Printer Friendly

Collegiate & senior divisons: section chairperson(s) listed for each section.

Agriculture (Senior)

Section Chairmen: Dr. Michael T. Aide, Southeast Missouri State University; Mr. Mack Wilson, Southeast Missouri State University

D. Dunn * and G. Stevens, Univ. of Missouri-Delta Research Center, Portageville, MO 63873. POTASSIUM FERTILIZATION ON RICE IN MISSOURI.

A rice study was conducted on a field at the Missouri Rice Research in Dunklin County, Missouri in 1999, 2000 and 2001. Soil test values were 55 mg K [kg.sup.-1], 45 mg P [kg.sup.-1], and the CEC value was 17.9 [cmol.sub.c] [kg.sup.-1]. A split plot design was used. Main plot treatments were the rice cultivars Baldo and Bengal. Subplot treatments were an untreated control, three K (45 kg [ha.sup.-1] KCl pre-plant, two 22.5 kg [ha.sup.-1] KCl, and two 12 kg [ha.sup.-1] KN[O.sub.3]), and one urea treatment (1.5 kg [ha.sup.-1]). Soil K treatments were broadcast by hand on subplots two days before planting. The four remaining treatments were applied at inter-node elongation = 1.3 cm (IE) and IE + 10 days. Potassium in the leaves was determined by atomic absorption after sulfuric acid-hydrogen peroxide digestion of dried and ground plant tissues. Rice grain yields for Baldo were significantly increased over the untreated check by mid-season K applications (check=5600 kg [ha.sup.-1], KCl=6200 kg [ha.sup.-1], KN[O.sub.3]=6175 kg [ha.sup.-1]). Pre-plant K treatment yields were not significantly different that either the check or midseason treatments. Rice grain yields for Bengal were significantly increased over the untreated check by preplant K applications). In 2000 all Baldo plots were 100% lodged. When lodging for the other two years was averaged the mid-season KN[O.sub.3] treatment reduced lodging from 40% to 18%.


Southeast Missouri State University and the University Missouri-Columbia (UMC) have entered into a Soil Science articulation agreement where students spend 2 to 3 years at Southeast, then transfer to the UMC to complete their soil science major and graduate with a BS degree from the UMC. Southeast does not have the faculty resources to maintain a soil science major, yet Southeast serves a large section of Missouri. Southeast benefits by having access to faculty, laboratories and the resources of UMC.

G. Stevens * and D. Dunn, Univ. of Missouri Delta Research Center, Portageville MO 63873. PHARMACEUTICAL CORN POLLEN CON FINEMENT.

Research was conducted to develop methods for achieving optimum containment of pollen from corn grown for plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMP). Experiments evaluated isolation distance and tassel removal as means of reducing gene flow. A candidate PMP production system was tested. Corn inbreds were planted in a 4-ha block in the center of three 65-ha cotton and bean fields. Within the 4-ha blocks, four rows of yellow kernel females were alternated with four rows of white kernel males. Yellow corn cultivars with transgenes were planted for tracing gene flow. Female rows were detasseled by hand with some of the plants intentionally missed. Levels of detasseling were 0%, 80%, 90%, and 100%. At 200 and 300 m from the pollen block, white corn trap plots were planted on three dates in strips. The greatest amount of gene flow, as detected by seed color and polymerase chain reaction, was to trap plots located 200 m north of the pollen block and was associated with pollen from yellow corn with no detasseling. Incidence of yellow kernels was 0.0301%. At 300 m, gene flow was 0.0013% from 90% detasseled corn. When 100% of the corn was detasseled, no gene flow was detected at 300 m.

Pharmaceutical Corn Pollen Confinement. G. Stevens * and D. Dunn, Univ. of Missouri Delta Research Center, Portageville MO 63873

Research was conducted to develop methods for achieving optimum containment of pollen from corn grown for plant-made pharmaceuticals (PMP). Experiments evaluated isolation distance and tassel removal as means of reducing gene flow. A candidate PMP production system was tested. Corn inbreds were planted in a 4-ha block in the center of three 65-ha cotton and bean fields. Within the 4-ha blocks, four rows of yellow kernel females were alternated with four rows of white kernel males. Yellow corn cultivars with transgenes were planted for tracing gene flow. Female rows were detasseled by hand with some of the plants intentionally missed. Levels of detasseling were 0%, 80%, 90%, and 100%. At 200 and 300 m from the pollen block, white corn trap plots were planted on three dates in strips. The greatest amount of gene flow, as detected by seed color and polymerase chain reaction, was to trap plots located 200 m north of the pollen block and was associated with pollen from yellow corn with no detasseling. Incidence of yellow kernels was 0.0301%. At 300 m, gene flow was 0.0013% from 90% detasseled corn. When 100% of the corn was detasseled, no gene flow was detected at 300 m.

Wilson, M., C. Stevens, D. Harp, and V.A. Khan.

Department of Agriculture, Southeast Missouri State University. INFLUENCE OF NUTRIPAK FERTILIZER ON YIELD OF 'BETTER BOY' TOMATOES. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design to determine the effect of three rates of NutriPak fertilizer on the yield of 'Better Boy' tomatoes. Tomatoes were transplanted in May 2002 and harvested July through October 2002. There were significant differences with marketable numbers of tomatoes. A higher number of tomatoes were harvested from the 24 ozs/ac treatment. Significant differences occurred with marketable fruits of tomatoes. The highest weight of fruits occurred at the 24 ozs/ac treatment.

Atmospheric Science (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. Patrick S. Market, University of Missouri-Columbia

Buonanno, C.C. National Weather Service Forecast Office, Little Rock AR. AN EXAMINATION OF THE 7 DECEMBER 2001 CENTRAL ARKANSAS MINI-SUPERCELL. Case studies of unique meteorological events are often valuable tools for advancing operational meteorology. A mini-supercell formed during the late afternoon 7 December 2001, and affected portions of central Arkansas through the early evening hours. Among the severe weather events produced by this supercell included four weak tornados, which occurred across the Little Rock metropolitan area. These severe weather events developed in an area where synoptic scale and even mesoscale support for severe storms did not appear to be readily evident. A detailed overview of this storm and its environment will be presented, including radar analysis. Applications to short term severe storm forecasting will be emphasized.

Burkhardt, J.P, A.R. Lupo, and E. K. Gilliland. Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri-Columbia. PLANETARY AND SYNOPTIC-SCALE INTERACTIONS IN SOUTHEAST PACIFIC BLOCKING USING POTENTIAL VORTICITY DIAGNOSTICS. The synoptic and planetary-scale forcing in two blocking anticyclones occurring over the Southeast Pacific Ocean are examined using Potential Vorticity diagnostics. While many studies have examined the dynamic and thermodynamic forcing associated with blocking events in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), very few studies have examined blocking in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Climatological analysis suggests SH blocking events in the Pacific Region have similar characteristics to their NH counterparts. However, the occurrence of blocking is rare elsewhere in the SH, and these events are relatively short lived. Some studies of NH blocking dynamics have also shown that the extent to which planetary and synoptic-scale, and planetary-synoptic-scale interaction forcing contribute to the genesis and maintenance of Pacific and Atlantic region events can be quite different. Thus, a study of the relevant atmospheric dynamics associated with blocking events in the SH is carried out in order to determine whether or not these events are associated with similar dynamic forcing mechanisms to those in the NH. Using the NCEP re-analyses data set and applying a low-pass filter to the relevant variables, a study of the scale interactions associated with two blocking events which occurred during July and August 1986 and applying Potential Vorticity diagnostics. Initial results demonstrate that blocking in the Southeast Pacific is associated with similar forcing mechanisms and interactions to those of North Pacific blocking events rather than those occurring over the NH Atlantic region. Further, this study will attempt to explain the paucity of blocking occurrences over much of the SH.

Cloud cover parameterizations and statistical analysis of cloud in-situ parameters for climate studies

I.Gultepe and G. A. Isaac, Cloud Physics Research Division, Meteorological Service of Canada, 4905 Dufferin St., Toronto, ONT. M3H-5T4, Canada Tel: 416-739-4607/Fax: 416-739-4211 email:

Abstract The main objectives of the present work are 1) to use in-situ data to parameterize the cloud cover as a function of cloud condensed water content and relative humidity, and 2) to analyze statistical characteristics of in-situ cloud data for modeling studies. In-situ data were obtained during Radiation, Aerosol, and Cloud Experiment (RACE), the First International Regional Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE.ACE), and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) field projects that represent warm maritime clouds, cold Arctic clouds, and mixed phase clouds, respectively. Results show that significant differences exist between the results from the present and earlier works related to cloud cover parameterizations. The difference (10%-40%) is found when observed cloud cover is compared to the earlier parameterizations. It is also shown that 20% (40%) uncertainty in the cloud cover can result in up to 25%(42%) uncertainty in the conversion rate of cloud liquid water content to precipitation. In general, gamma distribution function for condensed water content and constant values of number concentrations and/or effective size have been used in earlier studies. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the in-situ parameters can be different for various cloud types. It is concluded that 1) a better summary of PDFs of cloud parameters can significantly improve our understanding of cloud-climate interactions, and cloud representation in general circulation models (GCMs) and 2) Cloud cover parameterizations should be improved for a better representation of the cloud systems in GCMs.

Kelsey, E.P., D.K. Weitlich, A.R. Lupo, and J. Woolard. Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia.INTERDECADAL VARIABILITY IN THE PREDOMINANT PACIFIC REGION SST ANOMALIES. Previous research has demonstrated that Pacific Region SSTs and SST anomalies can be separated into seven general synoptic classifications ("clusters", A-G) for Pacific Region. Each of these clusters was shown to have a distinct impact on the barotropic component of the mean tropospheric height distributions as well. Clusters A, B, E, and G (C, D, and F) are shown to be representative of La Nina (El Nino) type SST distributions. Further, an analysis of the SST patterns from 1955-1993 demonstrated that clusters A-D (especially A and B-type) were prominent from 1955-1977, while types E and F dominated the later period. Type G clusters were comparatively rare, but occurred in both periods. In retrospect, this shift in prominent patterns during 1977 corresponds with a change in phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Thus, it is suggested that in updating the analysis to include the 1994 to 2002 period will correspond to a change in phase of the PDO during 1999 and 2000. Initial results have shown that during this period, SST patterns did evolve from predominantly E and F-type anomalies during 1994 to A, B, and G-type anomalies through 2002. By June 2002, the incipient El Nino resulted in the transition of the SST distributions to a D-type pattern. Thus, these results suggest that A through D-type SST clusters are characteristic of the negative phase of the PDO, while C, E, and F type are more characteristic of the positive phase of the PDO. These results will also be extended backward in time in order to obtain a longer period of record.

Akyuz, F. A., * Lack, S. A., Hatter, E. A. Atmospheric Science Program, University of Missouri-Columbia. WIND-DRIVEN RAIN LOSS ESTIMATION FOR AUTOMATED WEATHER STATION NETWORKS.

Horizontal displacement of air forces raindrops to fall at a certain degree of angle (Angle of Attack) at which raindrops enter the orifice of a rain gage. The angle of attack is measured reference to horizontal plane. It is directly (indirectly) proportional with rainfall intensity (wind speed). Reduced angle of attack due to high wind speed and/or low rainfall intensity causes effective orifice opening of a rain gage, which in turn causes loss of rainfall that would have entered the gage otherwise. It is defined as Wind Driven Rain (WDR) loss. WDR loss is calculated as a function of two readily available weather variables measured by an automated weather station network: wind speed and rainfall intensity. Preliminary results show that for wind speeds of 10 meters/second (22 miles/hour) and rainfall intensity of 2.54 mm/hr (0.1 in/hr), the actual amount of rainfall in the absence of the wind would have been 2 times the amount of rainfall that is measured under those environmental conditions. The authors are well aware that there are other factors affecting the performance of rain gages (tipping bucket, which is the most commonly used types) used in automated weather stations. However, the WDR effect imposes the greatest effect by far, especially during windy conditions. The WDR loss is subject not only to the tipping bucket types, but to all rain gage types that are exposed to environment without proper shielding for wind. We are offering a very inexpensive alternate method to eliminate the WDR effect--to include an algorithm in the automated weather station's recording unit (datalogger) to capture the WDR loss corresponding to respective environmental conditions in real time, and output as an additional variable. There will be no attempt (yet) to correct the rainfall amount before an extensive study to evaluate the method by measuring rainfall with a pair of rain gages--one with a proper shield, and one with a built-in WDR correction.

