohistoric records.

short title

Methodological impacts of catastrophic depopulation

area

New World

time

pre- & post-contact

author

M. Harris Cultural materialist theory applies to the prehistoric, ethnohistoric and ethnographic record and thus the challenge of the New World depopulation crash is to explain nomethetically what is broadly a singular event.

short title

Depopulation & cultural evolution

area

New World

time

prehistoric, contact, ethno-historic & ethnographic
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Author:Zubrow, Ezra
Publication:Antiquity
Article Type:Book Review
Date:Sep 1, 1993
Words:6322
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