* P.S. Market, A. Oravetz, E. McCoy, K. Birk, E. Kelsey, C. Allmeyer, M. Dahmer, R. Ebert, S. Feather, E. Gilliland, K. Herndon, J. Lam, A. Maddox, C. Podoll, S. Richmond, M. Rock, K. Senkpiel, R. Slavens, J. Tierney, D. Tilly, D. Weitlich, Department of Atmospheric Science, University of Missouri-Columbia. EVOLUTION OF MCS PROPAGATION CHARACTERISTICS: THE MID-MISSOURI FLASH FLOOD EVENT OF 18 AUGUST 2002.

Rain totals in excess of 4.0 inches (10 cm) fell across parts of Boone County (including the City of Columbia) and parts of surrounding counties in under 6 hours early on 18 August 2002. While impressive and sufficient to initiate several instances of flash flooding, what makes this event of particular note is the peculiar evolution in propagation of the parent MCS. Early on, the MCS was propagating forward; within a few hours, a system of "training echoes" had developed over Boone County, behind and perpendicular to the leading convective line. At its peak, the radar signature of the MCS resembled a letter "T". The current case study focuses on wind profiler data and output from the Rapid Update Cycle to calculate Corfidi vectors, which performed well in depicting the propagation of the initial, southern line of convection. However, behind the initial line of convection, the Corfidi vector approach (using observed data only) suggested propagation up to 30[degrees] from reality, and did not fully anticipate a training event. Possible sources for error include the location of the profiler ("behind" the MCS) used for the analysis, and the likelihood of untapped, moist, low-level air over western Missouri early on 18 August.

Zacher, C.A., G.V.Rao and J.I. McCaskill. AERO Research, and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Saint Louis University. AMPLITUDE ORDERING IN ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF LIGHTNING STROKES AND FLASHES--EXAMPLES AND ANOMALIES.

This study will investigate three component parts and illustrate them: I) The synoptic sequencing of intracloud (IC) discharges within the thunderstorm, positioned generally at the beginning and ending of the storm track, with cloud-to-ground (CG) flashes lying somewhere "in between". II) Amplitude ordering of the return strokes within multi-stroke flashes, with generally decreasing magnitude of charge peaks to ground following the first return stroke. Occasionally investigators found notable exceptions or violations of this general rule (1,2). We show specific examples. III) A significant proportion of the above mentioned exceptions in which subsequent strokes of CG flashes exceeded the amplitudes of their previous or initial return strokes was related to creation of a new channel distinct from the original, resulting in more than one terminal contact at ground (2). Later separated strokes independent of the original, we show may even change their orientation and focus by conversion to in-cloud discharges. (1) W.C.Geitz, 1996 (2) R.Thottappillil, et al., 1992.

Social & Behavior Sciences (Collegiate)

Section Chairwoman: Dr. Mara Aruguete, Lincoln University

* Douglas, M. A. and G.J. Cwick. Department of Geosciences, Southeast Missouri State University. COM- PARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE FEATURES ON EARTH AND MARS USING REMOTELY SENSED IMAGERY.

Remote sensing data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Viking Orbiter spacecraft were analyzed to determine to what extent Martian stream valleys and other landform patterns (e.g., lattice structure, polygonal ground, etc.) occur and compare to their Earth counterparts. MGS and its Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), having a spatial resolution of 1.4m/ pixel, was conducive for acquiring detailed views of surface features while the Viking visual imaging subsystem (VIS), with its lower resolution of 15m/pixel, was useful for its extensive regional coverage and ease at identifying large landscape formations. These images, along with Landsat TM scenes and aerial photographs of selected sites here on Earth, were scrutinized using image processing techniques, such as contrast stretching and edge enhancement, to allow visual interpretation and comparisons to be made. This analysis resulted in the successful identification of similar features and processes on both planets. For example, Martian gullies in a crater at 42.4[degrees] S and 158.2[degrees] W appear to be analogous to the Nelchina River in Alaska, and thermokarst topography comparable to that in the Northwest Territories of Canada can be observed in Viking images of latitude 35.67[degrees] and longitude 255.78[degrees].

Winemiller *, A., L. Evans, J. Oliver (1), J. Cooper, Department of Biology, Department of Psychology (1), Rockhurst University. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN THE SCIENCES: A SURVEY OF MISSOURI COLLEGES.

Science departments at Missouri's four year colleges and universities, both public and private, were surveyed to determine the participation of women faculty in the various departments and their rank. Chi-square analyses were conducted to evaluate gender differences within rank by department. Significant gender differences were found for all departments (p < .05), with most of the discrepancy occurring at the associate professor and full professor ranks, with more males than females at these ranks. Chi-square analyses were also conducted to evaluate gender differences within rank by type of school (public versus private). Gender difference discrepancies occurred beginning at the assistant professor level and continued through the full professor level for both types of schools (12 < .001). A comparison of the percentage of females in each department was made with data from 1991 of the percentage of doctorates awarded to women in each field. The percentages of women teaching in Psychology and the Physical Sciences were below the percentages of doctorates awarded in those fields.

Biological Sciences (Collegiate)

Section Chairman: Dr. J. Michael Jones, Culver-Stockton College


Northern bobwhite quail, Colinus virginianus, populations are regularly monitored by wildlife management agencies. This study evaluates three methods of estimating northern bobwhite quail populations and compares the efficiency of the methods. Drive counts, call counts, and line transect surveys were conducted over a one and a half year period on land managed by the Missouri Department of Conservation to obtain a baseline population count. Drive counts were conducted in two consecutive early fall seasons on two Missouri Department of Conservation managed areas, Guy B. Park, and Kendzora conservation area. Call counts and line transect surveys were conducted for two fall seasons and one spring season at Guy B. Park. The population of birds on the two areas differed with respect to each other and increased within the time frame of the study. Drive counts used 10 to 12 people for 13 hours per session. Call counts used one person for 20 hours in spring and 20 hours in fall. Line transect surveys used one person for up to 30 hours each fall and spring. The cost:benefit of these methods will be discussed with respect to management requirements due to man power and funding concerns.


Christina King * and Robert K. Heth Department of Biology, Missouri Southern State College

Differences in fish communities were documented in an urban and a rural stream in Southwest Missouri. Four replicate riffle/pool reaches were sampled by depletion seining in each watershed. A two-way Anova was used to test riffle/pool habitat and urban/rural site differences. Jaccard Similarity, Index Biotic Integrity, and a biotic index of our own construction were also used to compare communities. Nineteen species were collected in a rural stream, 12 in urban. Diversity differences for both habitat and site were significant (P = 0.0002). Differences were most pronounced in riffle habitats. Total numbers were not significantly different although numerical distributions among species were (P < 0.0001). Significant ranked biomass differences were detected between riffles and pools (P = 0.031), but not between urban/rural sites. Index of Biotic Integrity scores ranged from 39, fair, in urban stream to 48, good, in one rural stream. Jaccard and biotic indexes were markedly different between rural and urban sites. Urban stream declines were most notable in benthic fishes suggesting fish community losses are due to decline in benthic invertebrate prey. Even so, Turkey Creek, properly managed, has potential to become a recreational and educational asset for Joplin community.

* Stunz, A.S. and S.H. Mills. Department of Biology and Earth Science, Central Missouri State University. ENTRAINMENT OF METABOLIC RESPONSES OF LABORATORY RATS BY LIGHT CYCLE CHANGES.

Metabolic responses in every organism are affected by environmental factors. The most evident environmental factors are temperature and light; both easily manipulated within a laboratory. The focus for this study was on how the period of certain metabolic responses are driven (entrained) by exogenous forcing light cycles. These kinds of studies are relevant because light cycle changes affect humankind regularly and naturally such as changes due to daylight savings time; seasonal changes of the sunrise and sunset; and jet lag when traveling. This study used three light cycle changes: one hour ahead, two hours behind, and six hours ahead compared to the rat's normal rhythm. These light cycles were for 12 hours on and 12 hours off. Body temperature and activity levels were collected at five-minute intervals continuously for 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Typical examples of time-series analysis of body temperature and activity support evidence of daily rhythms, approximately 24 hour periods. The actogram representations of activity visibly show the shift in activity levels after the light cycle changes. Cosinor analysis plots derived from 90 minute averages showed a shift in peak body temperature and activity. Peak body temperature and activity was near midnight and shifted slightly in accordance to light cycle changes.


I conducted this study to obtain basic information about the abundance and diversity of meso-fauna in the organic litter layer of both native grass and Kentucky-31 rescue covered fields in Cedar County MO. I selected six native grass and six Kentucky-31 rescue fields, taking samples 18cm in diameter at a depth of 5 cm, placing them in foil and plastic for transport. Arthropods and other fauna were extracted using the berlese funnel technique. Samples were heated from ambient temperature to 35[degrees]C. The specimens were collected into alcohol and examined in order to determine taxonomic diversity and abundance, to note any differences that exist between the two ground covers relating to the small but vital organisms that live just below the cover's surface. Samples taken in 11/02 and 1/03 show similar diversity of expected insect orders. Native grass covered fields showed a somewhat greater abundance of Acarina at both sample times. Another sample set will be taken 3/03.

Jennifer von Fintel, Angela Whatley, and Lisa Felzien, Biology Department, Rockhurst University GCN5-LIKE EXPRESSED IN DEVELOPMENT OF ZEBRAFISH

Histone acetyltransferase enzymes (HATs) participate in the regulation of gene expression. The acetylation mechanism modifies chromatin, which activates the expression of genes. To determine if and when a HAT gene was expressed, RNA was extracted from Danio rerio (zebrafish) embryos at several stages of development. DNA primers designed from known zebrafish expressed sequence tags, which share homology with the Human nuclear HAT GCN5, were used to perform reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). GCN5 was found to be present at each stage of embryo development. Knowledge that the GCN5 HAT was expressed will allow further investigation of its role in zebrafish embryo developmentz.

Dara J Watkins * and Jeffrey L. Price, University of Missouri--Kansas City, School of Biological Sciences, Kansas City, MO 64110. ANALYSIS OF THE ROLE OF THE DOUBLETIME PROTEIN KINASE TERMINAL DOMAIN IN THE CIRCADIAN RHYTHMS OF DROSOPHILA.

Circadian rhythms are produced by the oscillations of clock genes that are synchronized to environmental cues but continue to cycle in the absence of environmental cues. The feedback loops of the per and tim proteins (PER and TIM) are central to the oscillations of Drosophila clock genes. During the night, the accumulation of PER and TIM proteins triggers their phosphorylation, dimerization, and entrance into the nucleus, where they negatively regulate the transcription of their own mRNA. The per and tim mRNA levels peak dramatically (approx. 11 hours) prior to the peak of PER and TIM protein. This delay in PER/TIM protein accumulation and the resulting negative feedback allows their mRNAs to reach a peak before they are repressed, thereby generating molecular oscillations. The delay in PER production is created by the doubletime (DBT) casein kinase I--like protein, which triggers phosphorylation of PER and degradation of of PER until an association with TIM stabilizes PER. We are investigating whether and how the kinase activity of DBT is regulated. Evidence has been presented that the C terminus region of vertebrate CKIs regulates their kinase activity. This regulation may result from the binding of regulatory factors to the C terminus. Over expression of the C terminus of DBT would compete for binding of these factors and thereby affect PER degradation and ultimately Drosophila circadian rhythms. To test the hypothesis, the C terminus region of DBT has been linked to promoters that are continuously active in Drosophila or regulated in a tissue specific or temporal manner. In addition, MYC and HA epitopes have been added to allow detection of the C terminus by immunoprecipitation and immunoblot analysis. These C terminal peptides will be overexpressed with PER and full length DBT to analyze effects on PER degradation and circadian rhythms.

Angela Whatley and Lisa Felzien, Biology Department, Rockhurst University EXPRESSION OF P300/CBP DURING EMBRYOGENIES IN DANIO RERIO

p300/CBP is a transcriptional coactivator that has been shown to play an important role in cell cycle control, differentiation, embryogenesis and apoptosis, p300/ CBP has also been associated with certain types of cancer. Danio rerio has emerged as a model organism for geneticists because of their affordability and low maintenance. In this study a gene homologous to human p300/CBP was expressed in Danio rerio at 1, 12, 24, 48 hour time points during development. RT-PCR was used to determine gene expression and was optimized for conditions used. Currently we are cloning this p300/CBP-like gene for use in in situ hybridization studies. Future plans are to complete steps for in situ hybridization to determine where the p300/CBP-like gene is expressed in the developing embryo and to determine the effect of knocking out the p300/CBP gene.

Biology (Senior)

Section Chairwoman: Dr. Anna Oller, Central Missouri State University * Alford, A.L. and S.H. Mills. Department of Biology, Central Missouri State University. METABOLIC RESPONSES, PHYSIOLOGICAL VARIATION, AND AGE MEASURES IN TWO POPULATIONS OF EASTERN CHIPMUNKS.

Groups of eastern chipmunks (T. striatus) from Missouri and North Dakota were captured, monitored in the laboratory for physiological differences, and subjected to two rates of cooling in a metabolic chamber. Metabolic responses to both rates of cooling were compared within and between groups from each locality. Subjects from different localities had significantly different (p < 0.05) levels of oxygen consumption. Use of physical activity to defend body temperature during cooling was also significantly different between groups (p < 0.05), and coincided with previous work in this lab involving Spermophilus. Physiological variation among chipmunks was represented in both the rates of food consumption and change in body weight over the monitoring period. Attempts were also made to examine age of the subjects using both the premolar gap (PMG) and dry eye lens weight techniques. Age estimates were not found to have a significant affect on metabolic responses. Differences in metabolic responses and those observed during laboratory monitoring may indicate that populations raised at different locations along a latitudinal gradient exhibit distinct physiological parameters specific to their location.

Ash, D. and L. Dobens. University of Missouri-Kansas City. "REGULATION OF A NOTCH-DEPENDENT CELL COUNDARY IN DROSOPHILA."

The bunched (bun) gene in Drosophila is required for several developmental events such as follicle cell patterning during oogenesis and peripheral nerve system formation during embryo genesis. Bun is a homologue of TSC-22, which is a transcription factor in vertebrates, and shares a conserved DNA-binding and leucine zipper domain. It is known that bun represses Notch activation and expression of the mirror gene creating a cell fate boundary in the follicle cell epithelium. Three different isoforms of the bun gene encode proteins homologous to three unique members of the TSC-22 gene family. One of the three bun isoforms appears to be a dominant negative. This suggests a conserved and intricate level of cross talk between these genes that we have linked to Notch signaling. Dominant negative TSC-22 designed for retaining DNA binding activity but lacking trans-activation function increases cell proliferation in mouse cell culture. Knowing the close relationship between TSC-22 and bun, we have built a dominant negative version of bun which we will test in fly cell culture and in vivo with dominant negative bun. To test if bun regulates Notch signaling at other stages of development, we examined the requirement for bun function in patterning the eye imaginal disk including the ommatidial eye and head capsule. In the head capsule, Notch signaling is responsible for determining cell differentiation between tactile bristle cells and neural cells. In the eye, Notch signaling is required to determine the lattice cell structure of the eye. We produced clones of bun mutant cells in the eye using the eye-FLP driver and examined bristle phenotypes and expression of the mirror reporter gene. In the head capsule bun mutant cell clones showed bristle duplications that are notch phenotypes indicating that bun plays a regulatory role in notch signaling in the head capsule of flies. In the eye, we made clones of bunched mutant cells and observed misexpression of mirror (mirr) indicating a reciprocal relationship with bunched. These data indicate a requirement for bun expression in several developmental processes regulated by Notch signaling including at cell fate boundaries. Future work will pursue the issue of bun regulation of Notch target genes in developing bristles.


Tree canopy myxomycetes of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park were studied in relation to their association with certain tree species and bark pH. Using the double rope climbing method, bark was collected at three-meter increments to the tops of five different tree species and cultured using the moist chamber technique. The bark of 25 trees was cultured for 4 weeks resulting in 418 cultures. Bark factors including tree species, pH, height in tree and water holding capacity were analyzed as to their relationship to the myxomycete assemblages cultured in moist chambers. Results suggest that myxomycete community composition among selected tree species is similar, but occurrence and abundance of certain species are related to differences in bark pH. Trees with the most similar myxomycete communities also have the most similar bark pH. Most common myxomycete species in this study show a pH preference. This is the first study to characterize myxomycete communities of tree canopies. Ninety-five myxomycete species were identified, including 52 species not previously known to occur in the park. A new species of Diachea was restricted to heights above 6 meters. This is the first upper tree canopy species documented for the Myxomycetes. Funded by the National Science Foundation, Division of Environmental Biology, Biotic Surveys and Inventories Program, Award DEB-0079058 and Discover Life in America Awards 2001-26 and 2002-17.

* Lange, M.J. and A. R. Oiler. Department of Biology and Earth Science, Central Missouri State University. MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF METAL AND ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT MUTAGENESIS IN MICROCOCCUS AND STREPTOCOCCUS.

The gram positive bacteria Streptococcus and Micrococcus species are resistant to UV light, which has been previously described. Molecular analysis of combinational effects of compounds such as osmium chloride, manganese sulfate, and 1-methyl-3-nitro-1-nitrosoguanidine with UV exposure on cell properties has not been documented. Our laboratory research demonstrated Streptococcus mutations in colony size with increases of up to 3 times the normal size when exposed to various concentrations of metals. Micrococcus pigmentation also changed significantly to become either light yellow or orange, depending on the compound concentration. We analyzed molecular point mutations through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers. Published DNA sequences of three genes specific for cell components were used to design appropriate primers. The gene mur M encodes enzymes for cell wall muropeptides, and was chosen because Streptococcus mutants exhibited a sticky cell surface in addition to size variation. The gene Rx1 encodes for DNA repair of damage caused by agents other than UV, and may ultimately be responsible for many of the cellular results observed. The gene glpD encodes for expression of colony opacity, which was observed in Streptococcus mutants. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) utilizing the RAPD primers and specific gene primers was performed on 13 Streptococcus and 11 Micrococcus mutants. Gel electrophoresis demonstrated mutations between the original strains and the chemical mutants.

* Lawrence, K.A. and R.M. Strange. Department of Biology, Southeast Missouri State University. EVOLUTION OF COLOR COMMUNICATION IN PERCID FISHES.

Color plays an important role in communicating male aggression and in courtship behavior in darters. However, the evolutionary sequence of color vision and body colors is unknown. We examined the phylogenetic distribution of retinal structure and body color among twenty-four North American percid species and two European species in order to test the prediction that visual acuity evolved before body color. Bright body coloration is restricted to species of Etheostoma and is absent in Percina, Crystallaria, Zingel, Romanichthys and the larger percids (Stizostedion and Perca). Rates of neural summation indicative of a high degree of visual acuity, characteristic of a visual system with the ability to detect color, are seen in both colorful and monochromatic species of Etheostoma (mean=2: 1) and Percina (mean=3:l). Summation rates are highest in Stizostedion (mean=22:1) and Perca (8: 1) and are typical of retinae specialized for low ambient light levels. Zingel and Romanichthys exhibit retinal structures intermediate between darters and Stizostedion, despite their darter-like morphology. Phylogenetic distribution of retinal morphologies, habitat affinities, and color communication among percids suggests that color vision played a role in the evolution of bright body colors in percids.

Lin, H.Y. * and Nikaido, S.S. Department of Biology, Central Missouri State University. TEST OF THE "ESCAPE FROM LIGHT" HYPOTHESIS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

The "escape from light hypothesis" suggests that organisms use circadian clocks to regulate cellular activities so that activities sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light occur in the night to avoid damage from the sun. We measured survival of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells after exposure to UV at different phases of growth: exponential and saturation phases. Cell cultures were grown on light/dark cycles of 12 hours of light followed by 12 hours of darkness. At four-hour intervals starting from the time lights turned on, cells were tested for its ability to survive UV exposure. During the exponential growth phase, cells tested at four hours after lights on had the highest survival (116% [+ or -] 17.1, mean [+ or -] SD, N=3). Cells tested at the time the lights turn off had the lowest survival (55% [+ or -] 4.0, mean [+ or -] SD, N=3). During the saturation growth phase, there was no difference in cell survival during the middle of the day versus the night. These results suggest that C. reinhardtii uses a circadian clock to protect sensitive cellular processes, which occur during the night, but that C. reinhardtii may not engage its circadian clock to avoid UV damages after the cell culture reaches stationary phase. This work is supported by a grant from the Laura Nahm Fund and Willard North Graduate Research Award to H.Y.L. and a University Research Award to S.S.N. from Central Missouri State University.

Moffatt, D.S., K. Manivannan, and L.E. Banks. Center for Scientific Research and Education, Southwest Missouri State University. SIMPLE COMPUTER SIMULATIONS OF THE HEART AND CIRCULATORY SYSTEM.

Complex computer simulations of the Circulatory system have long been used in scientific research and Medical School instruction. With the use of the simulation software STELLA, relatively simple computer models can be made that demonstrate complex interrelationships within the circulatory system. Students can see such things as the role of the kidneys in some forms of hypertension, the importance of increased contractibility of the heart when distended, and the importance of venous return in the control of the circulation. Such a model can also generally predict the consequences of a variety of circulatory disorders. Weakening of the heart, heart impulse conduction and valve problems, and hardening of the arteries are just a few of the issues that can be studied with such a model. Our experience with STELLA proves it to be a valuable tool in research and education. This work was supported in part by the United States Department of Education grant # P342A990411.

Strange, R.M. Department of Biology, Southeast Missouri State University. MOLECULAR EVIDENCE FOR A NEW DARTER IN THE MISSOURI OZARKS.

Three subspecies of Etheostoma flabellare are recognized in Missouri: the nominate form occurs in the Black and Current river systems, an undescribed form is found in the White River system, and E.f. lineolatum occurs throughout the rest of the state. Relationships among these taxa are not well understood, nor is it clear whether populations in the Black and Current river systems are referable to E.f. flabellare east of the Mississippi River. I inferred the phylogenetic relationships among Ozarkian fantail darters from mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence divergences. Sequences representing E.f. flabellare east of the Mississippi River form a monophyletic group with sequences representing E.f. lineolatum from Missouri. Sequences from the Black, Current, and White river systems are not closely related to any sequences found in Missouri and form a monophyletic group with a taxon occurring on the Atlantic slope, E.f. humerale. Phylogenetic relationships among Ozarkian fantail darters suggest that populations in the Black and Current river systems are not E.f. flabellare and are referable to the undescribed form in the White River system. The White River form should be recognized as Etheostoma sp. cf. flabellare, pending further investigation of its taxonomic identity.

* Wilson, S. W., N. M. Svatos, and H. W. Keller. Department of Biology, Central Missouri State University. TREE CANOPY INSECT BIODIVERSITY IN BIG OAK TREE STATE PARK, MISSOURI: PRELIMINARY RESULTS.

The biodiversity of insects captured in canopy traps at Big Oak Tree State Park, Mississippi County, Missouri is analyzed with respect to tree species and trap height. Four Sante Fe canopy traps, two with top collectors, and two with top and bottom collectors, were hung by ropes at heights from 13 to 20 m in 9 species of trees from 6 to 21 July 2002. Tree species consisted of persimmon (Diospyros virginiana L.), American elm (Ulmus americana L.), bald cypress (Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.), pumpkin ash (Fraxinus tomentosa Michx. f.), green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa (Michx. f.) Loud.), swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt.), and eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.). Each trap was hung in a tree for five days after which the trap was lowered to the ground and the collecting bottles emptied. Traps were then moved to different trees and the bottles refilled with 70% isopropyl alcohol. A total of 3,365 specimens in 13 orders was collected. Hemiptera (s. l.) accounted for 59%, Diptera 19%, and Coleoptera 7% of the total specimens collected. The remaining 15% of specimens were in the orders Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Trichoptera, Orthoptera, Neuroptera, Thysanoptera, Ephemeroptera, Collembola, Odonata, and Mantodea. Additional information on correlates between order and family and tree species and trap height are provided. This project was funded by the Missouri Department of Natural Resources, Division of State Parks.

Biomedicine & Biotechology (Senior)

Section Chairwoman: Dr. Colette M. Witkowski, Southwest Missouri State University M.Groh * & R.C. Garrad. Biomedical Sciences Department, Southwest Missouri State University. REGULATION OF P2[Y.sub.2] NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTOR DESENSITIZATION.

P2[Y.sub.2] nucleotide receptors are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. Activation of the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor with ATP or UTP increases intracellular calcium and, in epithelial cells, opens calcium-dependent chloride channels. This latter effect may potentially alleviate the defective chloride secretion manifested in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). UTP therapy provides temporary relief from the symptoms of CF because the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor undergoes a process called desensitization. Desensitization results from prolonged exposure to the agonist, and prevents further addition of agonist from activating the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor. We are studying four proteins that are thought to be involved in different aspects of the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor desensitization process. The proteins are, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, arrestins 2 and 3, and dynamin. We have transfected dominant negative mutant cDNAs and antisense oligonucleotides directed against each of these proteins into P2[Y.sub.2] receptor expressing cells. We are also studying the effect of these reagents on P2[Y.sub.2] receptor-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation.

J. O'Donnell * & R.C. Garrad. Biomedical Sciences Department, Southwest Missouri State University. SITE-DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS OF THE P2[Y.sub.2] NUCLEOTIDE RECEPTOR.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of proteins that are characterized by their 7-transmembrane spanning domains. GPCRs are involved in a number of cellular signal transduction pathways. P2[Y.sub.2] receptors are GPCRs that are activated equipotently and equiefficaciously by the agonists ATP and UTP. The focus of our research is to examine the effects of five specific amino acid changes at various locations of the recombinant P2[Y.sub.2] receptor. We utilized enzymatic-inverse polymerase chain reaction to create each mutation in the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor cDNA. The mutations have been verified via DNA sequencing and the recombinant receptors are expressed in the 1321N1J astrocytoma cell line. Presently, we are performing experiments to test the surface expression levels of the altered receptors. We are also beginning experiments to determine the effects of the site-specific mutations on the function of the P2[Y.sub.2] receptor.

Rumana *, U., Witkowski, C.M. Department of Biomedical Science, Southwest Missouri State University. ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF [beta]pat-3::GFP FUSION PROTEIN IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS COLLAGEN IV MUTANTS.

To transmit the muscle contractions evenly over the cuticle for movement, the body wall muscle cells need to be anchored to the hypodermis through the basement membrane dependant adhesions involving [beta]pat-3 integrin. Collagen IV (emb-9) mutant embryos arrest at the 3-fold stage of embryogenesis due to muscle detachments. To better understand the early sarcomere organization events in live collagen IV mutants, an extra chromosomal array (Ex) containing a functional [beta]pat-3: :GFP fusion protein will be mated into the collagen IV mutant background. Genetic crosses between CH1179 (emb-9 heterozygotes) and RW3633 ([beta]pat-3 mutants rescued with the [beta]pat-3::GFP construct) were carried out to establish new transgenic strains. Initial crosses resulted in animals carrying two embryonic lethal alleles in the genetic background. To remove the [beta]pat3 mutant alleles, a strain with the extrachromosomal array in wild type background has been constructed which will be crossed with CH1179 to establish the potential CH1179 transgenic strains with the [beta]pat-3:: GFP construct. The distribution of structural proteins in body wall muscle cells including integins, perlecan, and M-lines will be assessed in the transgenic strains using epiflourescence and immunohistochemical analysis.

* Stone, D. K., Witkowski, C. M. Department of Biomedical Sciences, Southwest Missouri State University. DISTRIBUTION OF AJM-1::GFP IN COLLAGEN IV NULL MUTANT CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EMBRYOS.

Collagen IV is an important structural molecule as it forms the basic three-dimensional network of all basal laminae. In Caenorhabiditis elegans, the predominant form of collagen IV is a heterotrimer consisting of an [([alpha] 1).sub.2] [alpha] 2 composition. The C. elegans epidermis shares a basal lamina with the body wall muscle cells. Adherens junction molecule (AJM-1) is an important structural adhesion molecule located in the apical junctions of adjacent epidermal cells and is involved in embryonic elongation. Genetic analysis of MZ1 and MZ2, two transgenic strains of genotype unc36emb9(g23cg56)/ qc1;Ex ajm-1::gfp, allow analysis of ajm-1::gfp introduced into the collagen IV mutant background. Worms were grown on NGM plates seeded with E. coli OP50 at 20[degrees]C during analysis. Null mutants for collagen IV demonstrated embryonic lethality in 22-28.5% of eggs analyzed. Using fluorescence microscopy and Nomarski optics, the localization of AJM-1::GFP will be characterized in wild type and mutant embryos during elongation. The effects of the collagen IV deficient basal lamina on the epidermis during elongation and the period when degeneration occurs will be studied.

* (1) Stuart, M.K., P.S. Sexton (2), B.J. Cox (1), N.J. Uray (2) and L.C. Towns (2). (1) Department of Microbiology/Immunology and (2) Department of Anatomy, Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine. MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES TO THE BULLFROG OPTIC TECTUM AND CEREBELLUM.

Amphibians are often used in studies of developmental plasticity, but such studies can be hindered by the lack of cross-reactivity for amphibian antigens displayed by antibodies generated to other taxa. In this study, we generated a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MABs) to brain antigens of the bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, for use in examining cerebellar and visual system development in the amphibian model. The most interesting antibody, MAB 1H12, reacted in tissue sections with an antigen abundant in the zone of the optic tectum known to receive ingrowing optic fibers. Further biochemical and immunological analyses demonstrated that the antigen recognized by MAB 1H12 is similar or identical to the HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope of neural cell adhesion molecule. Given the importance of HNK-1 in visual system development in other animals, we believe that MAB 1H12 will be useful for tracking visual system plasticity in the bullfrog. Supported by NIH/NIAAA AA07537 and the KCOM Warner/Fermaturo Fund.

Chemistry (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. Mel Mosher, Missouri Southern State College

* Carter, K.N., M.E. Suffern, J.D. Bisges, N.J. Green, and A.T. Pawling. Division of Science, Truman State University. THE PHYSICAL CHEMICAL PRINCIPLE OF MASS ACTION AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL MODELING: A CONCISE SURVEY AND EVALUATION.

Fears of bioterrorism have added a new chapter in the science and ethics of vaccination policy. Crucial arguments hinge on the concept of herd immunity, given a theoretical foundation in 1906 by Hamer in a form later recognized as analogous to the chemical principle of mass action. Though providing insight, models based on uniform populations with homogeneous mixing can result in erroneous threshold estimates. Indicative of how herd immunity might be currently understood by practicing physicians, a "science commentary" in British Medical Journal uses expressions such as "100% protection"--oversimplified in light of modern multi-compartment models with non-uniform transmission parameters. Subpopulations with higher proportions of susceptibles can allow epidemics to spread even if the overall proportion of susceptibles is below the calculated epidemic threshold. Happily, the high case-to-infection ratio, ease of differential diagnosis, and relatively low [R.sub.0] for variola (smallpox) help make ring vaccination far more effective than for, say, pertussis, thus reducing dependence on herd immunity for control--a fact that has taken on new importance since P.E.M. Fine noted it in his review a decade ago. As J.S. Koopman affirms, both compartmental and discrete models prove useful. However, neither deserves the uncritical acceptance accorded the principle of mass action in its chemical context.

Manuel, O. and Katragada, A. Chemistry and Computer Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla. THE SUN'S ORIGIN, COMPOSITION, AND SOURCE OF ENERGY.

Decay products of short-lived nuclides and linked elemental and isotopic variations in meteorites indicate that a supernova exploded 5 Gy ago [1], the Sun formed on its neutron-rich core, and its debris formed the planetary system [2]. Light (L) elements and isotopes are enriched at the solar surface relative to heavy (H) ones by a common mass-fractionation (f) [3], where f = [(H/L).sup.4.56]. Solar flares bring heavier elements and isotopes to the surface [4]. Beneath its H-veneer, the Sun consists mostly of the same elements that comprise 99% of ordinary meteorites: Fe, Ni, O, Si, S, Mg, Ca [5]. Nuclear systematics [6] reveal an instability in assemblages of neutrons toward neutron emission. Neutron-emission from the collapsed SN core in the Sun initiates a series of reactions that generate luminosity, neutrinos, and an outpouring of [H.sup.+] ions in the solar wind [7]. References:

1. or /fg1.html

2. or /fg2.html

3. or /fg3.html

4. or /fg4.html

5. or /fg5.html

6. or /fg6.html

7. or /fg7.html

Fowler, Rosemary and * Amber Rosenberg. Department of Chemistry, Cottey College. DISPLACEMENT OF HALIDE FROM N-SUBSTITUTED TETRAHALOPHTHALIMIDES BY METHOXIDE ION.

Initial investigations into the nucleophilic displacement of one or more halogens from N-phenyl-3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalimide (I) and N-phenyl-3, 4, 5, 6-tetrafluorophthalimide (II) with methoxide ion will be discussed. Typically, halides are not subject to nucleophilic displacement from benzene rings under normal reaction conditions. However, successful nucleophilic displacement of halide by methoxide ion occurs for N-substituted 3-halophalimides and has been reported by Fowler and Caswell. In our study of the reactions of the tetrabromo compound (I) and the tetrafluoro compound (II) toward methoxide ion different reactivities for the two compounds have been established. Futhermore, the nucleophile, methoxide, displaced all four fluoro groups from N-phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetrafluoro-phthalimide (II) to form N-phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxyphthalimide (III). The structure of N-phenyl-3,4,5,6-tetramethoxyphthalimide (III) has been confirmed by spectroscopic analysis.

Wixom, R.L. and Gehrke, C.W., Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO. CONTRIBUTIONS OF CHROMATOGRAPHY--PHYSICAL SCIENCES AND LIFE SCIENCES.

The history of Chromatography includes brilliant discoveries, new seminar concepts, paradigm shifts and many contributions to other science areas. Chromatography began in 1903 with an investigation of chlorophyll by Michael Tswett, a Russian botanist. From 1912 to 1950s, chromatography contributed to research areas of natural products, organic chemistry, analytical chemistry and biochemistry. With the development of gas chromatography (GC) in 1950s and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in the 1960s, the separations became more selective, precise and accurate. Column pressures increased, leading to faster flow rates, shorter analysis time and analytical separations of macromolecules. The past four decades were highlighted by the discoveries of 125 Chromatography Awardees in Chapter 5 of our book "Chromatography-A Century of Discovery (1900-2000), The Bridge to the Sciences and Technology", 1100 pp., Elsevier Science Publishing 2001. Over the past decade, chromatography has advanced Genomics, Proteomics and Metabolomics , which in turn has elevated Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, all of which is necessary for integrated life science research.

Computer Science (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. David R. Naugler, Southeast Missouri State University

* Naugler, D. R., Department of Computer Science, Southeast Missouri State University. THE USUAL SUSPECTS: THE BUILTIN FUNCTIONS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES.

From the first FORTRAN version, programming languages have included some builtin or standard functions. Almost all languages have a core collection of these functions. Why are the same functions included in languages of very different design and application area?The core functions and their syntactically sugared variants are examined, and their history and importance are explained. Implementations of these functions are examined with the the core mathematical concepts and techniques behind them in mind. These concepts provide a guide for determining some ot the essential mathematics a computer science student should master. Both the core mathmatical concepts and some implementation should be part of the education of computer science students.

* Saquer, J. M. Computer Science Department, Southwest Missouri State University. USING FORMAL CONCEPT ANALYSIS IN INFORMATION RETRIEVAL.

Formal concept analysis (FCA) is a relatively new field that emerged when a group of researchers at Darmstadt, Germany, was trying to develop applications for lattice theory. It deals mainly with a formal definition of what is meant by a concept in a given context. An example of a context is a set of library documents and the terms in these documents. A formal concept in this context is any pair (A, B), where A is a set of documents, B is a set of terms, every document in A has all the terms in B, and every term in B is possessed by all the documents in A. Using the framework of FCA, concepts can be structured in a form of a lattice called the concept lattice. The concept lattice is a useful tool for knowledge representation and acquisition. FCA has also been applied successfully in many fields, including data mining, information retrieval, software engineering, database systems, conceptual modeling, chemistry, and psychology. In this presentation, I will show how FCA can be used in the area of information retrieval. This involves the case where the set of terms involved in a user's query do not form a formal concept. I will show how concept approximation can be used to find a formal concept that satisfies such query. The techniques I will show can be easily adopted and used in upper-level undergraduate and low level graduate students in an information retrieval course.

Wang, Y. Department of Computer Science, Southwest Missouri State University. ABOUT THE SUBSTITUTION METHOD FOR SOLVING RECURRENCES.

Algorithm analysis technique is an important subject covered in computer science curriculum in many universities. Introduction to algorithms, Second Ed. by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Clifford Stein, McGraw Hill, 2001, is a widely used textbook for this subject by various colleges and universities. In this book, the authors discussed a substitution method for solving recurrences that represent the running times derived from recursive algorithms. The theoretical backbone of the substitution method is the mathematic induction. However, from place to place, the authors did not demonstrate the usage of the induction procedure correctly. Strictly speaking, some examples are even incorrect. Substitution method is a difficult algorithm analysis technique for students to master. Unmentioned mistakes or misleading information in a textbook would further hinder students' understanding on this topic. In this paper, we pointed out some misleading or incorrect examples and discussions appeared in the textbook. We also discussed the way we revise those discussions.

Conservation (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. Cary D. Chevalier, Missouri Western State College Clark (1), C. and D. C. Ashley (1), AND F. E. Durbian. (1) Missouri Western State College, Department of Biology, and (2) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. THE OCCURRENCE AND MORPHOLOGICAL DESCRIPTION OF HEMOGREGARINES IN SEVEN SPECIES OF SNAKES FROM SQUAW CREEK NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE.

Hemogregarines are the most common type of blood parasite found infecting snakes but no research has been conducted involving hemogregarine activity in snakes of northwest Missouri. Blood samples were obtained from seven snake species (Coluber constrictor, Elaphe vulpine vulpine, Nerodia sipedon sipedon, Regina grahamii, Sistrurus catenatus catenatus, Thamnophis radix and Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) from Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge located in northwest Missouri. Giemsa-stained thin blood smears from 26 different snakes were examined for intraerythrocytic gametocytes. Hemogregarines were found in 11 (42%) of the snakes examined. Individuals from three species of snakes were infected. Three (60%) of five S. catentatus, three (75%) of four N. s. sipedon, and five (50%) of ten T.s.parietalis harbored blood protozoan infections. Infected red blood cells were larger than uninfected blood cells in N. sipedon and T. parietalis but not different in S. catenatus (Independent Samples T-test, p=0.05). Hemogregarine identification requires accurate analysis of morphological changes of the parasite within an invertebrate vector. Therefore, further research incorporating invertebrate vectors will need to be completed in order to successfully identify the hemogregarines discovered.

Carmack (1), A. S., D. C. Ashley (1), F. E. Durbian (2), and C. G. Chevalier. (1) Missouri Western State College, Department of Biology, and (2) U.S. Fish and Mdlife Service, Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. BURROW METRICS AND SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF BURROWS ASSOCIATED WITH BURROWING CRAYFISH ON NATIVE TALLGRASS PRAIRIES IN NORTHWEST MISSOURI.

Eastern massauga rattlesnakes (Sistrurus catentatus catenatus), a state endangered species and federal candidate species, utilize crayfish burrows as hibernacula. Rattlesnake populations at Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge (SCNWR) do not appear to be evenly distributed across the available mesic and wet prairie habitat during spring emergence suggesting that burrow density and distribution may play a factor in snake distribution. In order to begin understanding the importance of burrow distribution and density, relative to snake distribution, we investigated the geospatial distribution of crayfish burrows at five different locations on SCNWR. These locations represent areas known to be utilized as hibernacula by snakes. Five replicate circular plots (5m dia.) were established at each of the 5 locations. We attempted to locate and map burrow distribution using GPS technology. In addition, we recorded burrow metrics (entrance diameter and height). Mean entrance diameter was 3.33 cm (sd = 0.96) and mean burrow height was 0.4cm (sd = 1.76). We found no statistical differences in entrance diameter among burrows from four locations but entrance diameter of burrows from location 5 were significantly larger (ANOVA, p=0.05) than the rest. Mean burrow densities per location varied from 0.1 burrows per square meter to 0.8 burrows per square meter. Locations 1, 2, 4 and 5 did not differ from each other but mean burrow densities in location 3 were significantly greater than at all other locations (ANOVA, p=0.05).

Ashley (1), D.C., T. Nagle (2), and C. G. Chevalier. (1) Missouri Western State College, Department of Biology, and (2) U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge. USE OF GEOSPATIAL TECHNOLOGY TO MONITOR POPULATIONS OF THE WHITE-FRINGED PRAIRIE ORCHID (Platanthera praeclara) AT THREE NORTHWEST MISSOURI PRAIRIES.

Populations of the white-fringed prairie orchid (Platanthera praeclara) are currently known from three prairies (Helton Prairie, Tarkio Prairie, and Little Tark Prairie) in northwest Missouri. These populations have been annually monitored since 1996. Individual plants (flowering and vegetative) have been located, counted, measured, and permanently marked during the summer growing seasons. Early attempts to document orchid locations utilized a series of permanent points (prairie base stations) and involved determining distance and azimuth readings from each orchid to two of the permanent base stations. Individual orchids could be relocated by stretching meter tapes in appropriate compass directions from each of the appropriate base stations. During the 2002 orchid growth season we began using Trimble Explorer III units to determine spatial coordinates for each orchid. The use of this GPS technology has allowed us to prepare maps of orchid distribution on each of the prairies and will allow us to evaluate spatial aspects of plant longevity, flowering, and seed production.

Barber, N. A. and G. R. Camilo. Department of Biology, Saint Louis University. AVIAN COMMUNITY STRUCTURE IN A SINGLE-TREE SELECTION MANAGED FOREST.

Most forests are under tremendous pressure to be harvested, yet we know little how management translates into ecological heterogeneity. Part of the problem is that heterogeneity is scale dependent, both in space as well as time. We surveyed forest breeding birds in a single-tree selection harvested forest in the Missouri Ozarks to determine the effect of spatial and temporal heterogeneity on avian community structure. Fixed-radius point counts were performed at sites (n=6) of different age since last cutting to determine richness and abundance of species at each site. This was combined with extensive data from a vegetation regeneration study on the same sites, which were geo-referenced to a tenth of a second, permitting the data to be analyzed at multiple spatial scales. Forest structure and environmental parameter sampling was nested, thus allowing us to analyze data hierarchically. Thirty-four species were recorded at the six sites; 31 species were within at least one count circle. Red-eyed Vireo (Vireo olivaceus) was the most commonly encountered, within all 18 circles on at least one date. Other common species included Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea) (12 circles) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea) (10 circles). Species richness increased after logging until nine years had passed, when richness began to decline. Principle component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the relationship between bird community structure, forest structure, and environmental parameters at multiple spatial scales

Danny Beam *, Dr. Anna Oiler and Dr. Stefan Cairns, Central Missouri State University Department of Biology. WATER QUALITY AND MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF THE BLACKWATER WATERSHED

Water quality and microbial assessment of the Blackwater River watershed in west-central Missouri showed seasonal trends during the 2002/2003 one-year study. Monthly samples at seven watershed sites were analyzed for nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, and temperature. Fecal coliforms were monitored once each season during the same year.

* Clark, S.J., K. Reeves, and D.L. Galat. School of Natural Resources, University of Missouri-Columbia. LARVAL FISH USE OF THE MAIN CHANNEL IN THE LOWER MISSOURI RIVER.

Larval fish use of the main channel lower Missouri River has not been extensively research and even less is known about larval fish drift in the main channel compared to the shoreline. Larval fishes were sampled every two weeks from July 4, 2002 through September 2, 2002 in the lower Missouri River at locations upstream and downstream of point sandbars. Four point sandbars were chosen between river mile 179 and 158 due to their proximity to each other. The sandbars were paired and the distance between them was determined using a range finder. Sampling was conducted at the midpoint between the sandbars and then equidistant above and below the sandbar. The channel width was determined and sampling was done at distances 3%, 33%, 66% and 97% of the channel width. The distance sampled was held constant at 300 meters for every sampling period. Sampling was done using bow-mounted icthyoplankton nets moving downstream at a speed of 1m/s faster than the current. The presence of rip-rap was documented when sampling near the shoreline. Implications on whether larval fish are in greater abundance above sandbars or below, whether rip-rapping has an effect on larval fish abundance, and whether greater abundance of larval fish are located near the shoreline or in the main channel were all considered in this study.

Kim Erndt *, Stefan Cairns, Don Wilkison, John Hess, Alice Greife, Central Missouri State University Department of Biology. EFFICACY OF IN SITU USE OF THE AMPHIPOD, HYALELLA AZTECA, IN AN ECOTOXICOLOGICAL STUDY OF THE BLUE RIVER IN KANSAS CITY, MISSOURI

Abstract--Hyalella azteca, an epibenthic detrivitore, is an amphipod often used in laboratory sediment toxicity studies. This study focused on method development for using amphipods in in situ ecotoxicological tests. Caged Hyalella azteca were placed at eight sites for five days during spring and summer (high and low flow conditions) of 2002. Sites were located both above and below a wastewater treatment facility on the Blue River. Mortality was determined at the end of the five days. Results of tests were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test upstream and downstream differences and to determine efficacy of the cage method for use in future ecotoxicology field studies.


Abstract: Asiatic clams, Corbicula fluminea, were collected from the Little Niagua River in south central Missouri to determine the efficacy of using them as a biomonitoring tool in ecotoxicology studies. Four size groups of Corbicula were placed in two different reference (minimally impacted) stream sites on two different dates in west-central Missouri to determine the efficacy of their use as a biomonitoring tool. Corbicula were placed in CPVC tubes, wired to cinder blocks and anchored in the streams for a period of four weeks. Pre-and post-measurements were taken to determine the amount of growth. Analysis of varience was used to determine significant differences between size groups at each stream site and minimum detectable difference was calculated to help determine the size class most suited for use a biomonitoring tool in future ecotoxicological studies.

Dan Metcalf, Stefan Cairns, Trish Yasger, Kevin Sullivan. Central Missouri State University, Department of Biology. EVALUATION OF PADDLEFISH SPAWNING LOCATIONS AND SUCCESS OF SPAWNING EFFORTS ON THE MARAIS DES CYGNES RIVER

Abstract--Since the construction of Truman Dam, all known paddlefish (Polydon spathula) spawning sites have been eliminated. The Marais Des Cygnes River, which offers the greatest potential for natural reproduction, has not been thoroughly investigated for location of suitable spawning habitat. The Missouri Department of Conservation and Central Missouri State University have initiated this study to assess habitat suitability for paddlefish spawning. Four potential spawning locations, between Highway 71 and the US Fish & Wildlife Service Marais Des Cygnes Refuge in Kansas, were sampled. Adult paddlefish were sampled using gill nets as they migrated upstream to spawn. Paddlefish Icthyoplankton were sampled below and above the sample sites using boat-mounted drift nets. Spawning habitat was assessed for each sample site using modified Missouri Department of Natural Resources Stream Habitat Assessment Procedures. Natural reproduction success will be determined by analysis of larval and adult abundance at each river site.

Jones, Stephen R. * (1), Daniel W. Beckman (2), Jason A. Gunter (2), and Fawn Kirkland (2). (1.) Biology Department, Drury University, Springfield, MO, 2. Life Sciences, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, MO. USING THE INDEX OF BIOTIC INTEGRITY TO ASSESS STREAM HEALTH IN BULL CREEK AND SWAN CREEK, SOUTHWEST MISSOURI

The index of biotic integrity (IBI) of fish communities was used to characterize the ecological health of Bull and Swan Creek drainageways. Methodology followed the EPA protocol for the Missouri Ozark highlands. Fishes were sampled at sixteen randomly selected sites in each basin during the summers of 2001 and 2002. Habitat and water quality data were recorded at time of sampling. The mean IBI score for Bull Creek was 68([+ or -] 6. The Swan Creek mean was 74([+ or -] 6. This indicates an overall "average" stream health in both basins. However, the "good" category (IBI [greater than or equal to] 80) was indicated for two sites on Bull Creek and eight sites on Swan Creek. The maximum IBI score was 92 for a "non-random" site in lower Bull Creek basin. A "below average" condition (IBI <60) was indicated at four Bull Creek sites and three Swan creek sites. IBI scores appear to be useful for establishing reference sites and evaluating changing stream conditions over time.

Lisa Neerhof *, Stefan Cairns, Central Missouri State University, Department of Biology. LILY POND RESTORATION

Abstract--Lily Pond, located in Pertle Springs recreational area, is owned by Central Missouri State University (CMSU) in Warrensburg, Missouri. The pond is dominated by dense populations of Ceratophyllum demersum (Coontail),Wolffia columbiana(Water-meal), and Spirodela punctata (Duckweed). There was concern with the "polluted" appearance of the pond and a desire to make Lily Pond more pleasing to the public. Aesthetical restoration was attempted using Nymphea odorata (White water lily) as an acceptable plant alternative. Lilies were transplanted from a nearby pond in July, 2001. Initial success of the first transplants were observed in the following spring and a second transplanting was initiated in July, 2002. Overall restoration success will be determined by continued increases in Lily density.

* Pedersen, K.A., J. H. Schulz, and J. J. Millspaugh. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, University of Missouri (KAP, JJM). Missouri Department of Conservation (JHS). PRIMARY MOLT SEQUENCE AMONG HARVESTED MOURNING DOVES THROUGHOUT MISSOURI.

Information on mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) reproduction and recruitment are critical in making improved harvest management decisions. We collected one wing from 5,350 hunter-harvested doves on six conservation areas throughout Missouri on opening day(s) of the 2002 season. We assessed wing plumage and progression of primary molt for classification of age class, and estimation of age (days from hatch) in hatching year (HY) doves. For each wing, we recorded age (HY; after-hatching year, AHY; and unknown, UNK), and the progression of primary molt. Logistically, we found that >5,000 dove wings were easily collected at field check stations, and wings required no special preservation procedures other than air drying. We observed the following age distributions: Anheuser-Busch: 387 HY(hatching year); 49 AHY(after hatching year); 68 UNK(age unknown). Otter Slough: 265 HY; 32 AHY; 32 UNK. Bob D'Arc: 1533 HY; 127 AHY; 159 UNK. Pony Express: 1189 HY; 438 AHY; 198 UNK. Reed Memorial: 491 HY; 138 AHY; 54 UNK. Eagle Bluffs: 119 HY; 61 AHY; 21 UNK. These data will be used to explore possible regional differences in peak of hatching, and will be useful in improving our understanding of mourning dove reproduction characteristics.


Abstract: Four age groups of Pimphales promelas were placed in cages at two locations in the Clear Fork of the Blackwater River. Cages were constructed of six inch CPVC tubes, wired to cinder blocks, and anchored in the streams for a period of ten days. Pre-and post-measurements were taken to determine the amount of growth in each age group. Analysis of varience (ANOVA) was used to determine significant differences between groups and minimum detectable difference was calculated to help determine the age most suited for use a biomonitoring tool in future ecotoxicological studies.


The Lower Hamburg Bend Conservation Area (LHBCA) contains approximately 3,000 acres of wetland habitat located on the east side of the Missouri River just south of the Iowa border. As part of a joint project of the Missouri Department of Conservation (MDC) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (COE), a chute is scheduled to be reopened through LHBCA to form an island, sloughs, and backwater areas. Within a 300-acre study area that will be primarily affected by the new chute, 232 evenly-spaced permanent sampling plotsand 18 randomly located permanent sampling plots were used to collect herbaceous plants, woody seedlings, saplings, and trees according to the Vegetation Monitoring System (VMS) of the MDC. (All samplings was done in June and July 2002.) This study describes 77 species of herbaceous and woody plants collected from all of the study plots. It compares Importance Values of the top herbaceous species (1. Setaria glauca, 2. Solidago altissima, 3. Setaria Faberii, 4. Abutlion Theophrasi, and 5. Polygonum pensylvanicum) in the entire study area and in the 3 major VMS habitat types (Annuals, Shrub-grass and Marsh) located wihtin the study area. This study also determined that the three major habitat types within the study area have similar plant diversity indices. In addition, it was found that most of the plants sampled during this preliminary survey are introduced and/or generalist species. It is expected that native wetland plant species will increase as the Marsh habitat expands after the river chute is reopened. Support from the Missouri Department of Conservation.

* Scholes, C.M. and M.A. Kabanuck. Department of Biology, Rockhurst University. DETERMINATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF BUSH HONEYSUCKLE (L. maackii Maxim.) IN AN URBAN NATURAL AREA USING GPS AND GIS. Hidden Valley Natural Area is an 82 acre site owned by the Kansas City Parks and Recreation Department. Lonicera maackii Maxim., an exotic species, is the most abundant shrub on the perimeter of the mesic forest inhabiting Hidden Valley, but is relatively rare in the undisturbed core. Twenty-five [m.sup.2] plots were established randomly during the 2002-2003 winter in the natural area and every L. maackii Maxim. individual within each plot was marked using handheld GPS. The proximity of patches of L. maackii Maxim. to the perimeter, trails and waterways of the site will provide information for management of the Natural Area with respect to L. maackii Maxim.

Winston, M. R., and R. P. Tilley. Missouri Department of Conservation. STATUS OF THE MISSOURI-ENDEMIC BLUESTRIPE DARTER (PERCINA CYMATOTAENIA).

The state-endemic bluestripe darter, Percina cymatotaenia, occurs only in the Niangua and Gasconade river systems of Central Missouri. Our objectives were to assess any change in distribution or abundance between two time periods: 1974 to 1982 and 1994 to 2002. We analyzed 28 pairs of samples spread evenly throughout the species' range. Each pair represented a sample from the first period and a sample from the second period at the same location or nearby. The average relative abundance in the first period was 1.6 bluestripe darters per 100 benthic fish caught and in the second period was 3.0 bluestripe darters per 100 benthic fish caught. A student's paired t-test for a difference in relative abundance between the paired samples was significant (P=0.0416). Bluestripe darters were caught in 16 (57%) of the first samples and in 23 (82%) of the second samples. A test for a difference in binomial proportions was significant (P=0.0212). The apparent pattern of expansion we found led us to conclude that the bluestripe darter was not declining in Missouri.

Science Education (Senior)

Section Chairwoman: Dr. Sufian A. Forawi, Central Missouri State University


This study examines the scores of several paired middle school students as they enter Science Olympiad competition on a local level in preparation for the regional, state and possibly national competitions. Students were selected based on their entering competition in at least two of the three local competitions held in Region IV in the State of Missouri. Results from the three competitions indicate consistent gains did occur. A t-test was run on the scores which was significant at the .01 level. Indications from the study are that students do use the time between contests to study the material in preparation for the next contest.


Students tend to make initial career choices based on limited information or misinformation about the daily activities of a particular health practitioner and the personal characteristics needed for career satisfaction. Pre-health advisors must contend with the huge effects of the popular media that portray several health careers in an unrealistic fashion. Waves of career decisions by students parallel popular television programs featuring specific disciplines, such as forensic science or emergency room medicine. To partly address this situation, I have developed a student worksheet that lists various personal and professional attributes and requires a student to rate oneself for each attribute and rate the importance of each attribute for a particular career choice. Continued evaluation using the attribute worksheet over time requires students to investigate their professional choices more thoroughly and to identify their own strengths and weaknesses. Discrepancies in attribute ratings alert students to difficulties they may anticipate in their selected profession or serve to motivate students to develop plans to improve the personal attributes required in that profession.

* Marsh, D. B. Department of Physics, Missouri Southern State College. APPROACHES TOWARD INCREASING ACTIVE LEARNING IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE.

Students who take physical science need to develop an understanding of scientific concepts that enables them to relate these concepts to real life experiences. In addition, students who take physical science as a requirement for a degree in elementary education must also be able to explain these concepts to their own students in a clear and simple fashion. As physical science instructors, we need to increase the student's conceptual understanding without sacrificing mathematical development. Our approaches toward increasing conceptual understanding involve incorporating active learning in combination with traditional classroom instruction. We have developed peer review sessions and directed inquiry labs that are presented in combination with standard lectures, conceptual questions, and problems. The peer review sessions are often presented to the students as "group discussion quizzes", in which students answer a set of conceptual and numerical questions individually and then discuss their answers in small groups. In directed inquiry labs, students are required to make a series of predictions followed by experiments, which lead to additional predictions. These approaches, coupled with the relation of scientific concepts to real life situations have increased student participation and understanding.

Roy P., D. Beach, T.Zeigler, and L. Bradley. School of Education and Child Development, Drury University. WILDLIFE MUSEUM: PARTNERING WITH TEACHERS IN DEVELOPING AFTER SCHOOL SCIENCE PROGRAM.

Thirty students from Pipkin Middle School were taken to visit the Wonders of Wild Life Museum. A school bus was arranged for the students to visit the museum accompanied by one University faculty member and two middle school teachers. An orientation meeting was conducted prior to the trip. During this meeting students were told about the objectives and the activity in which they would participate. The students arrived at the museum after the school was over and were greeted by seven teaching scholars and seventeen undergraduate education majors taking science methods course at Drury University. Each public school student was assigned to an undergraduate student. A chart was given to each individual to complete. University students helped middle school students collect information about different animals. The university students and the middle school students enjoyed exploring the different exhibits. Pre-service teachers along with the middle school students selected one animal and conducted research through the internet-websites and Zoobooks. Pre-service teachers aligned different activities with the Show-Me Standards and designed assessment strategies. The museum provides excellent opportunity for students to study different biological concepts using common animals. Throughout the trip, the middle school students were interacting among themselves, with the University students and faculty members, as well as discussing the contents of the exhibits. After the trip, middle school students created flip charts on one animal and took a retention test designed to measure how much information the student retained. Science standards and school improvement plans were met through students' interaction and individual research projects. A brief description of the project and retention test scores will be presented. This project was supported by a grant from CIC/NSF.


Classroom science teachers' fears of science particularly limit their confidence in promoting reform-based science instruction. Twelve science teachers from Mid Missouri participated in this study that was focused on a technology supported inquiry approach to impart pedagogical-content knowledge in a professional development program funded by the Eisenhower Grant Cycle XIX. Pre- and post-test and anecdotal data analyses indicate that the participant teachers' attitude towards inquiry science and targeted physical science content knowledge increased significantly from this program. In addition, these experiences have had a long-term impact on these teachers' confidence and comfort levels to implement technology-infused inquiry science instruction in their classrooms that their students find interesting and meaningful. Limitations and opportunities for further research are discussed.

Geography (Senior)

Section Chairman: Mr. Thomas R. McCray

McCray, T.R. Department of Geography, University of Missouri--Columbia.


"Globalization" means different things to different people. But it is widely regarded as one of the most influential, geographic and divisive issues of our time. Advocates for globalization claim that it promotes peaceful codependence, narrows the world income gap, and responds to popular demand. Opponents counter that it destroys cultures, exploits the poor and supports an unsustainable level of consumption. A snapshot of the current arguments serves to monitor trends in development and perception.

* Patterson, P.A. and G.J. Cwick. Department of Geosciences, Southeast Missouri State University. USE OF REMOTE SENSING METHODS FOR LOCATING ILLEGAL CULTIVATION OF CANNABIS SATIVA IN S.E. MISSOURI.

Law enforcement agencies, such as the Missouri State Highway Patrol (MSHP), have eradication units designed to find cultivation of illicit drugs like marijuana (cannabis sativa). In the past, efforts in this regard have focused on air and ground search methods which are somewhat limited in scope and involve considerable money, time and risk of inherent dangers posed by the cultivators. With available multispectral imagery from satel-lite remote sensors having relatively good spatial and spectral resolution conducive for detecting the growth of plants like cannabis sativa, it is feasible to invoke various image processing methods on the data they provide to locate suspected marijuana sites. Consequently, an attempt was made to identify patches of cannabis using a Landsat ETM+ scene of Missouri's bootheel region. Spat-ially filtered, principal component, and vegetation index images were produced and georeferenced with a known growth site to ascertain spectral characteristics of the plot for input into a supervised classifier. Resultant classification maps using this approach delineated the known site and another that was previously unknown.


Atmospheric fallout con-taining heavy metals from industrial sites is an ongoing concern, and its effect on particular eco-systems needs to be further evaluated. In an effort to ascertain the efficacy of using geoprocessed satellite multispectral imagery and biogeochemical sampling of trees in this regard, the Fults Hill Nature Preserve in Illinois located across from the Herculaneum, Mo. lead smelter and Ameren UE power plant was assessed for possible contamination effects. Vegetation index models using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images were derived to characterize tree health status at the time of leaf sample collection, and change detection analysis was conducted to quantify temporal variations of the forest in this area over a 13 year period. Preliminary results have found relatively high concentrations of metals (e.g., Pb and Hg) accumulated in leaf tissue sufficient enough to induce discernible contamination effects in the remotely sensed data, and change detection indicates notable differences in the Preserve's trees during the timeframe assessed.

Geology & Geophysics (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. John Nold, Central Missouri State University

* Dudley, M.A., and Nold, J.L. Department of Earth Science, Central Missouri State University. OCCURRENCE AND ORIGIN OF THE HOGAN IRON DEPOSIT, ST. FRANCOIS MOUNTAINS, SOUTHEAST MISSOURI.

The Middle Proterozoic igneous terrane of southeast Missouri is host to six major iron deposits and nearly three-dozen minor deposits. Much debate still exists as to the nature, source, and genesis of these deposits. The major iron occurrences have all been studied in varying degrees of detail. However, the minor iron occurrences have not been studied to any extent. Systematic examination of these minor deposits may provide significant insight towards developing a comprehensive framework by which the relationship between host rock, mode of deposition, and mineralizing source may be understood for the entire district. The Hogan deposit represents such a minor occurrence. It is hosted by rhyolitic pyroclastic flows and located roughly 5 miles southwest of the Pilot Knob deposits. Hematite represents the primary ore mineralization. Ore textures primarily reflect open-space filling phenomena, which includes spectacular, fine to coarse-grained colloform bands of hematite as wall coatings and breccia fillings. Late mineralization is characterized by coarse specular hematite as blades extending into open spaces, or as tiny cross-cutting veinlets, commonly with quartz or chalcedony. Textures suggest deposition in a vent system associated with hot spring activity. Preliminary examinations of other minor iron occurrences within the terrane are in progress.

* Elfrink, N.M., Geological Survey and Resource Assessment Division (GSRAD), Missouri Department of Natural Resources PONDING BEFORE PIRACY: TETESEAU FLATS AND THE NEOTECTONIC ORIGIN OF THE MISSOURI RIVER; AN ALTERNATIVE TO GLACIAL PONDING

Although the course of the Missouri River roughly coincides with the southern limit of pre-Illinoian glacial deposits, attempts to explain basin features in terms of glacial processes have proven inconclusive. Soil surveys show anomalous "terraces", traditionally ascribed to glacial ponding, actually formed over 500,000 years after the last glacier melted. One such "terrace", the Teteseau Flats in Saline County, is located within the Missouri River trench but is not under the direct hydraulic control of the Missouri River! Drainage on the Teteseau Flats flows away from the Missouri River into the Salt Fork. Therefore, the Teteseau Flats can NOT be considered a Missouri River "terrace". This remarkable alluvial landform is the result of sediment accumulation in a pirated channel that has only recently been captured by the Salt Fork. This piracy is part of the ongoing dissection of the former divide between the growing Mississippi Basin and the pirated Great Plains drainage. The trans-state Missouri River was created by progressive headward erosion of streams radiating from structural/topographic basins. These neotectonic basins are identified by: anomalous thicknesses of valley-fill strata, valley profile deformations, and topography driven brine migration (upconing). Stream deflections toward the axes of subsidence create asymmetric drainage basins. The Late Wisconsinan capture of the Missouri River basin by a tributary of the Mississippi River near Tetesau Flats is indicated by the relative lack of loess along the eastern portion of the trans-state Missouri River. This interpretation is consistent with Peoria loess lithology in the Mississippi Valley, where only the latest Wisconsinan loesses show any impact of Rocky Mountain or Great Plains sources.

* KunleDare, Mojisola A., and Laudon Robert C., Department of Geology and Geophysics, 125 McNutt Hall, University of Missouri-Rolla. EFFECT OF EARLY CEMENTATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF SECONDARY POROSITY-EXAMPLES FROM THE CAMBRIAN OF ILLINOIS BASIN.

Preliminary petrographic studies of the Galesville and Mt. Simon Formations, Cambrian of the Illinois basin show porosity estimated at 18% and 25% respectively. Most of the porosity is secondary in origin; in the Galesville, it occurs as a result of framework grain dissolution whereas in the Mt. Simon, it results from hematite cement dissolution. The most important factor in both cases is early cementation although it is manifested differently in the two sandstones. The basal Galesville shows low compaction and a high percentage of quartz overgrowths, which form a framework around abundant, irregular and oversize pores. Early feldspar dissolution in the sandstones provided silica for the development of overgrowths that held the framework open. This stabilized framework resisted compaction. The oversize pores were then created from subsequent dissolution of plagioclase feldspars. The basal sandstones may have also received quartz rich fluids expelled from the underlying shale, which may have contributed to early quartz cementation. The Mt. Simon shows irregular laminations defined by alternation between well compacted sutured quartz laminae with stylolitic texture and porous laminae of rounded hematite coated quartz grains with overgrowths. Fluctuation in the supply of hematite at deposition resulted in alternation between hematite cemented and 'clean' laminae. During burial the uncemented layers were extensively compacted, whereas the cemented layers resisted compaction. Later, dissolution in the hematite cemented layers created new porosity. A second phase of dissolution resulted in the corrosion of quartz grains, overgrowths, as well as framework grains

Mataragio * J.P., and Hogan J.P., University of Missouri-Rolla, Geology and Geophysics Department, 65409, Rolla, Missouri, USA E-mail:, Phone: (573) 341-6960 MAJOR AND TRACE ELEMENTS GEOCHEMISTRY OF GRANITOIDS FROM EAST COAST MAINE; EVIDENCE FOR SOURCE REGIONS AND TECTONIC SETTINGS.

Preliminary investigation of major and trace element abundances of 20 granitoid rocks from 16 different plutons in eastern Maine supports growing evidence that granitoid magmatism associated with terrane accretion during the Silurian to Devonian in this region involved reworking of the continental crust in a variety of tectonic settings. Trace element discrimination diagrams utilizing Ta,-Yb, Rb-(Y+Nb), and Rb-(Y+Ta) indicate mixed tectonic settings including volcanic arc, within-plate, and continental collision. Primordial mantle normalized trace elements plots show negative Ta-Nb anomalies, indicative of subduction component. Nb/Ta ratios of the majority of samples vary from 6 to 17, suggesting a crustal derivation for these plutons with limited mantle input. The variation in Nb/Ta ratios more likely generation of these magmas from diverse source materials in the crust. Further characterization of the source materials involved in the generation of these granitoid magmas will be constrained by ongoing isotopic studies.

* Panneerselvam, K. and Jaireth. S. Department of Earth Science, Central Missouri State University and Dept. of Mineral Resources and Energy, Australian Geological Survey Organization. MINERALIZATION ASSOCIATED WITH FELSIC MAGMATISM IN NORTHWESTERN INDIA: BALDA AND DEGANA TUNGSTEN DEPOSITS

The Balda and Degana tungsten deposits are associated with Late Proterozoic (900-700 Ma) granites that intruded the metasedimentary rocks of the Delhi Supergroup. Four textural varieties of granites have been found in the Degana area, but only a sericitised leucogranite occurs in the Balda deposit. The tungsten mineralization is hosted by granite and the surrounding metasedimentary rocks. In Balda, the mineralization occurs in the form of quartz veins and greisenised pegmatites, whereas in Degana the mineralization is in the form of quartz veins and disseminations. In general, bulk of the mineralization is preceded by the emplacement of barren quartz veins and post-dated by quartz-carbonate-sulfide veins. Fluid inclusion studies indicate a temperature range of 110[degrees] to 460[degrees]C and a salinity of 29-42 wt % NaCl. Degana granites show characteristics of S-type granites, including high alumina/alkali ratio (~1.4) and high normative corundum percentage (-4.9). Balda granite is somewhat alkaline when compared to the peraluminous Degana granite. Tourmalinization of wall rock and the occurrence of scheelite as an ore mineral, along with wolframite, is restricted to Balda. Silicification and greisenization of wall rock are the wallrock alteration patterns in Degana. The vein-type mineralization in Degana is controlled by two sets of fractures and in Balda the mineralization is structurally controlled by shear zones. Tungsten bearing granites of northwestern India also show some mineralogical and geochemical specialization when compared to the barren granites of the same area.

* Schaper J. A., and C. M. Wicks. Department of Geological Sciences, University of Missouri-Columbia. AQUEOUS GEOCHEMICAL STUDY OF TUFA CREEK, SHANNON COUNTY, MISSOURI.

Carbon dioxide off-gassing due to agitation as Tufa Creek gradually falls 25 m in elevation over a 583 m stream reach is the principal mechanism for calcite deposition along this fen-fed stream. Water quality parameters gathered in the field and laboratory support this conclusion. The streamwater warmed from 14 to 19 degrees Celsius. The pH increased from 7.02 to 7.96 standard units. Specific conductivity decreased from 0.570 to 0.488 millimhos/cm. Alkalinity decreased from 368 to 321 mg/l. Dissolved calcium decreased from 157 mg/l to 117 mg/l. Magnesium decreased only marginally from 156 to 148 mg/l. Total hardness (calcium and magnesium) decreased from 313 to 265 mg/l. Chloride remained statistically unchanged from 7.6 to 7.5 ppm. Sulfate decreased from 5.7 to 4.7 ppm. Calcite saturation increased from -0.03 to 0.85. PC[O.sub.2] equilibrated from -1.51 to -2.56, but did not achieve atmospheric (-3.5) before entering the Current River. Biological mediation most likely perturbs water quality data at a sedge-muck section of the forested fen. Tufa formation closely correlates with steepness of elevation drop. Comparison of Tufa Creek data to nearby Ebb and Flow Spring, and Thompson Creek provides evidence that sufficient stream mineralization and optimal stream geometry are needed to result in freshwater calcite deposition. Actual tufa deposition rates along Tufa Creek are less than those predicted by the Plummer-Wigley-Parkhurst rate law. It is unclear if this is due to inhibiting effects of dissolved [Mg.sup.2+] or rate changes effected due to periodic gravel scour on the stream.

Physics, Engineering, & Computer Science (Collegiate)

Section Chairman: Dr. Roger D. Chef, Missouri Southern State College

* Heaivilin, Benjamin R. and * Findley, Jared. Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University. A COMPARISON OF THE COEFFICIENT OF RESITUTION OF DIFFERENT GOLF BALLS AT HIGH AND LOW SPEED.

The United States Golfing Association has strict rules governing how fast a golf ball may go when struck by a metal club. The question is how much variation is there between different manufacturer's golf balls within these rules? To answer this question the coefficient of restitution of different golf balls was measured. The coefficient of restitution is the ratio of the speed of the ball after impact to the speed of the ball before impact. The coefficient of restitution was measured at both high speed and low speed for comparison. For the low speed measurements the golf ball was dropped from a small height onto a heavy metal plate. For the high speed measurements a pitching machine was modified to pitch golf balls into the same heavy metal plate. The speed of the golf balls was measured by passing them past two light sensors which were illuminated by two laser beams. The voltage output of the light sensors was sampled by a computer interface to determine the time between the balls passing the two light sensors. Because the ball will not in general pass the sensor in the same position each time, using two sensors gives more accurate results than one sensor measuring the time the light is blocked. As much as a 10% variation in the coefficient of restitution of the different golf balls was observed.

* Kisker, Brett and Bothof, John. Department of Chemistry and Physics, Northwest Missouri State University. MEASURING THE ELECTRIC CHARGE ON A CAPACITOR.

The definition of capacitance, C=Q/V, does not make any sense unless the ratio of charge to voltage on a capacitor is a constant. Demonstrating this in a introductory physics course laboratory requires a means of measuring the charge on a capacitor. A simple op-amp integrator circuit was constructed for this purpose, An ordinary digital voltmeter was used to measure the output of the integrator circuit. This circuit is compared to three other commercial means of quantitatively measuring the charge on a capacitor: the ballistic galvanometer, a computer interface for voltage measurement, and an electrometer in combination with a Faraday ice pail. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each of these methods is compared.

Physics (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr. Donald D. Miller, Central Missouri State University

* Gentry, M. W., Chelf, R. D., and Marsh, D. B. Department of Physics, Missouri Southern State College. THEORY AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN OF GLIDER AIRFOILS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS.

With the approach of the centennial anniversary of the flight of the Wright Brothers there has been a renewed interest in low-speed, high-efficiency flight. Although there have been extensive studies of airfoils in the regime of high speeds and high Reynolds numbers, the regime of low Reynolds numbers, appropriate to small scale aircraft still remains to be fully explored. In our study, we have looked at the performance characteristics of airfoils in the low Reynolds number region, corresponding to flight at low airspeeds where the air may be treated as an incompressible fluid. We have chosen airfoils appropriate for use in these conditions, namely model unpowered sailplane design. We have compared the characteristics of these airfoils including the lift and drag coefficients, the lift to drag ratio, stall angle, and overall flight characteristics. Results of our comparisons will be presented.

Katragada, A. and Manuel, O. Computer Engineering and Chemistry, University of Missouri-Rolla. WHAT'S THE MATTER WITH ANTIMATTER?

Variations of potential energy per nucleon (M/A = 1.00 +/- 0.01 amu/nucleon) with nuclear charge density (0 [less than or equal to] Z/A [less than or equal to] 1 charge/nucleon) [1] indicate that n-p interactions are attractive but n-n and p-p interactions are repulsive and symmetric except for Coulomb effects [2]. Fig. 1 [3] shows matter and antimatter as reflections of one another across a symmetry plane at Z/A = 0. However, matter and anti-matter are both on the right of Z/A = 0 in Fig 1, e.g., the beta-decay of mirror nuclides in Fig. 2 [4]. Decay must overcome a 1.022 MeV barrier to [[beta].sup.+] emission, as shown in Fig. 3 [5] for [sup.13]N [right arrow] [sup.13]C + [[beta].sup.+] + 1.198 MeV; [] = M([sup.13]N) - M([sup.13]C) = 2.220 MeV = 1.022 MeV + 1.198 MeV. By convention the 1.022 MeV barrier is attributed to an electron/positron pair, each with a rest mass of 0.511 MeV. We suggest that the plane of symmetry for matter may not be at Z/A = 0 as shown in Fig 1, but near Z/A = 0.50 where there is maximum nuclear stability.


[1.] Nuclear Wallet Cards, 6th ed., Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY, 74 pp. (2000)

[2.] J. Fusion Energy 19, 93 (2000)

[3.] 1 .pdf or/fig 1 .html

[4.] or /fig2.html

[5.] or /fig3.html

* Manivannan, K. and A. Manivannan, Department of Physics, Astronomy, and Materials Science, Southwest Missouri State University and Glendale High School. SPREADSHEET PLOTTING OF ELECTRIC FIELD LINES, ELECTRIC FIELD VECTORS, AND EQUIPOTENTIAL LINES.

Electric field lines, electric field vectors, and equipotential lines play a central role in the formulation of electromagnetic theory. Electric field lines provide a nice way of visualizing electric fields, a representation commonly used in many introductory and advanced college physics courses. Electric field lines can also be represented by drawing electric field vectors at various points without connecting them. Usually the equipotential lines, which are closely related to electric field lines and electric field vectors, are drawn as well. Note that electric field lines, electric field vectors, and equipotential lines can all be calculated by using Coulomb law. This presentation will show how spreadsheets make it easy to draw diagrams containing one, two, or all three of the above for various charge configurations. Spreadsheets allow us to change parameters, such as the amount of charge and charge separations, and redraw the diagrams instantly. Plotting electric field vectors together with electric field lines enhances the visualization of electric fields. This multiple representation approach would be very effective in improving students' conceptual understanding of electric fields.

Fricke, B.A., S.S. Poranki *, P.S.K. Mylavarapu * and B.R. Becker. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri--Kansas City. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF DRAG COEFFICIENTS FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL AUTOMOBILE PROFILES.

Vehicle performance and fuel economy play important roles in obtaining larger market shares in the automotive industry. Optimization of the aerodynamics of a vehicle will enhance the vehicle's performance and fuel economy. In addition, the stability of a vehicle is affected by its aerodynamics, and passenger comfort is affected by wind noise due to vehicle aerodynamics. By altering bodylines, the aerodynamics of a vehicle can be modified, and the drag coefficient can be minimized by properly designing various component profiles. To study the effects of body profile on vehicle performance, the aerodynamics of various body profiles were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (FLUENT 6.0). Numerical models of three different body profiles, including a sport utility vehicle (SUV) and two mid-sized sedans, were created which closely approximate the actual body profiles. For the three vehicles, the drag coefficients calculated by the CFD software were in the range of 10% to 15% of published drag coefficients, which were obtained from wind tunnel tests. The variations between calculated and measured drag coefficients are due to slight differences between actual vehicle dimensions and numerical model dimensions as well as differences in vehicle orientation with respect to the airflow.

Fricke, B.A., D. Bandyopadhyay *, A.K. Ranjan *, V. Stojanovic* and B.R. Becker. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Missouri--Kansas City. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF AIRBORNE CORN POLLEN FLOW.

Genetically modified corn is a major product of many pharmaceutical and agricultural companies. Corn can be genetically modified to increase its resistance to pests and to adverse environmental conditions such as drought. In addition, corn may be genetically altered to produce raw materials for pharmaceutical products. However, it is imperative that the pollen of genetically modified corn does not cross-pollinate with the natural species. The natural species must be preserved without modification since the ramifications of cross-pollination on future generations of corn are unknown. In order to avoid cross-pollination, the genetically modified corn must be grown at a safe distance from the natural species. Although there is evidence to suggest that bees and other insects may transport a small portion of corn pollen, corn is primarily wind pollinated. The majority of airborne pollen falls within a short distance of the pollen source, although out-crossing has been recorded at up to 800 m. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (FLUENT 6.0) was used to study the flow patterns of airborne, genetically modified corn pollen and to determine the distances traversed by the pollen. The trajectory of a single pollen was studied for various air velocities and pollen orientations. Furthermore, the flow patterns of pollen clusters were simulated for various air velocities and pollen orientations. The results of the computer simulations were compared to experimental data found in the literature.

Speleology (Senior)

Section Chairman: Mr. William R. Elliot, Missouri Department of Conservation

Ashley, D.C. Missouri Western State College, Department of Biology. USE OF MINIPROJECTS IN BIOSPEOLOGY COURSES: THE INDIAN CAVE 2 ZONATION STUDY.

I often use class miniprojects to collect data on natural history of invertebrate organisms. Standardized miniprojects are useful teaching exercises that can be repeated in a variety of classes over an extended period of time. This presentation focuses on a zonation project conducted in Indian Cave 2 in the Huzzah Conservation Area in Crawford County, Missouri. The first visit to this cave was in the spring of 1992. The cave was measured and permanent linear transects (5-meter length) were established. Organisms seen in each zone during this and subsequent visits were counted and measured. We have collected data which reflect use of this cave as a habitat by a diversity of invertebrates. We also collect temperature and light penetration data along our linear transect. The majority of our data reflect cave cricket (Ceuthophilus) spatial and temporal distribution within the cave. Data from this project have also been used to document seasonal use of this small cave as a hibernaculum for Scolyopterix libatrix (Lepidoptera).

* Elliott, W.R. Science Division, Missouri Department of Conservation. CAVE GATING PROJECTS IN MISSOURI, 2002-2003.

MDC's cave conservation efforts in 2002 resulted in the first and second largest cave gates in the world at Rocheport (Boone) Cave, Boone County, and Great Spirit Cave, Pulaski County. The two, large caves are among MDC's most important in harboring endangered Indiana bats and gray bats and other important cave resources. Cave gates are increasingly needed to protect sensitive bat roosts from human disturbance. These two species are especially vulnerable to noise, lights, and even the body heat of intruders. The Rocheport Cave gate, 85 feet wide and weighing 24 tons, was completed in July and was funded by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at a cost of about $90,000. It was designed to withstand flash floods that come through the cave. The Great Spirit Cave gate (photo), 18 tons and 101 ft. wide, was completed in October at a cost of more than $70,000, funded by MDC and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. The ecological and engineering design considerations for these and other gates are discussed. Other resources such as sensitive aquatic life, archaeological and paleontological deposits, and the aesthetic and recreational values of the cave deserve protection as well. MDC's cave conservation program also assists other landowners in cave protection and habitat restoration. New projects on private land are detailed.


A multidisciplinary approach is currently being used to characterize the Carroll Cave System. Mapping of surface karst features along with geologic and hydrologic studies in Carroll is helping direct current exploration and surveying efforts. The examination of rock samples and 9 thin-sections from the new entrance borehole of Carroll Cave places the majority of cave in the lower Gasconade Formation of Ordovician age. The genesis of the cave has been strongly influenced by structural deformation of lower Gasconade strata. Groundwater flow follows dip of geologic structure in the Upper Thunder River and Carroll River passageways, but trends along strike of geologic structure in the lower Thunder River passage. Analysis of water samples taken from various locations in the cave indicate a change in dissolved mineral saturations that may help explain the caves' origin. Inorganic water quality of the cave is excellent. Flow and chemical analysis of Thunder River Toronto Springs groundwater points to extensive, unentered portions of cave. The potential for Carroll to extend south, west and northwest of known passageways is high based on the mapped position of sinkholes. An overburden map indicating the depth to the cave is used to infer possible boundaries to the cave system. A surface temperature survey and characterization of a sinkhole collapse has led to an interpretation of a significant extension of the cave towards Barnett Hollow 6400 feet west of Carroll passageways. Several sinkhole valleys filled with alluvial gravels, that may support recharge to Toronto Springs, have been identified. The validation of computer geologic mapping is currently ongoing with 30 sinkholes out of possibly hundreds field-located and photographed.

Engineering (Senior)

Section Chairman: Dr: Virendra K. Varma, Missouri Western State College

Exercise Physiology (Senior)

Section Chairwoman: Dr. Janice Nelsen, Southwest Missouri State University
COPYRIGHT 2003 Missouri Academy of Science
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2003, Gale Group. All rights reserved. Gale Group is a Thomson Corporation Company.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Publication:Transactions of the Missouri Academy of Science
Date:Jan 1, 2003
Previous Article:The response of soil structure to liming and controlled burning.
Next Article:Growth effects of corn in rotation with rice.

Related Articles
Andrus heads busy day for Oregon track team.
On the job: people in the news * people on the move.
Members to vote for new board member.
Profiling NZHO's section/college chairs.
National sections contacts.
Morley receives award.
Mississippi Academy of Sciences constitution.

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2022 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |