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College Student and Professional Poster Sessions 9:00 - 10:00 AM and 1:30 - 3:00 PM Lenhart Grand Ballroom - BTSU 202.

Poster Board No. 51 - POPULATION GENETICS AND MIGRATION OF PEROMYCUS LEUCOPUS, A LYME DISEASE RESERVOIR SPECIES. Keaka R. Farleigh,, (Christine S. Anderson,, Capital University, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, 1 College Ave., Columbus OH 43209.

Peromycus leucopus, or the white-footed mouse, is widely distributed across the eastern United States. These generalist mice prefer to inhabit understory vegetation and play a critical role in the dispersal of Lyme disease. Acting as possible reservoirs for Lyme disease, white-footed mice may easily migrate throughout the landscape potentially distributing the disease. This study seeks to investigate dispersal between 2 populations in different habitats through use of bioinformatic techniques, and is the culmination of both field and laboratory work performed over the course of 2012 to 2017. Field work was completed at Capital University's Primmer Outdoor Learning Center in Logan, Ohio, in a secondary growth deciduous woodlot and an agricultural fencerow habitat. Mice were live-trapped, and tissue samples were collected and stored in 95% ethanol at -20 [degrees]C. DNA was extracted and multilocus microsatellite PCR was performed. Samples from Summer 2016 (n = 14) and 2017 (n = 14) have been genotyped using a 3100 Genetic Analyzer DNA sequencer at 5 loci to date. Statistical analysis with the programming language R using the HIERFSTAT package was used to calculate genetic variation, [F.sub.IS], and [F.sub.ST]. Results suggest that migration was bidirectional between populations. Additional loci are currently being screened, and migration between populations was estimated using Geneclass, MIGRATE, and GENEPOP. Extensive movement of mice, if confirmed, will challenge management strategies to limit the spread of Lyme disease.

Poster Board No. 52 - THE INFLUENCE OF A CONTROLLED PRE-BREEDING SEASON BURN ON BIRD SPECIES ABUNDANCE AND DIVERSITY IN A NATIVE WARM-SEASON PRAIRIE PATCH. Jolyn Shunk,, Alex Furst,, Danny Ingold,, and Jim Dooley,, Muskingum University, Biology Dept., 163 Stormont St., New Concord OH 43762.

Few studies have examined fire as a management tool for obligate grassland birds on eastern warm-season prairie patches. Line transects were conducted during the May to June 2017 breeding season on a 24-hectare warm-season tall-grass prairie patch that had been burned 3 months earlier in February 2017. Prior to burning, this patch was dominated by an accumulation of tall, dead switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and a few forbs. The goal was to monitor for a potential change in the post-fire bird species abundance and richness compared to the pre-fire grassland bird occupancy. Prior to burning, obligate grassland species were essentially absent from the patch. In May post-burn, the mean height of the patch was Tilde30 cm and a substantial amount of bare ground persisted. In the May post-burn transects there was detected a modest number of savannah (Passerculus sandwichensis) and grasshopper (Ammodramus savannarum) sparrows, species attracted to shorter vegetation with less ground cover. Conversely, no Henslow's sparrows (A. henslowii) were detected. By June post-burn, as the mean vegetation height approached 140 cm, the dominant species once again were red-winged blackbirds (Agelaius phoeniceus), common yellowthroats (Geothlypis trichas) and swamp sparrows (Melospiza georgiana). Observations suggest that a pre-breeding season burn on this warm-season patch did promote a change in species diversity in May post-burn, but not in June post-burn. In order to attract obligate grassland species to warm-season patches, instead of weed/shrub generalists, additional management strategies such as fall or spring mowing might need to be implemented.

Poster Board No. 53 - RISK AVERSION AND ITS EFFECTS ON FORAGING BEHAVIOR IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY RATS. K.A. Myers (1),, Marko Filipovic, Ben Fry, H. C. Cromwell, (1) Bowling Green State University, 206 Psychology Bldg., Bowling Green OH 43403.

Gambling addiction has become a growing concern in national mental health. The current study involves a paradigm designed to isolate a "gambling" phenotype in a rat model. Using a "3 Box" apparatus, behavioral studies were conducted under 2 separate conditions in which the training and the quantity of the constant reward were varied. In condition 1 subjects were trained on a variable reward set at 1 lever press for 5 pellets with a variable reward of 70% (7 out of 10 trials were rewarded). During the experiment the reward on the constant side was set at 1 lever press for 2 pellets at 100% (10 out of 10 trials were rewarded). In condition 2 subjects were trained on a constant reward set at 1 lever press for 5 pellets at 100%. During the experiment the reward on the constant side was reduced to 1 lever press for 1 pellet at 100%. The remaining parameters of the experiment were the same for both condition groups. Subjects were weight restricted to 87% of their free feeding weight. The experiment was 4 weeks long and consisted of 4 separate ratios on the variable side; week 1 70/30, week 2 50/50, week 3 30/70 and week 4 10/90. Although the study failed to isolate any significant gambling behavior, significant group difference in completed trials were found which contradict optimal foraging theory.

Poster Board No. 54 - THE EFFECT OF STREAM ECOSYSTEM FACTORS ON BAT FORAGING. John R. Woloschuk,, Kevin E. McCluney,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Bat activity is influenced by a number of biotic and abiotic factors. The goal of this study is to investigate the influence stream ecosystem variables and time of day have on the behavior of bats. Ultimately, understanding the influence of these factors will allow for greater predictability of bat activity with time and local climate change. The main question is how exactly bats respond to variations in time and riparian ecosystem factors? One explanation is that later times, increased cover, and warmer temperatures, stimulate bat activity. Over the course of 1 month, September to October, climate data (humidity and temperature) were collected with a weather reader during each recording session. A Wildlife Acoustics Echo Meter[R] Touch 2 was used for each recording session in order to assess bat feeding activity. Recording intervals at each site lasted 15 minutes and fell between 7:00 to 10:00 PM. Warmer temperatures and humidity were not found to significantly affect the activity of bats. However, increased availability of cover and later recording sessions were positively correlated with bat activity. When considering what makes bats active over short periods of time, this study suggests that temporal and structural ecosystem factors like cover may have a greater influence over their stimulation than quickly assumed climatic variables. These results support the importance of conserving forested land, as it provides shelter and foraging opportunities for bat species who help maintain stream ecosystems.

Poster Board No. 55 - STREAM FISH ASSEMBLAGES AND PHYSICAL HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS IN A DISTURBED HABITAT. Donald Adair,, (Danny Ingold,, Muskingum University, Biology Dept., 163 Stormont St., New Concord OH 43762.

Surface mining operations have been shown to have profound negative impacts on stream communities situated close to mining operations. Reclamation efforts should help to mitigate such impacts, and the amount of time since reclamation should be positively associated with stream recovery. Fish species abundance and diversity within stream communities serve as reliable indicators of overall stream health. During September and October 2017, fish species abundance and diversity were surveyed in 2 stream segments, each sampled twice per month, located in Muskingum County, Ohio. One segment is surrounded by surface-mined land that was reclaimed over 40 years ago while the other is bordered by roads and residential land plots. The objectives of this study were to determine the extent to which fish assemblages at these sites potentially differ and to compare these results with the findings of a similar study conducted at these sites 5 years prior. Physical habitat characteristics such as sediment composition, overhead cover, and woody debris in stream were noted. In addition, several water quality parameters were measured including pH, nitrogen and phosphate levels, and tests for coliform bacteria. The two streams had some overlap in species diversity including an abundance of Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus) and various shiners (Notropis spp.), along with Trout-perch (Percopsis omiscomaycus). Rainbow Darters (Etheostoma caeruleum) were found only in the residential stream while Greenside Darters (E. blennioides) were found only in the reclaimed stream. The reclaimed stream segment also had a greater salinity and more total dissolved solids compared to the residential stream.

Poster Board No. 56 - ADDITIONS TO THE FRESHWATER DINOFLAGELLATE FLORA OF OHIO. Susan Carty,, Heidelberg University, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Tiffin OH 44883.

Dinoflagellates are microscopic algae found among other algae in lakes and ponds. Algae are well studied in Ohio and there are many reports that include dinoflagellates. The hypothesis for this work is that there are more than the 54 taxa previously reported. Single samples were collected at each location with a 10 [micro]m plankton net and micrographs taken using a compound microscope and a scanning electron microscope to aid identification. Five additional species are reported including Borghiella tenuissima from Willow Creek, Palatinus apiculatis from a pond in Tiffin, Peridinium weirzejskii from Sauerwein Pond at Heidelberg University in Tiffin, and Chimonodinium lomnickii and Kansodinium ambiguum from Cuyahoga Valley National Park. It is expected that there are additional species in Ohio.


Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, and hydroponics, the farming of plants in a soilless environment, are two very important sources of food and nutrition throughout the world. Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) employs the use of several classes of organisms in a single system to create numerous organisms of economic viability, produce a large harvest in a brief amount of time, and to increase the sustainability and productivity of aquaculture systems. A system was built in the greenhouse at Bowling Green State University utilizing Perca flavascens, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and 4 vegetable crops: Lactula sativa, Brassica oleraea, Ocimum basilicum, and Thymus vulgaris. Two goals were investigated during this project. The first was measuring the growth of Perca flavascens and Macrobrachium rosenbergii in a freshwater IMTA system. The other goal was to calculate the economic efficiency of the IMTA system by measuring growth parameters and costs. To date, there has been measurable growth in the Perca flavascens and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. After 49 days, the Macrobrachium rosenbergii increased from 0.98 grams to 3.70 grams, and the Perca flavascens increased from 2.25 grams to an average of 9.90 grams. Unfortunately, the Macrobrachium rosenbergii also proved to be opportunistically cannibalistic and survival has been fairly low. Our results show that Perca flavescens grow well in these systems, and it would be economically viable to conduct on a large scale.

Poster Board No. 58 - EFFECTS OF PLANT GROWTH IN AN INTEGRATED MULTI-TROPHIC LEVEL SYSTEM. Lana Neff,, Neal Kolonay,, Dr. Kevin Neves,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 217 Life Sciences Building, Bowling Green OH 43403-0208.

Aquaculture and hydroponics are an important source of food and nutrition throughout the world and involve the farming of aquatic organisms and plants in environments without soil. Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture and hydroponics and produces both aquatic organisms and plants efficiently. The idea of aquaponics has been taken to an additional level of complexity recently through the concept of integrated multi-trophic level aquaculture (IMTA). This allows for many different levels of organisms to be grown and reduces waste because the system allows for each organism to utilize the byproducts of another trophic level. A system was built in the greenhouse at Bowling Green State University utilizing 2 organisms Perca flavascens, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and four vegetable crops: Lactula sativa, Brassica oleraea, Ocimum basilicum, and Thymus vulgaris. Two primary goals were investigated. The first was to measure the height and weight of the plants in the system to determine the growth rate of plants using the nutrients generated. The second goal was to calculate nitrogen and phosphorus consumption rates of the various plants. To date, the plants have grown well, especially the basil and kale, which have grown 4.5 and 13 times their starting weight since the start of the trial. Our results indicate that the plants have effectively removed nitrogen and phosphorus from the water.


Changes in leaf litter inputs from riparian vegetation has been shown to have important impacts on abundance of shredder invertebrates and higher trophic levels within streams. The main mechanism of leaf litter decomposition is the consumption of coarse particulate organic matter within leaves by shredder invertebrates, but the rate is most dependent on the nutrient quality of leaves. Mixed nutrient leaf packs have been found to generally decompose faster than individually high or low nutrient quality leaf packs, while shading of leaf packs has had more varied results. The objective of this research was to determine how both shading and mixed nutrient quality leaf litter can influence the decomposition rates by shredder invertebrate populations. Three treatments of leaves in 10 mm mesh bags were placed in both lighted and shaded reaches of Salt Creek in Muskingum County, Ohio, including: a high nutrient species, American elm (Ulmus americana); a low nutrient species, white oak (Quercus alba); and a mixed nutrient quality pack of both. Each leaf packet treatment (n=4) was retrieved after 2 and 6 week periods to record mass loss and invertebrate abundance. Initial results indicate decomposition occurred faster in both packs of mixed and high nutrient quality leaves over low quality, while overall lighted treatments decomposed faster than shaded ones. Shredder abundance also appeared to be low throughout all treatments. A two-way analysis of variance will be conducted to determine if significant relationships exist involving shading and nutrient quality treatments on both decomposition rates and shredder abundance.

Poster Board No. 60 - THERMAL REFUGE OF JUVENILE STEELHEAD TROUT IN THE CUYAHOGA VALLEY. Dillon Weik,, Christopher Kemp,, (Jeffrey Miner,, Bowling Green State University, Aquatic Ecology & Fisheries Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a popular sport fish that has been introduced and stocked in the Great Lakes, creating a productive recreational fishery. However, the impact of non-native Steelhead Trout on the native fish community of cold-water tributaries in the region is unresolved. This study was conducted in 2 large mainstem tributaries of Lake Erie during summer 2017. It was hypothesized that juvenile Steelhead Trout would use the mainstem during early summer, but then move into cool-water refugia as mainstem temperature increased. Fish communities were characterized in these habitats during 6 sampling trips through summer. Continued studies will be comparing the communities in association with temperature variables (e.g., temperature differences, and temperature relative to critical thermal maxima). Preliminary results suggest that in mid-summer, juvenile Steelhead Trout were relegated to the cool-water streams and thus had the potential to compete with native species in this habitat. To access this potential, diets will be compared of the 3 species: Steelhead Trout, Redside Dace (Clinostomus elongatus), and Creek Chub (Semotilus atromaculatus). It is hypothesized that Steelhead Trout and Redside Dace feed primarily on terrestrial invertebrates, and thus will exhibit the greatest potential for food resource competition. From our study, we will compare the spatial and temporal overlap of juvenile non-native Steelhead Trout with native fish species in cool-water refugia of Lake Erie tributaries throughout the summer and highlight the potential for competition between the 2 groups.

Poster Board No. 61 - AN EVALUATION OF CHANGE IN THE UNIONIDAE IN THE LOWER ROCKY RIVER FROM 2011. Jamil H. Wilson,, Robert A. Krebs,, Cleveland State University, Dept. of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44115.

The Rocky River is one of many moderately sized Ohio tributaries of Lake Erie sufficiently large to possess a diverse assemblage of freshwater mussels in the family Unionidae. The regional development of natural conservation efforts to improve water quality was hypothesized to improve the mussel assemblage. The present study sought to determine changes in freshwater bivalve populations since original surveys in the northern region of the river conducted in 2001. Visual and physical touch survey methods were incorporated to locate mussels, all conducted when water levels were low and clear. Water quality was assessed from the records of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. Time spent at each survey site ranged from approximately an hour and a half to almost 3 hours, and depended on the extent of its geographic structure, variation in habitat, and presence of live mussels. Live mussels (n=69) were collected along with empty shells (n=58), most of which were found in 2 distinct but separate locations. The total assemblage consisted of 8 species in comparison to the 9 that were seen in the same area in 2001, but large shifts in relative abundance occurred. Leptodea fragilis populations decreased precipitously. Populations of Lasmigona costata and L. complanata may be increasing, and the presence of young individuals suggested recruitment, but only of these two 2 species. Mostly older specimens of other species were found, which suggests overall a decrease despite improvements in water quality that has been taking place throughout the Lake Erie watershed.

Poster Board No. 62 - AN UPDATE OF MUSSEL POPULATIONS THROUGHOUT THE UPPER CUYAHOGA RIVER WATERSHED. Rachel E. Andrikanich,, Robert Krebs,, Cleveland State University, Department of Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44115.

The Cuyahoga River is one of America's heritage rivers, the former poster-child for the Clean Water Act (1972), and in the upper reaches, part of Ohio's Scenic River program. As such, the Cuyahoga River has been one of the most protected streams in the country since the 1970s. Water quality is now within acceptable limits outlined by Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, shoreline integrity has increased throughout the watershed, and sediments mostly test free from toxins and heavy metals. With water quality recovery, freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) were expected to increase in the upper Cuyahoga River or at least sustain abundance and richness levels reported in the 1990s. To test for levels of change, timed surveys of 2 person hours were made at 25 sites chosen based on proximity of roads or foot paths along the river in 2012 and these surveys were repeated using the same approach in 2016. However, only 389 mussels of 8 species were found in 2012 and just 111 of 4 species in 2016. These results present a declining trend and significant losses at many sites based on categorical analysis of binomial probabilities. Mapping relative abundance against the physical habitat suggested that the decline of freshwater mussels is a complex problem that may involve impoundments, flow dynamics below dams, and sediment stability. Restoring natural flow regimes, in addition to protecting habitat, are critical to support successful reproduction and survival in this imperiled fauna moving forward.

Poster Board No. 63 - AQUATIC COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS ASSOCIATED WITH EMERGENT MACROPHYTES OF COASTAL LAKE ERIE WETLANDS. Jaimie L. Johnson,, Jeffrey G. Miner,, Bowling Green State University, Aquatic Ecology & Fisheries Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Wetlands are important features of an ecosystem, especially in the Great Lakes region because they provide habitat for many species of all taxonomical levels; add economic value to the area by means of hunting, fishing, trapping, bird-watching, and other recreational activities; and they act as a natural filter by removing excess nutrients and toxins prior to reaching main water reserves. However, invasive macrophytes, such as European frogbit(Hydrocharis morsus-ranae), may negatively impact wetlands and increase the difficulty to properly manage wetland ecosystems services. Thus, the central focus of this study is to determine the abiotic and biotic wetland community characteristics that differentiate these aquatic macrophyte habitats. Monotypic patches of 4 different species of macrophytes, including open water (n = 27), were sampled at Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge in July and September of 2017. Data was collected on water chemistry, sediment nutrients, macrophyte biomass, periphyton growth, Zooplankton, macro-invertebrates, fish, and water birds associated with each sample site. Dissolved oxygen measurements were taken at each site and showed extreme hypoxic conditions within sites of H. morsus-ranae, reaching levels as low as 0.07 mg/L midday when dissolved oxygen is typically highest. Low oxygen levels, as well as low light attenuation, caused by H. morsus-ranae could drive organisms such as fish and macroinvertebrates out of these habitats and prevent the growth of periphyton and submerged vegetation vital for a healthy wetland. This study reinforces the need for more research on how to best eradicate and prevent H. morsus-ranae from further invading aquatic ecosystems.

Poster Board No. 64 - IS LAKE WINNIPEG THE NEXT LAKE ERIE? RECENT DREISSENID MUSSEL COLONIZATION MAY LEAD TO MORE TOXIC CYANOBACTERIAL BLOOMS. Katelyn M. McKindles (1),, George Bullerjahn (1),, Paul V. Zimba (2), paul., Alexander S. Chiu (2),, Sue B. Watson (3),, Danielle B. Gutierrez (2),, Timothy W. Davis (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, 217 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403, (2) Texas A&M University--Corpus Christi, Center for Coastal Studies, Corpus Christi TX 78412, (3) Water Science and Technology, Environment Canada.

Lake Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada), the world's 12th largest lake by area, is host to yearly cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) dominated by Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum. cHABs in Lake Winnipeg are primarily a result of eutrophication but may be exacerbated by the recent introduction of dreissenid mussels. Since the invasion of dreissenids into Lake Erie has been hypothesized to be one factor promoting the toxic Microcystis blooms currently seen in the western basin, this work aimed to analyze the current cyanobacteria population in Lake Winnipeg as an estimation of the effect of dreissenid mussel introduction in Lake Erie. Prior to the invasion, Lake Erie cHABs were a mixed community of Microcystis, Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum. Surface water samples from Lake Winnipeg were collected in 2013 from 23 sites during summer and 18 sites in fall. Gene, ELISA, and MS-cyanotoxin profiles identified microcystins (MC) as the most abundant cyanotoxin across all stations, with MC concentrations highest in the North Basin. In the fall, mcyA genes were sequenced to determine which species had the potential to produce MCs, and 12 of the 18 sites were a mix of both Planktothrix and Microcystis. Current blooms in Lake Winnipeg produce low levels of MCs, but the capacity to produce cyanotoxins is widespread across both basins. If dreissenid mussels continue to colonize Lake Winnipeg, a shift in physicochemical properties of the lake due to faster water column clearance rates may yield more toxic blooms potentially dominated by Microcystis.

Poster Board No. 65 - EXAMINING VOCABULARY TEACHING STRATEGIES USED IN CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL TELEVISION SHOWS. Rebecca C. Wettstein,, Alyssa M. Hulthen,, Mia I. V. Eberts,, (Virginia L. Dubasik,, Bowling Green State University, 706 Napoleon Rd., Apt. 134, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Research to date has offered insight into vocabulary teaching strategies used in educational television shows (Line-barger et al. 2017; Linebarger & Piotrowski 2010), and effects of show viewing on vocabulary learning (Linebarger & Walker 2005; Oetting, Rice, & Swank 1995). This work has examined the use of labeling, defining/mislabeling, repetition of target words, and onscreen print to teach vocabulary, all of which have a growing evidence-base. What has not yet been established is whether vocabulary teaching strategies are consistent within episodes or over time. Since typically developing children learn vocabulary differently than children with atypical development, some strategies may be more effective than others at positively influencing vocabulary learning. If educational programs are purposefully selected based on the use of strategies that work for children with different language profiles, vocabulary outcomes may improve. The aims of this study are to a) explore the frequency with which vocabulary teaching strategies are used in educational television shows for young children, and b) determine whether strategy use is consistent over show air time. Television show selection was determined based on a) show content, b) main focus, and c) age of intended audience. Word Girl[TM], Sesame Street[R], Martha Speaks[TM], and Reading Rainbow[R] met inclusion criteria. To date, vocabulary teaching strategies in 18 episodes of Word Girl[TM] were coded using a researcher developed coding system and episodes from Sesame Street[R], Martha Speaks[TM], and Reading Rainbow[R] are in progress. Preliminary data analysis revealed inconsistent patterns of strategy use across episodes of Word Girl[TM] and over time.

Poster Board No. 66 - VARIETY EFFECTS AND MOTIVATED BEHAVIOR. Brittany A. Halverstadt,, H. Casey Cromwell,, Bowling Green State University, 212 S. Prospect St., Apt. D11, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Humans and animals respond to diversity in food items by increasing intake and appetitive behaviors; this observed variety effect reflects changes in the motivational value of such rewards. Previous work on the effects of food variety posits 2 main mechanisms by which these motivational changes may come about. Variety may slow habituation processes by decreasing exposure to any one food item, or variety effects may be due to incentive contrast, whereby comparisons between items impact their relative value. The current work uses an experimental operant paradigm with more than 1 level of variety to build on what is known about how reward variety affects motivational processes. Three flavors of sucrose rewards were used to investigate rats' responses to qualitative reward variety in 4 contexts: no, low, and high variety, and a context with no variety but high satiety. The current study also used predictive cues about impending outcomes, allowing examination of the impact of factors such as predictability, and short-term ("micro") variety. The results of this study showed only slight variety effects on incentive contrast and relative reward processes, but several confounding factors could have obscured larger variety effects. The results have implications for deepening our understanding of motivational processes in general, as well as for informing potential clinical approaches to motivation and eating disorders.

Poster Board No. 67 - SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NITROSYLATED TRIS-(ETHYLENEDIAMINE) COBALT (III) COMPLEX. Emily A. Cronin,, (Michael J. Dunphy,, Walsh University, 2020 East Maple Street, North Canton OH 44720.

Prior work in our lab demonstrated that nitric oxide release from nitrosylcobalamin is cytotoxic to a variety of cancer cell lines. The nitrosylation (addition of nitric oxide, NO) to tris-(ethylenediamine) cobalt (III) complex (TECC) and, its subsequent characterization, is being performed to study its potential as a nitric oxide delivery agent in anticancer treatment. NO-TECC may be either a nonoate-like compound, or possibly NO may substitute for one of the ethylenediamine ligands. Evidence collected to date suggests that NO-TECC has been successfully synthesized in our lab from TECC suspended in C[H.sub.2][Cl.sub.2] and continuously pressurized with NO gas at room temperature. Infrared spectral analysis of the resultant solid reaction product shows stretching frequencies (1400 to 1900 [cm.sup.-1]) consistent with possible NO attachment to nitrogen similar to a nonoate. Thin layer chromatography on silica gel resolves 2 compounds, TECC (Rf 0.45) and a potential NO-TECC (Rf 0.35). The TECC and NO-TECC also have distinctively different appearance and odor. Current work includes obtaining elemental analysis (C, H, N and O), obtaining proton and carbon NMR data and doing NO-release profiles as a function of pH. Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assays will also be done with normal and cancer cell lines to assess cancer cell toxicity potential.

Poster Board No. 68 - HUMAN CIC TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATOR: COMMON VARIANTS THAT CAUSE FUNCTIONAL CHANGES. Phil Dougherty,, Adam Underwood,, (Thomas Freeland,, Walsh University, Division of Math and Science, 2020 East Maple St., North Canton OH 44720.

The human Capicua protein (CIC) is a transcriptional regulator. Inactive versions of the CIC gene have been found in various cancers including oligodendrogliomas. It is also important in lung development and in liver function. The CIC protein contains the HMG box for DNA binding, along with another DNA binding domain called the C1 domain. Both of these are necessary for recognition of the target DNA sequence in promoters. The goal of the current work is to use homology modeling to determine the 3-dimensional structure of CIC protein in complex with its DNA target, to use a database of human SNPs and other genomic variants to identify common non-synonymous mutations, to map those mutations onto the 3D structure, and to use molecular dynamics to determine if any of the common human variants will change the structure or DNA binding properties of CIC protein. Evolutionary analysis will be used for identifying regions of high conservation in the protein, and in this way the list of human variants will be narrowed to those in the conserved regions. This is part of a larger project in collaboration with HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology in Huntsville, Alabama, the goal of which is to provide a database of human variants that are likely to play a role in human health or disease, based on computer modeling of the variant proteins.

Poster Board No. 69 - GROWTH RATE EFFICIENCY OF SINULARIA FLEXIBILIS PROVIDED WITH NUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTS. Emily B. Breech,, Matthew L. Partin,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The soft coral Sinularia flexibilis contains an aqueous alcohol extract that has shown antineoplastic activity against lymphocytic leukemia. It also has other biological properties that work as antimicrobials, anti-inflammatory agents, and cytotoxicity activities. There is much research on the effects of flow rate on growth and morphology and the effects of light-dependency on growth rate. The purpose of this study was to further study S. flexibilis and to analyze the effect of adding coral food and how it may enhance the growth rate. Two artificial coral trees with 7 polyp-bearing colonies of 5 cm to 6 m attached to aragonite coral plugs were placed in the same tank to keep light intensity, salinity, and flow the same for the two colonies. A large tube was crafted from Sibe Polymer and Marineland[R] Aquarium Sealant and placed over one of the coral trees Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for 5 weeks to separate it from the other tree in the tank. Inside the tube, the corals were fed and left to absorb the food, Corilific Delite[TM], for 10 minutes. When analyzed graphically, the colonies that were fed showed inconsistent growth rates compared to those that were used as the control. Since the food was dropped on the corals similar to how sediment is dropped on them from dredging, it is possible that the corals experienced stress similar to sedimentation in the ocean and grew inconsistently. Further testing is required to confirm these possible results.

Poster Board No. 70 - FOOD PREFERENCES OF CRESTED GECKOS, CORRELOPHUS CILIATUS. Melanie L. Heldman,, Amanda M. Paisley,, Haya N. Saadeh,, Madison P. Swihart,, (Eileen M. Underwood,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Crested geckos, Correlophus ciliatus, are becoming more common as pets. In addition, more types of food for crested geckos are available in the pet market. Differences in food type were hypothesized to cause differences in the growth of the crested geckos. Two food types were examined: Pangea Fruit Mix[TM] Complete Watermelon & Mango Gecko Food and Pangea Fruit Mix[TM] Complete with Insects. A third group, mixing the two, was added to account for the prior taste effect of geckos who had previous experience with the Watermelon & Mango food. The geckos were split into 3 groups (n = 15 per group) and they were offered fresh food 3 times a week. The geckos' growth was monitored through weight and length. They were weighed and photographed every 2 weeks. Length was calculated from photographs using "Snake Measure Tool" software. Initial observations, from the first 2 months, suggest that the geckos offered food containing insect protein showed greater growth than either of the other groups.

Poster Board No. 71 - EXPOSURE OF FUNGAL EXTRACT TO CANCER CELL LINES. Ching-Wen Lin,, University of Findlay, Dept. of Biology, 1000 N. Main St., Findlay OH 45840.

Fungi have been used to produce food and traditional medicines throughout the world for thousands of years. Fungi contain a large number of organic molecules but their effects on human cells and their bioavailability remain unclear. Some fungi show cytotoxicity that can inhibit growth and kill cancer cells, thus making them of potential therapeutic value. In this research, a variety of fungal specimens were collected from various locations throughout Ohio and isolated in pure culture. Samples from each genus species were extracted using ethylacetate/water partitioning. HCT-116 cells derived from human colon cancer, SKMel a melanoma derived cell, and Hela cells derived from cervical cancer were counted and equal seeding density applied to tissue culture plates. After 2 days, diluted fungal extracts (1: 2,000 and 1: 5,000) were added to the plates. The cells were observed daily for colony size. After 7 days, the cells were stained with crystal violet and colonies were counted as a measure of viability. Of the multiple extracts tested, only #606 demonstrated statistically significant cytotoxicity, at the exposure conditions, with a p-value less than 0.05. The compound(s) in extract #606 responsible for cytotoxicity and its mechanism of action, however, remain unknown.

Poster Board No. 72-EFFECTS OF CADMIUM CONTAMINATION IN SOIL ON POLLINATION SERVICES. Rachel E. McLaughlin (1,2),, (Frances S. Sivakoff (1),, Mary M. Gardiner (1),, (1) The Ohio State University, Columbus OH, (2) 3741 Ronda Ct., Springfield OH 45502.

Urban agriculture has grown in popularity across many cities throughout the world. Many of these cities have industrial pasts, resulting in soils contaminated with heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu). Heavy metals are known to adversely affect human health, but their effects on the pollinators providing critical pollination services to urban agriculture are largely unknown. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of Cd contamination on bees' pollination services. Previous work has found Pb contamination in soil decreases the length of bee visits in sunflowers, but it is unknown whether similar results on pollinator behavior could be expected with Cd. Even if pollinator behavior is different, this may not translate into differences in seed production. Sunflowers grown in Cd-contaminated soil are expected to receive fewer pollination services than those grown in control soil, resulting in lower seed set. Mature sunflowers grown in the greenhouse in 3 soil treatments (uncontaminated potting media, and media with either 10 ppm or 50 ppm Cd, (n = 24) for each treatment), will be placed into the field and left open to pollination for 6 hours on 3 days. Additional flowers from each soil treatment will be either hand pollinated (n = 24) or pollinators excluded (n = 24) to compare seed set to those naturally pollinated. Flowers will be maintained in the greenhouse and their resulting seeds counted. Generalized linear models (GLMs) will be used to determine if heavy metal contamination influenced pollination services (sunflower seed count, sunflower seed weight).

Poster Board No. 73 - ODD GENE AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF PATTERNLESS SNOW AND BLIZZARD MORPHS IN THE CORN SNAKE PANTHEROPHIS GUTTATUS. Samantha L. Sanders,, Eileen M. Underwood,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The BGSU Herpetarium has conducted genetic projects with corn snakes (Pantherophis guttatus) for many years, and in 2005 discovered a new pattern morph named odd for the unusual saddle thickness displayed. This study focused on the odd gene's relationship to blizzard and patternless snow morphs, two color morphs that make the individual appear all white with little to no pattern. Initially the patternless snow morph was attributed to an interaction between the odd gene and the snow morph. The hypothesis of this study was that original patternless snow individual carried blizzard in its genetic background, and the lack of pattern was not due to the odd gene. Genetic crosses were established and offspring morphs recorded. Pedigrees were generated to trace these morphs back to the original patternless snow individual carrying the odd gene to determine the genotype of the parents. It was determined from this that the individual did have blizzard in its background and thus the patternless snow morph was due to that instead of the odd gene. This study also reinforced past findings that the fertility rates of odd individuals tend to be low compared to individuals without the gene. The fertility of odd females was 13 to 20% (n=5), while that of odd males was 60 to 100% (n= 11), comparable to the control crosses. Thus female fertility was reduced. An unexpected result was a change in the pattern of odd offspring, many of which displayed a spotted pattern as if the narrow saddles were missing the central region.

Poster Board No. 74 - COMPARISON OF TREE SPECIES COMPOSITION AND STRUCTURE OF TWO DIFFERENT FORESTS SURROUNDED BY RECLAIMED SURFACE-MINED LAND. Anna K. Sharier,, (Danny Ingold,, Muskingum University, Biology Dept., 163 Stormont St., New Concord OH 43762.

Surface mining operations in Appalachia frequently left behind small patches of unmined forests often separated from other forest patches by expansive reclaimed grasslands. Such habitat fragmentation could result in a decline in tree species diversity and abundance in such patches relative to forests in unmined areas. The objective of this study was to compare tree species composition and importance (based on species density, frequency and coverage measures) of 2 forest patches surrounded by surface-mined land that was reclaimed at different times (late 1960s vs. mid 1970s). During September and October 2017, twelve 100 [m.sup.2] rectangular plots were established on each of the two 20 to 25 hectare forest patches in Muskingum County, Ohio. Six plots over a 3 week period in September and 6 in October were inventoried at each location. In each plot the number of each tree species were quantified and the diameter at breast height of each tree was obtained. Using data from all 6 plots separately in September and October, importance values for each tree species were obtained. Initial results suggest that box elder (Acer negundo), slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) and shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa) have the highest importance values on the northern plot (reclaimed in the 1960s), while sugar maples (Acer saccharum), red oak (Quercus rubra), and shellbark hickory ranked highest at the southern plot (reclaimed in the late 1960s). Our findings suggest that although the species diversity at the 2 sites varied, micro-climate factors are more likely to account for these differences (wetland vs. upland habitats) rather than the timing of surface mining and subsequent reclamation.

Poster Board No. 75 - ETHANOL RESPONSIVENESS OF AN AMBROSIA BEETLE SYMBIONT, AMBROSIELLA GROSMANNIAE. Gayathri U. Beligala (1),, Satyaki Ghosh (1),, Christopher M. Ranger (2),, Vipaporn Phuntumart (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 217 Life Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403, (2) US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.

Several species of exotic ambrosia beetle cause severe damage to nursery plants across United States. This study focuses on Xylosandrus germanus, an ambrosia beetle that attacks physiologically-stressed trees that are apparently healthy. Stressed trees produce ethanol as a result of limited oxygen availability caused by stress factors such as flood, drought and freezing. Female X. germanus locates stressed tress by their emission of ethanol. They bore galleries in the trees and introduce a symbiotic fungus, Ambrosiella grosmanniae, which is later used as a food source for developing larvae. The major aim of this study was to determine the responsiveness of A. grosmanniae to ethanol that is inherently present in the galleries. Low concentration of ethanol was hypothesized to enhance the growth of A. grosmanniae. An agar-plate based assay was used to characterize the effect of ethanol on growth of A. grosmanniae using malt extract agar where ethanol was incorporated at 4 concentrations: 0% (control), 1%, 2.5% and 5% (n = 7 to 10 per ethanol concentration). After 6 days, the dry weight and the surface area of the mycelium was determined. The dry weight was significantly increased at 1% ethanol compared to 0% (control) and 5%. Dry weight at 2.5% ethanol was not significantly different from 0%. The surface area at 0% and 1% ethanol was similar followed by a gradual decrease thereafter. These findings indicate that ethanol which acts as an indicator of susceptible trees for ambrosia beetles also increases their survival inside the galleries by promoting the growth of its symbiont A. grosmanniae.

Poster Board No. 76 - TOO HOT OR TOO DRY? DIFFERENTIAL SENSITIVITY OF BEES TO CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE AND WATER BALANCE WITH URBANIZATION. Justin D. Burdine,, Melissa E. Seidel,, Dr. Kevin E. McCluney,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 217 Life Sciences, Room 451B, Bowling Green OH 43403-0208.

Urban environments experience elevated temperatures and changes in soil water content with increasing impervious surface. A relationship between imperviousness and bee population demographics has been demonstrated, however little research has investigated the physiological responses of bees to urbanization. This study investigated the thermal and hygric limits and the field body temperature and hydration state for 3 bee genera across an urban environment: Agapostemon (sweat bees), Apis (honeybees), and Bombus (bumblebees). Thermal and hygric safety margins (difference between field condition and physiological limits) for each bee genera were calculated to identify differences across taxa and across varying imperviousness. A total of 195 bees were sampled from 3 urban and 3 rural sites in Toledo, Ohio. Critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and critical water content (CWC) for bee taxa, as well as percent impervious surface, were calculated at these sites. Linear mixed-effects models and post-hoc multiple comparisons tests revealed significant differences in CTmax (F2,82=4.085, p= 0.02) and CWC (F2,82 = 62.80, pLess than0.001) between taxa. For CTmax, Bombus had a higher thermal limit than Apis, but not Agapostemon. For CWC, Agapostemon had longer desiccation times and lower CWC than Apis and Bombus. Mixed-effects models were also used to investigate relationships between thermal and hygric safety margins, and percent imperviousness. Thermal safety margin was negatively associated with landscape imperviousness for Bombus and with local imperviousness for Agapostemon. Hygric safety margin was negatively associated with landscape imperviousness for Apis. These results show that bees exhibit variation in thermal and hygric limits across an urban environment. This study offers some of the first evidence on the impact urbanization has on bee physiological safety margins.

Poster Board No. 77 - EFFECTS OF NUTRIENTS ON INVASIVE FLOWERING RUSH (BUTOMUS UMBELLATUS) IN LAKE ERIE DIKED WETLANDS. Erica L. Forstater,, Helen J. Michaels,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 217 Life Sciences Building, Bowling Green OH 43403-0208.

Introduced to the Great Lakes Region from Europe before 1900, invasive Flowering Rush (Butomus umbellatus, FR) forms monotypic stands that crowd native species and cover open water systems. Factors contributing to invasion persistence and impacts on ecosystem function by this species are poorly understood. This study characterizes vegetation and environmental factors at the Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge, which borders Lake Erie, to understand how sediment nutrient levels in watersheds affect FR invasion. It was hypothesized that increased sediment nutrient levels are important drivers of the invasion success of FR. Sediment nutrient levels and vegetation were sampled within eighty-two 1 [m.sup.2] random plots throughout the marsh complex. Vegetation of FR and the 18 other species present were harvested or canopy characteristics were measured to estimate biomass. Flowering Rush was the most abundant of all identified emergent invasive species found, and was found at 55% of the surveyed plots. Average FR rhizome bud count per plot was 509, with a range of 0 to 2760. Flowering rush was found both with and without native species and other invasive species. Sediment nutrient analysis of phosphorus, nitrate-nitrite, and ammonia showed heterogeneity within and across management units, which may indicate the presence of nutrient hotspots across the landscape. Average water depth across all plots was 38.15 cm, whereas average water depth at locations with FR present was 31.58 cm. These data will inform future experiments testing FR and native species response to non-point-source nutrient additions, which will help to manage coastal wetland biodiversity and the ecosystem services provided by them.

Poster Board No. 78 - TOPOGRAPHICAL INFLUENCES ON MIGRATORY ORIENTATION ALONG THE SOUTHWEST COAST OF LAKE ERIE. David V. Gesicki (1),, Verner P. Bingman (2),, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green OH 43402, (1) Department of Biological Sciences, (2) Department of Psychology.

Identifying migratory pathways is critical for understanding the risks affecting migratory birds. Large expanses of open water are a potential challenge during migration because of increased mortality and the energetic cost of flight "detours." Therefore, migratory birds face tradeoffs between the risk assumed by Overwater flights and minimizing energy or time. However, it may favor a bird energetically to deviate their flight paths by following coastlines or, in many cases, there may be an optimum detour involving a shortcut across a smaller fraction of the obstacle. We investigated the patterns of nocturnal bird migration in spring at 3 coastal sites and 1 inland site on the southwest coast of Lake Erie by means of a passive infrared device. The directions of the coastlines differed by 35[degrees] at the 3 coastal sites, which were 16 km apart. Observations across 50 nights were made from civil sunset through civil sunrise when conditions permitted. Generally, mean track directions of birds observed along the coast differed from the prevailing broad front direction (NNE), suggesting a counterclockwise shift in orientation which may reduce the extent of an overwater flight. The mean track direction differed between sites, suggesting some local influence of the underlying topography on orientation behavior. The propensity of birds to deviate from the broad front direction was significantly higher at coastal sites where the orientation of the coastline has a more northerly component. The results suggest birds actively shifting their migratory orientation in an energetically meaningful way upon arrival to the Lake Erie coast.

Poster Board No. 79 - THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING PRECIPITATION LEVEL AND SHIFTING STORM DISTRIBUTION ON BIOSPHERIC NUTRIENT CYCLING IN AGRICULTURAL SOIL. Josie C. Lindsey-Robbins,, Shannon L. Pelini,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Management of nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in soil is critical for maintaining functioning ecosystems across the planet. In this study, we aimed to investigate how varying precipitation regimes and land-use history affect plant growth and soil nutrient cycling. Using a common garden experiment, we tested the effects of increased precipitation levels and shifted precipitation distributions on nutrient cycles within analogous soil that differs in land-use (i.e., agricultural versus unmanaged forest) in northern Michigan. We measured soil and leachate concentrations of nitrate (N[O.sub.3.sup.-]), phosphate (P[O.sub.4.sup.3-]), and ammonium (N[H.sub.4.sup.+]), plant biomass, and carbon dioxide (C[O.sub.2]) efflux. We found that land-use history impacts nutrient cycling dynamics and responses to altered precipitation regimes. More specifically, agricultural soils, which had over 6 times the P[O.sub.4.sup.3-] and 4 times the N[O.sub.3.sup.-] of forest soil, leached more of those nutrients over the experimental trial. Interestingly, our data show that current levels of precipitation produce 2 times the levels of N[O.sub.3.sup.-] in leachate from forest soils when compared to higher levels of precipitation, suggesting that higher soil moisture may retain N[O.sub.3.sup.-] within soil. In contrast, P[O.sub.4.sup.3-] leaching was most strongly affected by initial P[O.sub.4.sup.3-] concentrations rather than precipitation regime. We suggest that farmers use less N and P fertilizer and adjust the timing of fertilizer application to decrease nutrient saturation and subsequent nutrient leaching in field soils. Since we found no significant difference in plant biomass based on land-use or precipitation, we predict that these changes will have little effect on seedling biomass production in nutrient-saturated agricultural soil.

Poster Board No. 80 - SEED COAT PIGMENT VARIATION AND UV STRESS TOLERANCE IN LUPINUS PERENNIS. Haley M. Meek,, Helen J. Michaels,, Bowling Green State University, 331 Life Sciences Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Anthocyanin pigments, which provide seed coat pigments and have been associated with UV stress tolerance in plants, are present in the seed coats of legumes such as Lupinus perennis a perennial, herbaceous plant. Because Ohio populations of L. perennis are polymorphic for seed coat color, this study aims to classify seed coat phenotypes and assess their UV stress tolerances to test the hypothesis that phenotypes with darker color will have higher anthocyanin levels and UV stress tolerance than phenotypes with lighter seeds. Seeds collected by family from 20 wild plants were weighed and imaged under identical light conditions. Image analysis software and chemical analysis were used to determine seed color phenotypes. Seedlings grown from each seed phenotype were subjected to UV and control treatments to determine UV tolerance, while leaf tissues were analyzed for anthocyanin pigments. Based on image and chemical analyses, 2 main phenotypes were determined to be prevalent in the sampled population: "white" seeds with 0 to 5% pigmentation and "dark" seeds with 40 to 80% pigmentation. It was observed that seed color did not influence seed weight, suggesting that any differences in seedling fitness between families was not a result of differential seed masses but likely due to varying anthocyanin levels. Additionally, differences in pigmentation were observed in seedlings, with UV-exposed plants having darker leaves than control plants, indicating that anthocyanin production was induced. These results suggest that distinct seed color phenotypes may persist in Ohio L. perennis populations due to the role of anthocyanins on seedling fitness and UV tolerance.

Poster Board No. 81 - HIGH STRENGTH CHITOSAN MICROPARTICLES INCORPORATED POROUS COMPOSITE SCAFFOLDS FOR BONE DEFECT REPAIR. Turki E. Alahmadi (1),, Janitha M. Unagolla (1), Ambalangodage C. Jayasuriya (1,2), (1) University of Toledo, Department of Bioengineering, Toledo OH 43607, (2) University of Toledo, Department of Orthopedic Surgery.

Chitosan, the second most abundant natural polymer, is a linear polysaccharide frequently used in biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. The objective of this research work was to synthesize scaffolds with higher mechanical properties that are used for craniofacial defects. Microparticles were made by adding 2% low molecular weight chitosan (w/v) solution in 2% acetic acid dropwise into 1% (w/v) tripolyphosphate (TPP) to cross-link. Scaffolds were prepared with various solutions of 0%, 10%, and 20% (w/w) of calcium phosphate (CaP), KCl at a constant 20% (w/w), and the remainder as microparticles. All solutions were mixed with 1 mL of 2% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and 1 mL of 2% (w/v) chitosan solution and 2% (w/v) CaCl2. Mechanical testing for compressive strength was performed with the ADMIT testing machine. The 10% scaffolds in the dry state had the highest compressive strength at 26.86 MPa and the 20% scaffolds had the lowest compressive strength at 4.7 MPa. Wet scaffolds in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) did not show any significant difference in compressive strength between the various CaP percentages. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed a smooth surface of microparticles on the 0% scaffolds while the 10% scaffolds showed rough surface and even rougher on 20% scaffolds. SEM micrographs showed that KCl leached out and created pores at those sites. The live and dead cells assay showed that 10% CaP scaffolds had the most cell attachment. The results are promising and show great potential future projects in bone tissue engineering.

Poster Board No. 82 - INJECTABLE CHITOSANNANOHYDROXYAPATITE MICROPARTICLES ENCAPSULATED WITH BMP 2 FOR BONE REGENERATION APPLICATIONS. Okeke, IU (1),, Gaihre, B (1), Jayasuriya, AC (1,2), University of Toledo, Toledo OH 43614, (1) Department of Bioengineering, (2) Department of Orthopaedic Surgery.

Injectable porous spherical particles were fabricated using chitosan biopolymer (CS), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). Using simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques, chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentrations were used to obtain lyophilized spherical scaffolds of 1.33 mm (n = 25) mean diameter. Portions from each lyophilized scaffold group were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds of 0.93 mm (n = 25) mean diameter; a promising property for injectability. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed scaffold porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures Less than 10 pm and 2 [micro]m, respectively. Ultimate compressive strength (UCS) of 8.59 MPa and 3.93 MPa were observed for 2% nHA/chitosan LSD and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. One-way ANOVA results showed significant increase (p Less than 0.001) in the UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to that of 0% and 0.5%. Additionally, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (pLess than0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. The cumulative release data indicated that about 87% of total BMP-2 encapsulated within the particles was released by the third week of experimental period. Degradation study conducted at 37 [degrees]C also showed BMP-2 release from the 2% nHA/CS particles over the 3 weeks period was governed by simple diffusion rather than the degradation of particles.

Poster Board No. 83 - LEAF EXTRACTS OF ACER SPP. CAUSE DIFFERENT PATTERNS OF TOXICITY IN BIOASSAYS OF EQUINE ERYTHROCYTES. Amanda M. Drake,, Jeffrey S. Lehman,, Otterbein University, Department of Biology and Earth Science, 1 South Grove Street, Westerville OH 43081.

While red maple (Acer rubrum) is the most common maple reported to cause maple toxicosis (i.e., a debilitating condition that occurs in equines after the consumption of dried or wilted maple leaves), other maple species are also toxic. Previously reported is that extracts from A. saccharinum cause similar levels of damage to equine erythrocytes. While the toxic agent(s) is unknown, the development of hemolytic anemia and methemoglobinemia in equines suggests it is a strong oxidant. The objective of this research is to evaluate the toxicity of dried samples of 35 maple species. Leaves (n = 10 to 15) were collected, dried, and ground. The toxin(s) were extracted in buffer and incubated with erythrocytes. Toxicity, as measured by area under hemolytic curve (AUHC) and percentage methemoglobin (%M), was quantified based on the absorbencies of erythrocyte/extract suspensions at 560, 576, and 630 nm. Species were ranked for AUHC and %M. Levels of toxicity for A. buergerianum (AUHC = 56, %M = 82) and A. freemanii (AUHC = 53, %M = 64) were higher than levels for A. rubrum for both AUHC and %M (35 and 59, respectively), while levels for A. campestre (AUHC = 21, %M = 0) and A. japonicum (AUHC = 29, %M = 47) were lower for both. Levels of toxicity for A. cappidociumand and A. pensylvanicum were higher than A. rubrum for AUHC (51 and 58, respectively) but lower for %M (2 and 7, respectively) while the level of toxicity for A. griseum x nikoense showed the opposite trend (low AUHC = 24, high %M = 66). These four different patterns support the possibility of more than one toxic compound responsible for causing maple toxicosis.

Poster Board No. 84 - ECOLOGICAL CORRELATES WITH DIOECY IN THE FLORA OF A TROPICAL PREMONTANE WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA. Breanne L. Held,, Jeffrey S. Lehman,, Otterbein University, Department of Biology and Earth Science, 1 South Grove Street, Westerville OH 43081.

Historically, selection to enforce outcrossing has been the primary explanation for the evolution of dioecy. In contrast, many scientist argue that the selection of dioecy is driven by ecological traits that influence male/female fitness and seed dispersal. The objective of this study was to examine the association between plant sexual system with various ecological traits for the flora of a tropical wet forest in Costa Rica. This study included 313 angiosperm species in 216 genera and 83 families that were characterized for sexual system, growth form, flower size, fruit type, and seed number. Fisher's exact tests were conducted to determine the relationship between each of the ecological characteristics and sexual systems. The null hypothesis for all comparisons is that the proportionate representation of hermaphroditic, monoecious, or dioecious species in the various categories is not significantly different from the distribution of species for the entire flora. Of the total 313 species, 229 (73.2%) were hermaphroditic, 41 (13.1%) were monoecious, and 43 (13.7%) were dioecious. In analyses of species, dioecy was associated with woody growth ([X.sup.2] = 8.53; P = 0.03); tiny flower size ([X.sup.2] = 7.37; P = 0.04), few seeds ([X.sup.2] = 13.82; PLess than0.001), and fleshy fruit ([X.sup.2] = 9.18; P = 0.003). Results agree with those of other published works and suggest that dioecy is heavily driven by 1) woody growth (i.e., long-lived, perennial growth), 2) flower size (i.e., tiny, inconspicuous, flowers pollinated by generalized pollinators), 3) fruit and seed characteristics (i.e., fleshy, single-seeded fruits dispersed by specialized frugivores).

Poster Board No. 85 - CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF PHOSPHOCHOLINES IN HUMAN MONOCYTIC U937 CELLS. Matthew Buchfellner (1),, Kelly O'Connell (1), Ritesh Mittal (2), Benjamin Travis (2), PSS Rao (1), (1) The University of Findlay, Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, 1000 N. Main Street, Findlay OH 45840, (2) Anatrace Inc., 434 W. Dussel Dr., Maumee Ohio 43537.

Cancer is a progressive and, often, lethal disease marked by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. As per the American Cancer Society, this year an estimated 62,000 new cases of leukemia will be reported in the United States. Amongst the various kinds of leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is projected to be the most lethal type of leukemia in the United States. Given the lack of selectivity (cancer vs. non-cancer cells) amongst the available cytotoxic agents, our aim was to assess the efficacy and mechanism of action for novel phosphocholines. Development of a selective and potent chemotherapeutic agent is expected to improve the prognosis in AML patients. To test our hypothesis, human monocytic leukemia U937 cells were treated with 9 different phosphocholines (at 10 and 100 [micro]M) for 24 h to determine the cytotoxic effects of these agents. The cytotoxic effects were determined using the XTT assay. Upon identifying the lead compound, C16, a dose-response curve for C16 was also established in U937 cells. To confirm apoptosis, the activation of caspase-8 and -9 upon C16 treatment was determined in U937 cells using the respective caspase activity kits. The cytotoxic effects of novel phosphocholine, C16, in U937 cells was found to be associated with a significant (pLess than0.05), dose-dependent activation of caspase 8. Based on the promising results, future studies will focus on further delineating the mechanism of action of C16 phosphocholine and analyzing the selectivity of cytotoxic effects in U937 vs. health human monocytes.

Poster Board No. 86 - MECHANISMS OF DISRUPTION SIZE DEPENDENT MEMBRANE REPAIR IN MAMMALIAN CELLS. Andrew J. Fernandez,, Kevin McElhanon,, (Noah Weisleder,, The Ohio State University, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 W. 12th Ave., Columbus OH 43210.

Cellular membrane repair is a fundamental feature of eukaryotic cells that allow them to survive damage to the lipid bilayer that must be repaired or the cell will die. Therefore, a swift method of membrane repair must be available to the cell. This study will test the hypothesis that membrane disruptions of differing sizes will initiate different cellular mechanisms of membrane repair. Mouse C2C12 myoblast cells will be damaged using a biolistic gene gun with silica particles ranging from the nanometer to micrometer size range, propelled using helium gas at 1100 pounds per square inch. The injured cells will be tested for quantifiable amounts of damage, caused by the particles, with multiple assays. For example, Lactate dehydrogenase release is a colorimetric assay that measures the amount of exchange between the cytoplasm and extracellular fluid. Propidium iodide staining shows the amount of dead and viable cells in a cell population by staining them with a fluorescent dye. Similarly, the diolistic test transfers fluorescent dye into the cells to show the number of cells impacted by the particles. These tests can be used to create a protocol that can consistently create an equal amount of damage using differing particle sizes. Then, western blots can be used to measure the phosphorylation of the PI3 kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway, which has been shown to be one pathway regulating membrane repair. The absence of pathway activation will suggest the injury was repaired by another mechanism such as thermodynamic resealing.

Poster Board No. 87 - SYNTHESIS OF A SILSESQUIOXANE-BASED SUPRAMOLECULAR POLYMER. Rachel Bianculli,, Alexis Ostrowski, (Joseph Furgal,, Bowling Green State University, Overman Hall, 1001 E. Wooster St., Bowling Green OH 43402.

Research toward smart materials, specifically self-healing polymers, is an expanding topic within the materials science field. These materials rely heavily on dynamic cross-linking that is achieved by inducing different degrees of hydrogen bonding, van der Waals forces, etc. This work, demonstrated by research previously done within the Ostrowski research group, shows how coordination bonds of transition metals have been shown to create light activated, self-healing properties. Work done with these light-activated chromium (III) complexes with a poly(butylyene-co-ethylene) backbone have shown how metal--ligand coordination geometries can tune mechanical properties of the polymeric material. However, these materials suffer from being incredibly soft and gel like and lack mechanical strength needed for durable coatings. A collaboration with the Furgal lab aims to make the mechanical and thermal properties of the previously synthesized polymer more applicable through the addition of silsesquioxane and siloxane structures into the polymer matrix, which offer thermal stabilities greater than 300 [degrees]C and a tunable modulus. These silicon based compounds will be used as composites (through mixtures) and/or covalently attached to increase the cross-link density, inherent stability and spatial alignment of the previously synthesized metallosupramolecular polymer matrix. The final polymer-silsesquioxane product is hypothesized to have a more rigid and applicable structure for advanced coatings while maintaining or enhancing the optical properties of the polymer. Thus far, we have successfully made and characterized two siloxane-diethylene glycol monomers and made and began characterizing two co-polymers which will be composite additives to the metallosupramolecular polymer matrix.

Poster Board No. 88 - THE ROLE OF THE TGR5 RECEPTORS AND DEIODINASE II IN 3,4-METHYLENE-DIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA, MOLLY)-INDUCED HYPERTHERMIA. Sara R. Bodnar,, Emily A. Ridge,, Jon E. Sprague,, Bowling Green State University, 325 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Hyperthermia induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Molly) is one of the most acute life-threatening toxicities associated with MDMA intoxication. Following MDMA exposure, heat is generated through the activation of uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) while heat dissipation is lost through vasoconstriction, resulting in a thermogenic response that can lead to death. The bile acids receptor TGR5 has been suggested to play a role in cold-induced thermogenesis through its regulation of the thyroid protein catalyst deiodinase II (D2). Because D2 regulates the conversion of T4 to T3 and the subsequent expression of UCP3, the hypothesis tested was that TGR5 and D2 may play a role in the hyperthermia mediated by MDMA. This hypothesis was tested with the recently identified TGR5 receptor antagonist triamterene (TM) or the D2 inhibitor iopanoic acid (IOP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with TM (50 mg/kg, ip) 30 minutes before or with IOP (50 mg/kg, ip) for 7 days before MDMA (20 mg/kg, sc). MDMA-induced the greatest maximum temperature change ([DELTA]Tmax) of 3.7[+ or -]0.5 [degrees]C and temperature area under the curve (TAUC). Both TM and IOP attenuated MDMA-induced hyperthermia with [DELTA]Tmax of 2.2[+ or -]0.8 [degrees]C and 2.1[+ or -]0.6 [degrees]C, respectively. Consistent with these [DELTA]Tmax values, TAUC was reduced with TM or IOP treatment before MDMA. Overall, the present study provides the first suggestion that bile acids may have a potential role in MDMA-induced hyperthermia through their regulation of the TGR5 receptor and D2 activity.

Poster Board No. 89 - ENANTOSELECTIVE FLUORESCENT SENSORS FOR CHIRAL CARBOXYLATES. Johnathon M. Durgala (1),, Sara Sheykhi,, (Pavel Anzenbacher Jr.,, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green OH, (1) 707 E. Wooster St., Bowling Green OH 43403.

Due to different biological activities of enantiomers, there are strict guidelines for the quantification and use of chiral compounds by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Thus, the ability to determine enantiomeric excess (ee) in chiral compounds is important for the development of new chiral drugs. Optical spectroscopy-based ee determination is of interest because of the superior sensitivity, short analysis time, and the circumventing of the expensive chromatographic separation. In our study, we used enantioselective Indicator Displacement Assays (eIDAs) for the determination of enantiomeric excess (ee) of carboxylic acids. In this eIDA, we utilize 2 chiral receptors [[([Cu.sup.II](1R,2R)-1,2-N, N'-bisquinolin-2-methyl-diphenyl-1,2-diamine)].sup.2+] and [[[Cu.sup.II](1S,2S)-1,2-N, N'-bisquinolin-2-methyl-diphenyl-1,2-diamine)].sup.2+] in conjunction with Coumarin 343 as a fluorescent indicator. This chiral receptor-fluorophore sensing ensemble is shown to be useful in determination of enantiomeric excess of carboxylic acids including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).

Poster Board No. 90 - IMPROVING GAS CHROMATOGRAPH-MASS SPECTROMETRY METHODS FOR THE SEPARATION OF SYNTHETIC CATHINONE DERIVATIVES. Noah M. Froelich (1),, (Travis J. Worst,, Jon E. Sprague,, Bowling Green State University, (1) 715 Third St., Apt B, Bowling Green OH 43402.

The arrival of modern designer drugs brings the need for more accurate and reliable testing methods for these new drugs. These methods must be rapid and useful for more than just one specific drug. A gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) can be used. This research attempts to shorten the time necessary to analyze 14 synthetic cathinones on a GC-MS while improving separation of isomers by designing creative temperature ramps. Synthetic cathinones were chosen for study because this class of drugs is rapidly growing in popularity and number of variants, faster than some crime labs and laws can keep up. As such, the need for fast and reliable testing is apparent. A common trend in synthetic cathinones that make their analysis difficult are isomers, because their properties are very similar. Taking that trend, and its analytical challenges, into account, this research includes testing with synthetic cathinone isomers that differ only in the position of a substituent on the phenyl ring. The research demonstrates that slowing temperature rate increases can increase the separation of cathinone isomers to an acceptable level for identification without increasing the necessary time for analysis.

Poster Board No. 91-IRON(III)-POLYSACCHARIDE MATERIALS AS A CONTROLLED FERTILIZER SYSTEM. Zachery R. Hatten,, Bowling Green State University, 132 Overman Hall, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Agriculture relies on nutrient fertilizers for raising crop yield; however, care must be taken during application since rainfall washing of nutrient-rich fertilizers into watersheds has been shown to contribute to the growing prevalence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Among the essential plant nutrients in conventional fertilizer, phosphate contributes most significantly to the incidence of HABs. This creates a need for phosphate encapsulation into a material that can then be used for targeted and controlled slow-release fertilizer delivery. Our results show that natural biopolymers coordinated to iron (III) provide a biodegradable encapsulation method for phosphate. The biopolymer-iron (III) hydrogels were soaked in phosphate solutions of varying pH. After soaking, the remaining solution was separated from the beads for analysis of phosphate concentration using a colorimetric ascorbic acid-molybdate complex. Introduction of phosphate to the molybdate reagent resulted in blue color measurable at 830 nm in a UV-visible spectrometer. When determining the phosphate uptake into the hydrogel material (milligrams phosphate per 1 gram of hydrogel beads), the phosphate solution pH showed no statistically significant influence on phosphate uptake. In contrast, iron (III) concentration variation was significantly different, where intermediate concentrations of iron (III) showed the most phosphate uptake.

Poster Board No. 92 - EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT TO REDUCE NUTRIENT TRANSPORT. Jenna C. Laib,, Autumn R. Kolk,, Benjamin T. Phillips,, (Robert Midden,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Chemistry, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Excess amounts of phosphorus and nitrogen flowing into Lake Erie from agricultural fields in northwest Ohio has led to several harmful algal blooms (HABs). One potential source of those nutrients is manure applied to fields for fertilizer. Manure from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) is 95 to 98% water with only Tilde3% solids and nutrients, thus physical transportation is expensive relative to the value of the agricultural nutrients. Furthermore, once manure nutrients are applied to agricultural fields, they are relatively easily mobilized to waterways by precipitation. More than 700 lab-scale tests have been used to optimize the treatment of CAFO manure with cationic polymers and coagulant, which are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants, to sequester the nutrients as solids separated from water, thus reducing the weight by a factor of 20 and binding the nutrients in a form that greatly reduces its mobility in soils. A pilot test is underway on 8 small plots growing corn: 2 control, 3 with raw manure, and 3 with treated manure. As corn requires more nutrients than other crops, this would test the effectiveness of the treated manure as a fertilizer. Surface and subsurface runoff is collected from each plot separately after a rain event, using automated water samplers, and analyzed for nutrient concentrations of dissolved phosphate, nitrite+nitrite and ammonia and total phosphorous and nitrogen. Loads are calculated for all nutrients based on concentration measures in the runoff and total volume coming off the plots. Preliminary results are promising, showing that the runoff from the fields with the treated manure have significantly lower phosphate levels compared to plots with untreated manure. Work is still being done for improving the results of the other nutrients. Data collection is continuing to determine the ability of the treated manure to promote crop growth relative to untreated manure and to reduce nutrient migration to waterways over the entire growing season, which is the original goal of this research.

Poster Board No. 93 - GLYCATION REACTIONS AND THEIR APPLICATION TOWARDS ALS IDENTIFICATION AND TREATMENT. Kevin Lewis,, Dr. Nathan Tice,, Dr. Darren L. Smith, University of Findlay, Chemistry Dept., 1000 N. Main St., Findlay OH 45840.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a disease which affects about 1 out of every 300,000 people in the United States. This neurodegenerative disease removes motor function from the patient at an alarmingly fast rate, leaving a life expectancy of only 2 to 5 years. A true, universal cause of ALS is still largely unknown given the attention that the disease has had in recent years. One potential cause of ALS is a glycation reaction which inhibits protein function within the body and promotes inflammation. A glycation reaction is one in which an amino acid or protein condenses with the carbonyl of a free carbohydrate to eventually form what is known as an advanced glycation end product (AGE). While AGEs have long been known as causal factors with respect to inflammatory response and chronic disease (e.g., arthritis, heart disease, neurodegenerative disorders), little is understood about chemistry behind AGE formation. The goal of this research was to study how simple amino acids react with common sugars to model the formation of AGEs in the body. Various combinations were tested by reacting the D-form of simple carbohydrates (fructose, galactose, glucose or mannose) and an aryl amine or amino acid (aspartic acid, tryptophan, aniline, phenylalanine, benzylamine). These glycation reactions were run under mild conditions (40 [degrees]C, 3 to 4 hours, with acetic acid). Products were isolated as air-stable white solids in reasonable yield (65 to 80%) and characterized by IR, NMR and Mass Spectrometry. NMR analysis did confirm the expected presence of both the alpha- and beta-anomer product.

Poster Board No. 94 - COUNTER-ION AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES EFFECTS ON PHOTODYNAMICS OF CU(I) COMPLEXES IN SUPRAMOLECULAR POLYMERS. Ankit Dara,, Anton O. Razgoniaev,, Alexis D. Ostrowski,, Bowling Green State University, Center for Photochemical Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Sensing the viscosity of solutions through structural changes in inorganic fluorophores has been investigated; however, these systems have used ground state changes to sense this change and have focused on solution phase measurements. In contrast, we used changes in the excited state coordination geometry (tetrahedral to square planar) of copper phenanthroline complexes to probe the viscosities of different supramolecular polymer materials. We incorporated [Cu[(dmp).sub.2]][PF.sub.6] complexes (dmp: dimethylphenanthroline) inside various supramolecular hydrogen bonding polyurethanes (with different viscosities) to sense changes in rotation. We observed that excited state lifetime of the Cu-phenanthroline complexes increases with viscosity of the polymer environment. A recent study also indicated that the counter-ions can also play a role in the dynamic mechanical response in metallopolymers. To further quantitatively explore this effect, we changed the counter-ion of the Cu-phenanthroline complex from [PF.sub.6.sup.-] to [B(Ph).sub.4.sup.-] (both non-coordinating) and performed the time-resolved emission and transient absorbance studies to further characterize the excited state dynamics. Our observations showed a slight increase (about 8 ns) in excited state lifetime for the sterically bulky [B(Ph).sub.4.sup.-] counter-ion compared to [PF.sub.6.sup.-]. However, more data-set is needed to confirm this difference. This effect of counter-ions on excited state lifetime is often overlooked and currently being explored in our lab. These results could be applied for mechanical stress sensing applications, where changes in polymer viscosity that occur when the polymer is stressed would show up as changes in emission lifetime.

Poster Board No. 95 - PHOTO-ISOMERIZATION IN VANADIUM-BASED COORDINATION GELS. Kalani D. Edirisinghe,, Alexis Dee Ostrowski,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Chemistry and Center for Photochemical Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Metal--coordination has been used in hydrogel materials to introduce new properties and reactivity. In this work we have created gels with different vanadium metal ions as crosslinks, specifically [V.sup.3+] and V[O.sub.2+]. Initial results have shown that gels made from different vandium species exhibit different physical properties such as loss and storage moduli and show some photoreactivity. We have also used simple hydroxy acids having similar functional groups to the polymer matrix. Due to an isomerization of a vanadyl-tartrate complex, the most significant photochemistry is shown with tartaric acid. Tartaric acid is known to be in three types as d, l and dl racemic. It can be assumed that upon irradiation at 365 nm wavelength, the dd or ll type of vanadyl tartrate (which is purple in color) is formed while upon dark the dl type of vanadyl tartrate (which is yellow-brown in color) is formed. The vanadyl tartrate complex incorporated hydrogels kept in dark show up in yellow-brown color whereas the irradiated hydrogels show up in purple. This has shown to be a reversible photoisomerization and these can be developed in the hydrogel matrix to make photoresponsive hydrogels.

Poster Board No. 96 - APPLICATION OF COPPER(II) BASED CATALYSTS INTO METALLO-SUPRAMOLECULAR MATERIALS. Sandeep K. Sahoo,, Travis C. Green,, Alexis D. Ostrowski,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Chemistry, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Transition metal based homogeneous catalysis has shown tremendous potential in synthetic chemistry and had been well studied over the years. Most rare earth metals have been used as sacrificial catalyst in various catalytic transformations due to difficulties in separating the metals out of the reaction mixture. Heterogeneous catalysts have the advantage that they can be separated from the initial reaction, thus increasing the desired non-metal contaminated product and reusability of the catalyst. One way of designing heterogeneous catalysts is by employing a polymer backbone onto a metal precatalyst. By introducing polymers to the catalyst can alter its solubility in catalytic condition depending on the type of polymer used and will act as a heterogeneous catalyst. The aim is to employ metal complexes into a polymer via a metallosupramolecular assembly, which can be catalytically active. Metallopolymers that contain catalytic active Cu (II) were successfully synthesized. These metallopolymers have been shown to be an active precatalyst for catechol oxidation reaction. Currently, there is work being completed on the synthesis and catalytic activities of different Cu(II) based metallopolymer catalysts having different polymer (hydrophobic/hydrophilic) backbone. It is found that the catalyst having more hydrophobic polymer backbone is more catalytic active. Studies suggest that the higher activity might be due to the formation of more stable radical intermediates during the catalytic cycle. Finally, heterogeneity and efficiency of these catalysts will be checked by performing the catalysis solvents in which the catalyst will be insoluble. Hence the catalyst can be recovered from the reaction mixture and can be reused.

Poster Board No. 97 - THE ROLE OF ADIPOSE TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE IN THE HYPERTHERMIC RESPONSE MEDIATED BY 3,4-METHYLENEDIOXYMETHAMPHETAMINE (MDMA, MOLLY). Jon E. Sprague,, Paul Lungu,, Bowling Green State University, 325 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) can induce an acute life-threatening hyperthermia. This hyperthermia has been ostensibly linked to free fatty acid (FFA) mediated uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The liberation of FFA from white adipose tissue is associated with heat generation in skeletal muscle. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the conversion of triglycerides to FFA in white adipose tissue. The role of ATGL in the hyperthermia mediated by MDMA was examined. The selective ATGL inhibitor, atglistatin (200 pg/kg ip.) was administered 30 minutes prior to MDMA (20 mg/kg sc.). MDMA-induced a hyperthermic response 60 and 90 minutes post treatment. Pretreatment with atglistatin significantly attenuated this hyperthermic response. MDMA induced a maximum temperature change of 1.68 [degrees]C compared to a maximum temperature change of 1.10 [degrees]C in the atglistatin/MDMA treatment group. These findings demonstrate that ATGL contributes to the hyperthermia mediated by MDMA.

Poster Board No. 98 - A MATLAB TOOL FOR CLUSTERING CAST ALUMINUM MICRO-PORES. Nathan Rayens (1),, Tongguang Zhai (2), Pei Cai (2), (1) Miami University, Oxford OH 45056, (2) University of Kentucky, Lexington KY.

This project focused on the development of MATLAB code which was designed to process images of aluminum castings for micro-pores that occurred during solidification. Defining micro-pore clusters and comparing them to macroscopic crack properties could help optimize cast materials in the future. Initially, the code was created to identify the pores in the images by selecting areas that were darker than their surroundings; pore identification was signified in MATLAB with a ring around the fault. This program was then refined so that the code was able to identify faults while ignoring dark bands at the edges of the images. Additional refinements allowed for the grouping of faults that were located within a certain distance of each other. Clusters of pores were then identified with rings of the same color around their constituent pores so that each cluster could be differentiated from the others. Finally, the code was further refined to prevent large, clearly-individual pores from being added to clusters, and to limit the chaining of pores to a specified radius from the central-most pore so they couldn't aggregate into one large cluster across the whole image. Ultimately, the code was able to characterize pore clusters in terms of their sizes, numbers of pores and average distances, in order to identify those clusters at which fatigue cracks were nucleated in the cast aluminum alloys; a critical step towards accurate life prediction of the alloy in engineering applications. While micro-pore clusters have been recognized as the preferred fatigue crack nucleation sites, the quantitative relationship between these pore clusters and crack nucleation could not be established previously.

Poster Board No. 99 - COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CHIP MORPHOLOGY IN DRY, FLOOD COOLANT AND MQL MACHINING OF TI-6AL-4V. Ashutosh Khatri,, Muhammad P. Jahan,, Miami University, Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Oxford OH 45056.

The objective of this study is to investigate the patterns of chip morphology for machining titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with different machining conditions, such as dry, flood coolant and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). A series of experiments were carried out using end-milling operation with uncoated and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) coated carbide tools. The cutting feed rate and depth of cut were varied while keeping the cutting speed constant at a comparative higher setting of cutting speed. It was observed that for all 3 machining conditions, dry, flood coolant, and MQL, serrated chips were formed with the chip length varying from 1 mm to 2 mm. The shear bands resulting from dry machining conditions were in greater quantity and more visible than those deriving from MQL and flood coolant machining processes. Another noticeable feature about the chips was that the chips generated in dry and flood machining conditions had burrs on the edges, indicating the possibilities of burr formation on the workpiece during the machining process. These burrs on the edges of the chips were not observed in the MQL conditions, which means there were very few or no burrs formed on the workpiece with MQL conditions. Also, the chips in dry and flood coolant machining with TiAIN coated tools were found to have irregularities towards the tips, indicating built up edge formation on the tool, which is not desired for better surface finish. These irregularities were observed to be fewer in MQL machining conditions. The microstructural analysis of the chips shows that there was severe deformation of the beta ([beta]) phase and a transformation to alpha ([alpha]) phase was observed. To conclude, the MQL condition provided better chip morphology, indicating better machining performance, compared to dry and flood coolant conditions for machining of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V.

Poster Board No. 100 - IMPROVED DATA FIDELITY IN COORDINATION OF MULTIPLE KINECT[TM] CAMERAS: SVD, INTERPOLATION, AND JITTER. Pushkar Sathe,, Shivakumar Sastry,, Sriharsha Vankamamidi, Nghi H. Tran,, University of Akron, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 302 Buchtel Commons, Akron OH 44325-3904.

The Kinect[TM] camera is a versatile tool that has been used for various applications such as human motion capture, gaming, etc. The skeletal tracking algorithm implementation for this device allows us to efficiently gather 3D joint location data for landmark joints, to track and monitor human motion and activity. Several activities involve complex sequences of motion and a single camera cannot track all the joints due to occlusions. One approach to address this problem is to utilize multiple cameras. This approach implements Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) to infer the rotation and translation matrices for fusing data. When trying to coordinate multiple Kinect[TM] cameras, some challenges arise such as interpolation and jitter. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of using Singular Value Decomposition in transforming the reference coordinates of the 2 cameras and achieving view invariance as well as a solution to synchronize the data collection in multiple cameras.

Poster Board No. 101 - EXERCISE DISCRIMINATION USING CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS. Bach Tran,, Pushkar Sathe,, Mohammad Ranjbar,, Shivakumar Sastry,, University of Akron, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 302 Buchtel Commons, Akron OH 44325-3904.

The ability to accurately identify human activities is essential for developing automated rehabilitation and sports training systems. This paper proposes a motion classification approach based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that can evaluate the relationship between different groups of body joints and identify the unique movement pattern of each group to achieve this correlation. Assuming the dependence between joints in each data set, CCA is the most appropriate tool to study the interrelationships among all the data sets. In comparison, other multivariate techniques are more specific in terms of restrictions imposed on dependence and independence of variables. In this paper, large-scale exercise motion data, consisting of location measurements of 25 body joints, are organized into multivariate data sets. The canonical correlation coefficients are calculated between all possible pairs of data sets for each exercise to study the correlation patterns. The result shows that the patterns are recognizable and the canonical coefficients are unique for any joint group in each exercise. A classification algorithm is introduced based on this result. This can be used to identify and differentiate exercise types. We aim to use the canonical variables for diagnosing faults in exercises.

Poster Board No. 102 - EFFECT OF LIGHT INTENSITY ON PRODUCTIVITY OF IRISH CONNERS AND ROYAL BURGUNDY BUSH BEANS IN AQUAPONIC CULTURE. Miranda E. Gessner,, (Charles Mcclaugherty,, University of Mount Union, 1972 Clark Ave., Alliance OH 44601.

Aquaponic culture has potential for food production outside of the growing season or in regions where it is difficult to grow crops. Aquaponics provide a controlled environment for growing plants and fish without requiring pesticides and minimizing the potential for environmental and insect damage. A challenge facing aquaponic systems is providing adequate quantity and quality of light in an indoor environment. This experiment examined the impact of unequal amounts of sunlight exposure on bean plants in a greenhouse aquaponic system. The greenhouse had only south facing windows, creating a light intensity gradient across the grow beds. The system consisted of 3 separate 150-gallon grow beds (filled with expanded clay pellets) connected to a 250-gallon fish tank containing goldfish and cichlids, a filter, and a 200-gallon sump. Photosynthetic performance was assessed using a LI-COR[R] Photosynthesis System by measuring gas exchange in leaves receiving light intensities ranging from 0 to 2000 [micro]mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-2]. Light response curves constructed using this data showed maximum C[O.sub.2] assimilation rates ([A.sub.max]) differed notably between plants receiving different intensities of light. Leaves exposed to more sunlight had [A.sub.max] consistently above 20 pmol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-2] whereas leaves on the side of the grow bed exposed to less sunlight had [A.sub.max] between 15 and 18 [micro]mol [m.sup.-2] [s.sup.-2]. Generally, out of about 75 plants, the bean plants exposed to lower light intensities were smaller, had lower fruit production, and had lighter colored leaves in comparison to plants receiving more sunlight, demonstrating the importance of the light environment on plant productivity in aquaponic systems.

Poster Board No. 103 - DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF PHYTOPLANKTON IN WESTERN LAKE ERIE: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BUOY AND FLUOROPROBE-DERIVED DATA. Alex J. Johnson (1,2),, Douglas D. Kane (2,3),, Justin D. Chaffin (2),, (1) Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Ave., Cleveland OH 44115, (2) The Ohio State University, Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory, (3) Defiance College.

Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cHABs) are a recurring problem in Lake Erie as it is shallow, warming, and prone to nutrient runoff. Since the Toledo "do-not-drink" advisory in 2014, data buoys have been deployed to monitor water-quality parameters in real time to warn against future toxic blooms. Data buoys are located 0.7 meters below the surface while water-intakes draw water at lower depths. For this research, water was sampled at meter intervals, from 0 to 5 meters, next to 3 buoys located in western Lake Erie. A FluoroProbe was used to determine the distribution of cyanobacteria throughout the water column. The purpose of this research was to evaluate any correlations between buoy-derived data and FluoroProbe-derived data to see if buoys were accurately measuring cyanobacteria and potentially serving as an early warning system for cHABs. Based on the results of linear regressions, the buoy data and FluoroProbe were highly correlated for total chlorophyll a (chla) (P<0.001, [R.sup.2] = 0.997) and cyanobacteria-chla (P<0.01, [R.sup.2] = 0.647) for the water column average and specifically at 1 meter depth (chla: P<0.001, [R.sup.2] = 0.9927; cyanobacteria-chla: P<0.01, [R.sup.2] = 0.673). In previous buoy studies, buoys had a more significant correlation with cyanobacteria-chla than chlorophyll a. Overall, there does not seem to be great differences between buoy data and FluoroProbe derived data. Based on the distribution of cyanobacteria in the water column relative to buoy depth, data buoys can accurately measure, and be used for, cHAB and associated predictions.

Poster Board No. 104 - COMPARISON OF SOIL PROPERTIES BETWEEN A MANAGED POWERLINE RIGHT-OF-WAY AND AN ADJACENT MATURE FOREST. Darren J. Krolikowski,, Charles A. McClaugherty,, University of Mount Union, Dept. of Biology, 1972 Clark Ave., Alliance OH 44601.

Powerlines and other utility right-of-ways (ROW) pass through a variety of ecosystems. Management of these ROWs often involves suppression of woody vegetation by repetitive physical removal and herbicides. Recent research is examining ways to manage these areas in ways that promote plant and wildlife diversity while minimizing chemical use and labor costs. One key to the management of these areas is an understanding of how soil properties of the managed areas have been modified. This study compared soil properties along a topographically diverse ROW with soils in a parallel transect in an adjacent mature hardwood forest at the Huston-Brumbaugh Nature Center in Stark County, Ohio. Soil characteristics examined were texture, pH, moisture, and organic matter. Four samples of the A-horizon were taken from each of the 5 plots along the 2 parallel transects for a total of 40 samples. Nine out of the 20 power line plots had a higher pH value compared with undisturbed land. Data showed that the ROW plots had an average of 5.3, while forest plots average 4.7. Soil moisture showed no statistically significant differences between managed and forested sites, but was higher on both transects at the lowest elevation plot. These 8 plots showed an average 10% difference. Soil organic matter was consistently higher in the forested plots with a 7% average. Organic matter in the soil may be a result of greater litter inputs within the forested area. Despite the ROW plots having a lower organic matter content, the other parameters proved to be lower than expected. Due to these findings, slope and aspect have little effect on the vegetation of the ROW plots.

Poster Board No. 105 - ECOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF EMERALD ASH BORER DAMAGE AT THE JOHN HUSTON NATURE CENTER. Jacob A. Stallman,, (Charles A. McClaughty,, University of Mount Union, Dept. of Biology, 1972 Clark Ave., Alliance OH 44601.

The emerald ash borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) is affecting the American ash tree in most of the mid-western states. The effects of EAB are apparent in southeast Stark County, Ohio. This project examines the implication of EAB damage on forest success which has management implications. During the fall of 2017, all 240 ash (Fraxinus americana L) trees were dead or dying in a 2.16-hectare plot in the northwest quadrant of the nature center; they were tagged, surveyed and mapped using GPS. The percentage canopy cover was measured using a spherical densitometer at 20 points along transects through the plot. All the trees that were tagged were infested with the emerald ash borer. The only healthy trees were 5 saplings. The mean diameter at breast height (DBH) of infected trees was 31.3 cm and DBH values ranged from 10.9 to 71.4 cm. The percentage of canopy cover ranged from 51% to 80%. The mean canopy cover in adjacent intact plots was 80%. Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora) was present in 63% of this area and was more common in the areas beneath the affected trees. The nearly simultaneous death of these ash trees has caused the succession of the forest to be disrupted. The most common saplings entering the voids caused by the diseased ash trees are sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) and Tuliptree (Liriodendrin tulipifera L.). Management of the area should focus on favoring these species, because these species are native in this area and will help the succession of the forest.

Poster Board No. 106 - ASSESSING THE EFFECTS OF ROAD SALT RUNOFF ON GREAT POND SNAILS. Allison E. Zahorec,, Kent State University, 8019 Oak Tree Drive North, Lorain OH 44053.

Road deicing salts are commonly applied during the winter months to prevent roads and sidewalks from freezing and to increase traction. Once dissolved in runoff, these salts can rapidly enter freshwater ecosystems and elevate salinity. Increased freshwater salinity threatens aquatic ecosystems by impairing sensitive macroinvertebrate communities. However, studies have shown that the macroinvertebrate responses to road salts are variable. A two-part study was conducted to investigate the effects of road salts on the growth and survival of great pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis). Chronic toxicity tests were first conducted by exposing newborn snails to water samples collected from 5 salt-impacted freshwater ecosystems. Water sample salinity was assessed by measuring conductivity and ionic content. A second investigation was then conducted with chronic toxicity tests exposing week-old snails to reconstituted stormwater samples of increasing conductivities. Two common road salts, rock salt and calcium magnesium acetate (CMA), were used to raise these samples to the target conductivity levels. The results of the initial study showed that pond snails exposed to highly saline water grew significantly larger than snails exposed to lower salinity levels. These results were confirmed by the second investigation with snails exposed to rock salt, though snails exposed to CMA suffered decreased growth and high mortality. Additionally, snail mortality was highest during the first week of exposure, indicating increased sensitivity in young snails. This work provides evidence that Lymnaea stagnalis can tolerate elevated freshwater salinity, but this tolerance may depend on the type of road salts impacting their habitats.

Poster Board No. 107 - STATE-WIDE SURVEY OF BUMBLE BEE DISTRIBUTON AND HABITAT USE. Paige Reeher (2), paige., Jessie Lanterman (1),, Megan Varvaro (1),, Andrew Lybbert (1),, Randy Mitchell (2),, Karen Goodell (1),, (1) The Ohio State University, (2) The University of Akron, Department of Biology, ASEC E513, Akron OH 44325-3908.

Bumble bees contribute to Ohio's economic success and natural resources as pollinators of crops and wildflowers. In recent years several bumble bee species have declined dramatically, including the rusty patched bumble bee (Bombus affinis), which was placed on the federal endangered species list in 2017. The primary goal of this study was to determine the distribution of B. affinis and another species of concern, B. terricola, in Ohio and to document their habitat use and food plants. Secondarily, the impact of the amount, quality, and distribution of foraging habitat across the landscape affects bumble bee species diversity and abundance. This information will be used to recommend management practices that will help prevent the decline of species that are currently widespread and abundant. In summer 2017, bees in 130 wildflower meadows in 46 Ohio counties were surveyed. At each site, a team of trained observers recorded bee visits to flowers for 1.5 hours and counted all open flowers in a 100 [m.sup.2] area. A total of 28,949 bees were observed. Of those, 10,078 were bumble bees (visiting 132 species of flowers), 13,729 were honey bees (on 110 flower species), and 5,121 were "other" bees (including Greater than20 genera of wild bees) on 143 flowers species. Neither B. affinis nor B. terricola was observed, even though several of their preferred food plants (according to historical records) were found growing abundantly and were frequently visited by other bee species. Through statistical analysis it was observed that bumble bees differed by species, and from honey bees, in their preferred food plants. In 2018 additional sites will be monitored in areas that were under-sampled in 2017, and high-quality sites will be sampled repeatedly to account for changes in flower resources and in bee activity throughout the summer. In addition, queen surveys will be conducted in the spring (April to May) and fall (September).

Poster Board No. 108 - DEVELOPMENT OF GENETIC LOCI TO ASSIST CONSERVATION OF TONGUETIED MINNOW (EXOGLOSSUM LAURAE) OF WESTERN OHIO. Maddison O. Guthrie,, (Kenneth J. Oswald,, Ohio Northern University, Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences, Ada OH 45810.

Tonguetied minnow (Exoglossum laurae) maintains a highly restricted distribution in Ohio, occurring only in the upper Mad River of Logan and Champaign counties. Assessment of genetic diversity within this small population aims to assist in its conservation. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers for multiple mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and single-copy nuclear DNA (scnDNA) loci were tested on genomic DNA extracted from several individuals (n=5) collected from the upper Mad River. Success of all PCR products was assessed by visualizing electrophoresed agarose gels under ultraviolet light. A total of 4 loci using 4 PCR primer sets have been developed to date, inclusive of both mtDNA and scnDNA loci. Development of additional mtDNA and scnDNA loci is planned. All successful PCR products will be DNA sequenced to estimate intraspecific variation within the upper Mad River population of tonguetied minnow.

Poster Board No. 109 - CHARACTERIZING THE EFFECTS OF THE DELTA32 MUTATION FOUND FROM YERSINIA PESTIS SURVIVOR DESCENDANTS ON CCR5 EXPRESSION AND HIV INFECTABILITY. Hannah N. Newsome (1),, (Harry Kestler,, Brielle P. McCarthy (1),, Raquel M. Dauch (2),, Gary R. Dodson (2),, Kyle A. Jones (2),, (1) Lorain County Community College, Department of Biology, 1005 N. Abbe Rd., Elyria OH 44035, (2) Lorain County Early College High School, Elyria OH.

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that can cripple the patient's immune system, rendering the immune system unable to fight the HIV or other infections. HIV must first bind to a primary receptor on the human T-cell, CD4, and 1 of 2 secondary receptors, CCR5 or CXCR4, to infect an individual cell. There is a mutation known to affect HIV infectivity. ccr5 delta32 is a deletion mutation of 32 base pairs of the ccr5 human gene sequence. It is thought that this mutation truncates the CCR5 receptor, rendering it incapable of reaching the surface of the human T-Cell. When the individual is homozygous for delta32, the mutation will confer resistance to HIV infectivity, as well as Yersinia pestis, more commonly known as the Black Plague. Twenty percent of European Caucasians are heterozygous for ccr5 while only one percent of the same population is homozygous for delta32. We have identified an individual, subject EN2, who is a descendant of plague survivors, and is heterozygous for ccr5 delta32 alleles. A PCR was performed using primers that circumscribe the ccr5 gene. We were able to obtain both wild type and delta32 allele from this individual. This product was then cloned into pCR4-TOPO vector and will then be excised and cloned into pLXSN retroviral expression vector. This vector will then be transfected into PT67, a retroviral packaging cell line. The retroviral products will then be used to create stable and transient transductants into H9 Lymphoid cells and will be tested for HIV infectability and CCR5 expression.

Poster Board No. 110 - DIFFERENTIAL SEXUAL VIABILITY DUE TO MUTATION ACCUMULATION IN DIPLOID AND HAPLOID X-CHROMOSOMES. Michael A. Balinski,, Ronny C. Woodruff,, Bowling Green State University, 417 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Much disagreement exists regarding the superiority of haploid organisms vs. diploid organisms in evolution; studies have shown that diploids evolve faster (have a higher rate of adaptive evolution) than haploids and vice versa. To elucidate the success of one ploidy strategy over another, and to clarify previous results, the viability of male haplo-X and female diplo-X Drosophila melanogaster was examined using an inbred cross (lacking X-chromosome recombination) to accumulate new X-chromosome mutations. Thirty crosses were performed using a single sibling male and female to establish each line. Males, possessing a single X-chromosome, were predicted to express more mildly deleterious mutations over time than diplo-X females, with attached-X chromosomes. This would result in a decrease in male viability, evaluated using the male sex ratio (# of male progeny/total # of progeny). As of 8 generations of X-chromosome mutation accumulation, haplo-X male sex ratios showed a shift from zero (PLess than0.05) with a positive average slope of about 0.007 per generation, indicating an increase in male fitness. Evaluations of the average sex ratio slope across generations as well as changes in population viability are currently underway. These results suggest that the rate of advantageous recessive mutations are more common that previously assumed, or that heterozygous deleterious mutations accumulate and are expressed faster in diploid females, providing evidence that at least some of the differences in viability seen between male and female organisms have their origins in sex-chromosome ploidy.

Poster Board No. 111 - EVALUATION OF CHERTS IN OHIO-SOURCED AGGREGATES FOR USE IN CONCRETE. Alexander C. Kern,, (John Farver,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Geology, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Alkali-silica reactions (ASR) involve reaction of silica (Si[O.sub.2]) minerals with highly alkaline (pHGreater than 12) pore fluids in concrete made with Portland cement and the subsequent formation of an expansive gel. ASR gel formation can cause a 96.8% volume increase by hydration in the presence of moisture inside the rigid framework of surrounding cement and aggregate and can cause severe cracking in the concrete. Current standards employed by the Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) are based solely on the amount of silica minerals present in the aggregate with no more than 0.5 wt% of opal, and no more than 3 wt% of chert or chalcedony. The objective of this study is to employ modern analytical instrumentation and methods to characterize the reactivity of different silica minerals with respect to alkali-silica reactions in concrete. Specifically, the study focuses on developing an appropriate test method to distinguish chert samples that are susceptible to ASR. Chert samples are characterized using polarized light microscopy (PLM) of thin sections to determine grain size, porosity, and other textural features. The degree of crystallinity and purity are evaluated using x-ray diffraction (XRD), and higher resolution analysis of the textures and presence of impurities by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Silica solubility of the chert samples are evaluated by reacting samples in aqueous solutions that mimic the composition (pH) of pore fluids found in concrete produced using Portland cements, followed by analysis for Si concentration using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

Poster Board No. 112 - LEAD CONTAMINATION IN TOLEDO COMMUNITY GARDENS. Natalie I. Miller,, (John Farver,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Geology, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The primary objective of this study is to determine the levels of lead and other persistent toxic heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, etc.) present in Toledo, Ohio, area community gardens and to advise community gardeners on associated potential health issues. In 2014, in several census tracts in Toledo, Ohio, over 5% of children under age 6 years had confirmed elevated blood lead levels (BLL) of Greater than5 [micro]g/dL. The primary path for elevated BLL in young children is hand-to-mouth ingestion of soil and dust. Residential soils in Toledo can have lead concentrations well above the EPA action level of 400 mg/kg, as such, soils in community gardens should also be tested. For this study, samples of garden soils were collected at the surface where wind-blown dust from adjacent lead contaminated soils could accumulate, at root depths for plants in the beds, from underlying soils beneath unlined raised beds, and bare soils between beds. The sample digestion follows USEPA Method 3051A and sample analysis follows Method 6010C for inductively coupled plasma-optical emissions spectrometry. To date, 28 soil samples were collected from an urban community farm in Toledo, and are composed of samples from raised beds, bare soils, the on-site chicken run, and from areas lining the perimeter, close to major roads. The results of this study will be used to create educational outreach programs for Toledo community gardeners and local school children, to educate them on the potential dangers of lead and other heavy metals, as well as on best practices for preventing further contamination.

Poster Board No. 113 - COMPARISON BETWEEN SENTINEL 2 AND LANDSAT 8 IMAGERY IN MONITORING CHLOROPHYLL-A IN THE WESTERN BASIN OF LAKE ERIE. Tharindu H. Abeysinghe,, Anita Simic Milas,, Yahampath A. Marambe,, Patrick A. Reil,, Nicole K. Light,, Nicholas J. Faust,, Bowling Green State University, School of Earth, Environment and Society, Department of Geology, 190 Overman Hall, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Algal blooms in the Western Basin of Lake Erie, as a result of excess nutrients, have impacts on ecology, economy and human health in the surrounding regions. A 3 day ban of drinking water in Toledo, Ohio, in 2014 highlighted the importance of real-time monitoring of the algal bloom phenomenon. Conventional monitoring methods can be expensive, time consuming and not practical on a large scale. With the frequent availability of free satellite imagery, remote sensing is widely used to monitor algal bloom in near real time. The aim of the study is to compare the potential of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2A satellites in identifying chlorophyll-a dispersion in the Western Basin of Lake Erie. The field data collected by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (OEPA) on July 18 and August 9, 2016, and data from cloud-free satellite images were used to create several empirical algorithms. Sentinel 2A resulted the highest coefficient of determination ([R.sup.2]=0.91) with band ratio B8/B5 (with spectral range B8 = 694 to 713 nm and B8 = 762 to 907 nm) for August 2016. Landsat 8 reached [R.sup.2]=0.63 with band ratio (B3+B4)/B2 (spectral range for B3 = 525 to 600 nm, B4=630 to 680 nm and B2 = 450 to 515 nm) while Sentinel 2A reaches [R.sup.2]=0.81 for the same band ratio with same spectral ranges. In conclusion, Sentinel 2A data could be used as a useful proxy for remote measurements of chlorophyll-a dispersion for future algal blooms. Further study is to be completed with Sentinel 2A and Landsat 8 images for 2017 data.

Poster Board No. 114 - CONSTRUCTING CONTINENTAL CRUST: TRACKING PETROGENESIS OF GRANITIC BATHOLITHS IN THE OSLO RIFT, NORWAY. Maureen Y. Haley,, Miami University, Department of Geology and Environmental Earth Science, 029 Shideler Hall, 250 South Patterson Avenue, Oxford OH 45056, Claire L. McLeod,, Richard J. Brydon,, Amy L. Wolfe,, Barry J. Shaulis,, University of Arkansas, Reidar G. Tronnes,, University of Oslo.

Granitoid rocks compose Tilde86% of the Earth's upper crust; by evaluating their mineralogical and chemical properties, the processes through which granitoids contribute to crust production can be investigated. The Oslo Rift (OR), Norway, formed during the break-up of Earth's last supercontinent, and contains 2 granitoid outcrops (batholiths): the Drammen (1811 [km.sup.3]) and the Finnemarka (336 [km.sup.3]). To assess the crystallization history and melt source of these batholiths (melting of pre-existing crust or mantle partial melting), unaltered individual crystals were investigated via electron microprobe (EMP: 10 nA electron beam accelerated to 15 kV, 2% instrument error). Crystals range from K-rich, to Na-rich, and Carich varieties (n = 1974: orthoclase, anorthoclase, and labradorite) indicating that multiple crystal populations are present within these batholiths. Titanite crystals reveal a strong crustal-derived signature (n = 155) with [Ti.sup.4+]/(Al+[Fe.sup.3+]) Less than9 and a less prominent mantle-derived signature [Ti.sup.4+]/(Al+[Fe.sup.3+]) Greater than9 (n = 12). From biotite crystals (n=362), wt.% FeO and MgO abundances are consistent with a mantle-derived signature (n = 307) at wt.% MgO Greater than13, with fewer mixed mantle-crust derived signatures at 3 Less than wt.% MgO Less than 13, (n = 42), and a minor crust-derived component at wt.% MgO Less than3 (n = 13). From amphibole crystals (n = 240), wt.% TiO2 and [Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] are consistent with a crustal-derived source ([Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] Less than11, n = 206) and display a lack of a mantle-derived component ([Al.sub.2][O.sub.3] Greater than11, n = 34). From the multiple crystal populations, crustal production through granitoid magmatism shows the involvement of both crust and mantle-derived melt sources. Implying that compositionally distinct melts contribute to batholith formation and Earth's upper crustal growth.

Poster Board No. 115 - EFFECT OF LAND COVER/LAND USE CHANGE ON EVAPOTRANSPIRATION RATE IN LOWER MAUMEE WATERSHED, OHIO. Yahampath A. Marambe,, Anita Simic Milas,, Tharindu Hasantha Abeysinghe,, Patrick Anthony Reil,, Bowling Green State University, School of Earth, Environment and Society, Department of Geology, 190 Overman Hall, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Evapotranspiration (ET) is an important eco-agro process, especially when soil and irrigation management practices are considered. Thus, it is an essential component of ecosystem models. Land cover/land use (LULC) changes impact the biophysical and biochemical properties of crops, which alter ET. The purpose of the present study is to examine the effect of LULC change on ET, particularly due to crop rotation and increased corn production. This study uses a modified Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) physical model, adapted to crop cover, to generate daily, monthly and annual ET images using satellite (Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2), and meteorological data (precipitation, solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity) data for 2016. Leaf area index (LAI) for the model was produced using enhanced vegetation index (EVI). The study area is a vegetated region within the Maumee River watershed where crops are the predominant land cover. ET images were produced at 2 scales using Landsat 8 (30 m) and Sentinel-2 (10 m) for the growing season of 2016. Relationship of ET rates for these 2 sensors was examined. ET rate at mid-growing season was always higher in Sentinel-2 data. However, the end season ET rates were similar for both sensors. The ET rates for different agricultural plots (e.g., corn, soybean, wheat, and alfalfa) are more distinctive in Sentinel-2 derived ET images compared to the Landsat 8 derived ET.

Poster Board No. 116 - THE CHANGING HYDROLOGY OF A WET PRAIRIE IN NORTHWEST OHIO: A TIME SERIES ANALYSIS USING MACHINE LEARNING. Priyanka R. More,, Enrique Gomezdelcampo,, Sheila J. Roberts,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Geology, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The Oak Openings Region (OOR) of northwest Ohio is well known for rare plant and animal species. It contains the few remaining wet prairie ecosystems in the area. Wet prairie ecosystems are highly sensitive to precipitation patterns and therefore to changing climate, as the shallow groundwater is greatly influenced by precipitation and temperature. A study at a small watershed in the Oak Openings was conducted to determine the correlation between shallow groundwater levels and precipitation and temperature, with the intention of predicting changes to the wet prairie hydrology according to expected climate change in the midwest. Hourly groundwater level data were collected using data loggers installed at 4 different piezometers within the study area from May 2015 to November 2017. Hourly precipitation and temperature data were obtained from the Toledo Express Airport weather station (TOL) located within 3 kilometers of the site. Artificial neural networks (ANN), a form of machine learning, was used to determine the correlation between the changing weather parameters and the groundwater levels due to the large amount of data available and the complexity of modeling a wet prairie ecosystem that is not well understood physically, and has been intensely managed with ditches. Using a multilayer feed-forward neural network, a good prediction was obtained between precipitation, temperature, and shallow groundwater levels as determined by an R value of 0.70. The next step involves using this neural network model with the expected changes in precipitation and temperature to determine the fate of wet prairies in the OOR due to climate change.

Poster Board No. 117 - ESTIMATION OF TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL REASONING ABILITY OF HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS IN EARTH SCIENCE. Christina E. O'Malley,, Carroll High School, 4524 Linden Ave., Dayton OH 45432.

The purpose of this research is to develop a method for teachers to be able to estimate a student's ability to reason "temporally and spatially" based on qualitative and quantitative data in the student's record. This study investigates the potential relationships between spatial reasoning skills, highest math course, career tech field, and OGT scores. High school students in their 11th or 12th grade year completed a 3-part assessment to measure skills in spatial reasoning using parts of the Purdue Spatial Visualization Test: Rotations (PSVT:R); skills in proportional reasoning were determined by using selected portions of the Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR), and students' ability to solve structural geologic problems were assessed by Ormand's Geologic Block Test (OGBT). Data (scores) from this 3-part survey was analyzed by ANOVA to understand relationships between spatial reasoning and other markers of academic performance, including highest math course and Ohio Graduation Test (OGT) scores and students' career tech field. Students (n = 86) in career tech fields that require spatial and proportional reasoning (such as game programming) scored highest on the PSVT:R (an average of 24 points out of 28 possible on the combined surveys). Students who are enrolled in calculus performed best on the survey (M=22 of 28 items on the 3 combined surveys). There was a strong correlation between GPA and performance on OGBT (r(86) = 0.50; p Less than0.05). There is a weak correlation between OGT Science Score and performance on the OGBT (r(86)=0.254; pLess than0.05), a week correlation between GPA and PSVT:R (r(86)=0.171; pLess than0.05), and weak correlation between GPA and performance on the LCTSR (r(86)=0.164; pLess than0.05). There is no correlation between math course and spatial and proportional reasoning ability, or performance on the OGBT.

Poster Board No. 118 - PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF EPIGALLOCATECHIN-3-GALLATE (EGCG) ON BLEOMYCIN INDUCED DNA DAMAGE IN HUMAN LYMPHOCYTES. Paige Hoffman,, Alexander Vaglenov,, University of Findlay, College of Pharmacy, Findlay OH 45840.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; CAS 989-51-5) is the main polyphenol present in green tea (Camellia sinensis). It has been reported that EGCG has antibacterial, antiviral, antioxidative, antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic effects. In consideration of the above reports on different effects of EGCG, there was a need to extend the study of the comparative antigenotoxic effects as measured by Cytokinesis-block micronucleus assays in human lymphocytes against known classical mutagen and genotoxican. EGCG ability was tested to reduce bleomycin's initial genotoxic effect. Peripheral human lymphocytes were obtained from 4 human donors through blood draws and were then plated and treated with different concentrations of bleomycin as follows: 2, 4, and 8 [micro]g/mL and then incubated for 72 hours before scoring. A comparison of micronuclei, nuclear bridges, nuclear buds, and the number of apoptotic and necrotic cells in bi-nucleated lymphocytes with bleomycin plus 5, 10, 20, and 40 [micro]g/mL EGCG was conducted. The results in this research indicates that the EGCG presented in vitro decreased the micronuclei and BNMN cell yields over the investigated dose-range showing a statistically significant (p Less than 0.001) protective effect from bleomycin-induced DNA damage with little toxic effect. The higher dose of 40 [micro]g/mL EGCG together with bleomycin revealed protective but also showed a level of toxicity in the lymphocytes.

Poster Board No. 119 - DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF SUBOXONE[R] TREATMENT ON POST MORTEM HEROIN DETECTION USING VITREOUS HUMOR BY GC-MS ANALYSIS. Toni-Ann T. Ledgister,, (Somnath Dutta,, Defiance College, 701 N. Clinton Street, Defiance OH 43512.

Vitreous humor (VH) is the greatly hydrated, transparent gel, which sits between the lens and the retina, in the posterior portion of the eyes. VH has been the subject of a large number of studies for chemical analyses postmortem. VH is a suitable alternative matrix for forensic toxicology, considering most xenobiotics existing in the circulatory system can be detected in the VH, after crossing the blood-retina barrier. SUBOXONE[R], a semi-synthetic opioid, with a structure similar to that of morphine. Previous studies have shown that SUBOXONE[R] is an antagonist for the receptors of heroin. The study to be performed will evaluate the detection levels of heroin from an analysis of vitreous humor after the administration of SUBOXONE[R]. Three samples, each of 9 mice, will be randomly selected and 3 mg of heroin per kilogram of body mass will be administered to each. Each group of mice will receive different doses of SUBOXONE[R]; group one will receive 1 strip of SUBOXONE[R], group two will receive 2 strips, and the third group will receive 3 strips of SUBOXONE[R]. VH will be obtained postmortem using lens and retina evisceration, followed by filtered centrifugation, and will be analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Poster Board No. 120 - IN VITRO MUTAGENIC AND GENOTOXIC POTENTIAL OF ARTEMISININ, ARTEMETHER AND ARTESUNATE. David M. Comshaw,, Mathew Goodman,, Vadim Kutsar,, Jordan Wanner,, Richard Dudley,, Alexander Vaglenov,, University of Findlay, College of Pharmacy, 1000 North Main St., Findlay OH 45840.

Artemisinin (CAS #63968-64-9) is an antimalarial drug isolated from the plant Artemisia annua. Artesunate (CAS #88495-63-0) and Artemether (CAS #71963-77-4) are semisynthetic derivatives of artemisinin. Several in vitro studies have shown that these drugs have strong anticarcinogenic effect. However, reports on mutagenic and genotoxic effects for all 3 drugs are scarce. The aim of this study is to evaluate, in vitro, the comparative mutagenic and genotoxic effect of artemisinin, artesunate, and artemether through Ames test, cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay (CBMN) and comet assay. Results indicated a strong genotoxic effect on human lymphocytes detected by the CBMN and comet assays for all 3 drugs, yet negative mutagenic response when evaluated by the Ames test. All endpoints of CBMN cytome assay including micronuclei, nuclear buds, nuclear plasmic bridges, apoptotic, and necrotic cells showed statistical dose dependent differences with controls. The scale of in vitro genotoxicity for these drugs is as follows: artemisinin = artemether Less than artesunate. These findings suggest the necessity of further in vitro research on genotoxic and mutagenic effects of all 3 antimalarials with respect to their current antimalarial and future use as anticancer drugs.

Poster Board No. 121 - IMMUNOLOCALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF HER2, HER3, HER4, EGFR AND P53 IN A PATIENT WITH SYNCHRONOUS PRIMARY ENDOMETRIAL ADENOCARCINOMA AND CLEAR CELL RENAL CARCINOMA: A CASE REPORT. Fabiano C. Araujo (1),, Enio Ferreira (2),, Izabella Cristina Alves de Souza (3),, Priscila Fernanda da Silva Martins (3),, Emerson S. Veloso (2),, Tatiany L. Silveira (2),, Ivy N. N. Goncalves (2),, Adam Underwood (4),, Amy Milsted (4),, Helen L. Del Puerto (2),, (1) Faminas-BH, Medical School, Rua Conceicao do Mato Dentro, 250, Belo Horizonte MG 31310-240, Brazil, (2) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, (3) Centro Universitario UNA, (4) Walsh University, North Canton OH.

Endometrial adenocarcinoma accounts for 85% of the endometrial carcinomas and renal cancer accounts for around 3% of all adult malignancies. When patients present with more than one tumor in the same or different organs/tissues, multiple primary tumors may be present. A major challenge is to find an anticancer therapy for multiple cancer types without increasing toxicity, pharmacological interactions, and without negative impact of overall outcome. It is hypothesized that immunolocalization and gene expression may be used to help identify patients that may present with multiple site tumors. To illustrate this possibility, the case report of a 69 year-old, non-obese, post-menopausal woman diagnosed with synchronous endometrial adenocarcinoma and renal cell carcinoma is presented. The 2 primary cancers may indicate genetic susceptibility to develop multiple site tumors. Immunolocalization of the EGFR, HER2, HER3, HER4 and p53 proteins by immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed to investigate synchronous expression of these biomarkers. The endometrial adenocarcinoma was a well-differentiated tumor, with discernable glandular structure with moderate mitotic index. IHC revealed weak HER2, HER3 and HER4 staining of cell membranes in well-differentiated areas, and intense HER2 and p53 staining in tumor areas showing histological aggressiveness characteristic. EGFR was found only in the stromal area. The renal cell carcinoma showed clear cell type, solid tumor, Fuhrman nuclear grade 2, presence of necrosis and hemorrhage. IHC revealed intense HER2 and HER4 staining of tumor cell membranes, but no HER3, EGFR and p53 staining. In summary, overexpression of HER2 and HER4 proteins was found in both primary tumors, suggesting that these proteins should be investigated in family history. The results show the potential of using immunolocalization and gene expression to evaluate patients that may be prone to multiple primary tumor development.

Poster Board No. 122 - SOX2 AND SOX3 EXPRESSION IN TWO COLORECTAL CELL LINES: HCT-116 AND HT-29. Felipe H. S. Silva (1),, Adam Underwood (2), Almir S. Martins (1), Isabella T. Borges (1), Elaine M. Souza-Fagundes (1), Jeremy Prokop (3), Jonas P. Ramos (1), Camila Almeida (1), Pedro G. Baeta (1), Isabella T. Borges (1), Luana P. Sousa (1), Fernando Galligani (1), Deborah K. M. Ribeiro (1), Fabiano C. Araujo (4), Amy Milsted (2), Helen L. Del Puerto (1),, (1) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Departamento de Patologia Geral F3 312, Belo Horizonte, MG 31270-901, Brazil, (2) Walsh University, North Canton OH, (3) Hudsonalpha Institute for Biotechnology, (4) Faminas-BH.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) has one of the highest incidence and mortality rates among cancers, yet differential diagnostics are still needed. Several intestinal stem cell markers have been found to be associated with CRC and might have a prognostic and predictive significance. SOX2 and SOX3 are members of the SOX (SRY-related HMG-box) family of transcription factors involved in regulation of embryonic development and cell fate. The objective of this study was to evaluate gene expression of SOX2 and SOX3 in 2 distinct colorectal carcinoma cell lines: HCT-116 and HT-29. HCT-116 is a cell line from adult male colorectal carcinoma, and HT-29 is a cell line from a 44 year-old female colorectal adenocarcinoma. HCT-116 and HT-29 cells, and the control cell line HEK (embryonic kidney), were seeded into 12-well plates (50,000 cells per well) and maintained in standard growth medium. After cells reached 80 to 90% confluency, cells were washed with sterile PBS and total mRNA isolated using Trizol[R] reagent. Total mRNA was DNAse treated, and RT-qRT-PCR was performed to quantify SOX2 and SOX3 mRNA expression, using S26 mRNA expression as normalizer. Results demonstrated SOX3 higher expression in HCT cells compared with HEK cells (3.16 fold change), and no detectable expression of SOX3 in HT-29. In addition, SOX2 mRNA expression was higher in HCT-116 cells when compared with HEK cells (4.55 fold change), and with HT-29 cells (6.45 fold change). Results support the hypothesis that SOX2 and SOX3 may have prognostic and predictive significance in CRC tissue samples.

Poster Board No. 123 - SOX3 EXPRESSION INDUCES APOPTOSIS IN HUMAN BREAST ADENOCARCINOMA CELL LINE (MDA-MB-231). Felipe H. S. Silva (1), felipehssilva@gmail. com, Adam Underwood (2), Almir S. Martins (1), Jeremy Prokop (3), Elaine M. Souza-Fagundes (1), Pedro G. Baeta (1), Jonas P. Ramos (1), Camila Almeida (1), Deborah R. Nascimento (1), Fabiano C. Araujo (4), Amy Milsted (2), Helen L. Del Puerto (1),, (1) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Pres. Antonio Carlos, 6627, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Departamento de Patologia Gerai F3 312, Belo Horizonte - MG, 31270-901, Brazil, (2) Walsh University, North Canton OH, (3) Hudsonalpha Institute for Biotechnology, (4) Faminas-BH.

SOX3 protein acts as a transcription factor and has an important role in regulation of differentiation and cellular growth. In carcinogenesis, cells with critical lesions in DNA exhibit loss of tumor suppressor gene function and gain of oncogene function, resulting in loss of cell differentiation, resistance to apoptosis, and increased cell proliferation. The MDA-MB-231 cell line (breast ductal adenocarcinoma) is resistant to apoptosis and does not express SOX3. The objective of this work was to investigate participation of SOX3 protein in regulation of apoptosis and its pathways. The region encoding human SOX3 protein was subcloned into pEF1 expression vector using a SOX3 sequence amplified from human DNA. MDA-MB-231 cells were seeded into 24-well plates (25,000 cells per well). After 24 hours, cells were transfected with the SOX3 protein expression vector, pEF-1-SOX3. Control MDA-MB-231 cells were transfected with a pEF-1 vector lacking SOX3 sequences. After 24 hours, the percentage of cells in apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry, and caspase-3 and SOX3 mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time PCR. Results demonstrated higher expression of caspase-3 mRNA (2.5 fold change) compared to control, and SOX3 mRNA detection in cells transfected with pEF-1-SOX3 vector compared to no SOX3 mRNA detection in control cells; higher apoptotic cells percentage by flow cytometry (54.9%), compared to control (27.7%); and lower confluence of the cells (60%), when compared to control (100%). Results support the hypothesis that SOX3 may regulate apoptosis in the MDA cell line, acting as a tumor suppressor protein.

Poster Board No. 124 - QUANTITATIVELY ANALYZING MICROBIAL COMMUNAL SHIFTS BEFORE A HARMFUL ALGAE BLOOM. Adam R. Coger,, (Zhaohui Xu,, Bowling Green State University, 820 Maple Lane, Waterville OH 43566.

Overgrowth of toxic cyanobacteria causes harmful algae blooms (HABs) which have severe impacts on human health, ecosystems, and the economy. It takes several months from the point of nutrient overloading to the point of a rising HAB. Knowing when HABs will strike will potentially help mitigate the impact of HABs. There is currently no reliable method to make such a prediction. A study to predict the rise of HABs based on the relative abundance of microbial species in Lake Erie is being initiated. This study will search for quantitative patterns in microbial species linked to imminent HABs. Genomic signature sequences will be used to identify and quantify reporter species. K-mer is a DNA sequencing term that defines a pattern of nucleotides k terms long within a sample and counts how many times it occurs. Genomes of the relevant microbial species will be compared against each other to identify k-mers that are most unique to each species in relation to its community. The dominance of toxic cyanobacteria is precluded by a series of changes in the composition of the microbial community, which can be characterized by the shift of relative abundances of a set of reporter species. To emphasize this, the relative abundance of the reporter species will be estimated based on the occurrence of the unique k-mers in a metagenome. Metagenomes at various time points can be analyzed to identify correlations between HABs and quantitative patterns of reporter species. The correlation relationship will help to forecast the initiation of a HAB.

Poster Board No. 125 - SOYBEAN PHYTOBIOMES AND THEIR ROLES IN DISEASE RESISTANCE AGAINST PHYTOPHTHORA SOJAE, A ROOT ROT PATHOGEN. Renee E. Dollard,, Gayathri Beligala,, Vipaporn Phuntumart,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, 217 Life Science Building, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Economic losses caused by the oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora sojae, in soybean production is estimated to be $1 to 2 billion worldwide. Utilization of resistance genes is an effective method to breed Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. Disease resistance can also be conferred by incorporation of beneficial microorganisms. The goal of this study is to explore the protection of soybean from Phytophthora infection using a microbiome approach. The initial step is to identify the bacteria associated with susceptible and resistant soybean varieties. To isolate soybean-associated root microbes, soil from 5 different soybean fields located within Wood County, Ohio, were collected and used to grow susceptible (Williams) and resistant (Williams82) soybean varieties under greenhouse conditions. Soybean seedlings were allowed to grow for 4 to 7 days, and rhizosphere and endophytic microorganisms were extracted from the soil surrounding soybean roots of both varieties. These microbial suspensions were coated onto susceptible soybean seedlings followed by inoculation with P. sojae. Microbial extract from Williams82 plants grown in the soils of location D (GPS coordinates; 41.40824, -83.702) showed enhanced resistance against P. sojae infection in Williams, indicating microbial mechanisms might be involved in disease suppression. Culturable rhizosphere and endophytic bacteria were isolated from the microbial suspensions of location D, which were then identified by 16S rDNA analysis followed by BLASTN and phylogenetic analysis (Mega 7). Identification of 8 representative colonies showed that they are bacteria in the genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Agrobacterium, Rhizobium and Sphingobacterium. Williams and William82 both contain Pseudomonas and Bacillus while Agrobacterium, Rhizobium and Sphingobacterium species are found to associate with only Williams82.

Poster Board No. 126 - DETERMINING HIV INFECTIVITY BY OVEREXPRESSING CXCR4 AND CCR5 PROTEINS. Riley K. Figueroa (1,2),, (H.W. Kest1er (1),, 225 Kansas Ave., Lorain OH 44052, Virginia E. Ford (1),, Leena S. Boone (1,2),, Jennifer M. Ortega (1,2), jenniferortega73@gmail. com, Kyle E. Patton (1,2),, (1) Lorain County Community College, Department of Biology, Elyria OH, (2) Lorain County Early College High School, Elyria OH.

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) later progresses to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To infect a cell, HIV needs to interact with 2 receptors on a human T-cell; a primary receptor (CD4) and 1 of 2 co-receptors (CCR5 or CXCR4). It has been hypothesized that CCR5-delta32 may affect CXCR4 expression due to its effect on CCR5. A study was initiated to investigate how the CCR5-delta32 mutation effects CXCR4, and how the mutation prevents HIV from infecting the human T-cell, even when the cxcr4 is intact. The human cxcr4 was PCR amplified using primers that isolate the gene. The cxcr4 product was ligated into pLNCX2. With a successful pLNCX2-CXCR4, a bacterial transformation was performed and grown into competent E. coli cells. The cells are grown on different antibiotics, kanamycin and ampicillin, to ensure success. Successful clones were used to infect packaging cell line PT67. These cells then produce retroviral particles containing cxcr4. The retroviral particles, along with the CCR5-delta32 mutation or wild type, then infect tumor cells such as CEMX174 and H9. To determine the effect of overexpressing CXCR4 with the addition of the mutation, these cells are then infected with HIV. If the cells are infected with HIV, we can conjecture that the mutation does not affect the cells in the predetermined manner; however, if the cells are not infected with HIV, we will then conjecture that the CCR5-delta32 mutation down modulates CXCR4 along with CCR5.

Poster Board No. 127 - THE ROLE OF CYANOPHYCIN SYNTHETASE AND CYANOPHYCINASE WITH RESPECT TO NITROGEN AVAILABILITY IN PLANKTOTHRIX AGARDHII. Nicole M. Kern (1,2),, (Kathryn A. Durham (2),, Jessica Cairns (2), Dulce Cintron (3), Eleana Cintron (3), Arianna Diaz (3), Mia Diaz (3), Sijoon Jeon (2), Deanna A. Leatherwood (3), Alexa Plantado (1,2), Taylor Webber (1,2), Jacob R. Wyatt (1,2), Sunny S. Dickerson (1,2),, Michelle J. Neudeck (1,2),, George S. Bullerjahn (1),, R. Michael McKay, PhD (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green OH, (2) Lorain County Community College, Science and Mathematics Department, 1005 N. Abbe Road, Elyria OH 44035, (3) Lorain County Early College High School, Elyria OH.

Unlike the phosphorus dependent algal blooms of western Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay's cyanobacterium Planktothrix agardhii blooms are often dependent on nitrogen inputs. Nitrogen levels of the bay drop significantly by midsummer, but the blooms persist, despite the fact that P. agardhii is a nondiazatrophic organism. Certain strains of cyanobacteria house 2 genes that are responsible for nitrogen storage and utilization. cphA encodes the enzyme cyanophycin synthetase that synthesizes a nitrogen storage polymer of arginine and aspartic acid called cyanophycin. cphB encodes the enzyme cyanophycinase that breaks down cyanophycin. The presence of these 2 genes in Sandusky Bay Pa strain was demonstrated through PCR. It is expected that cphA should be expressed when nitrogen is replete and that cphB should be expressed during nitrogen depletion. In this experiment, 2 cultures of P. agardhii were grown in BG-11 media. The culture was divided, centrifuged and resuspended: one in BG-11 and one in nitrogen-free BG-11. Every 3 days a portion of each culture was filtered for chlorophyll a and RNA was extracted. Furthermore, the color of the cultures was observed daily for signs of nutrient stress. The experiment continued until the nitrogen free culture showed significant signs of chlorosis. The levels of chlorophyll a were determined using a fluorometer to measure any difference between the 2 cultures. RT-PCR was performed on the RNA extracted from the cultures using primers for cphA and cphB to monitor the expression of those genes.

Poster Board No. 128 - DAY-LIGHT INTENSITY DOES NOT ALTER MELATONIN PRODUCTION OR THE GUT-ASSOCIATED BACTERIAL MICROBIOME OF ZOO-HOUSED POTTOS (PERODICTICUS POTTO). Olivia Keserich (1),, Tyler Tanto (1),, Ellen L. Kuerbitz (2),, Patricia M. Dennis (2,3),, (Katherine L. Krynak (1),, (1) Ohio Northern University, Department of Biological and Allied Health Sciences, Ada OH 45810, (2) The Ohio State University, College of Veterinary Medicine, (3) Cleveland Metroparks Zoo, Conservation and Science Department.

Melatonin, a hormone associated with sleep, follows a daily secretion circadian rhythm with peak levels occurring at night. Nocturnal animals in zoos are often housed on a reversed light cycle so visitors can see active animals, housed in darkness, during daytime visiting hours. This study examines the effect of daytime lighting brightness on behavior and health of the nocturnal potto (Perodicticus potto). Recent discovery has shown an association between melatonin levels and gut-microbiomes. It was hypothesized that increasing the daytime light intensity would result in a change in activity, melatonin levels and gut microbiome. The effect of a change in daylight intensity (3.3 to 13.5 lum/[ft.sup.2]) in 2 communally housed pottos at the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo was investigated. Salivary samples were collected to measure melatonin levels associated with this change in daylight intensity. Behavioral data were collected using continuous behavioral sampling. Gut-associated bacterial communities were assessed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene region of bacterial DNA (V4 target) using Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequence samples were processed using MOTHUR and statistical analyses performed in R. Time spent active increased for 1 animal in the increased lighting intensity period. Salivary melatonin levels were found to be too low for detection and preliminary microbiome analyses indicate no relationship between daylight light intensity and the gut-associated microbiome (PERMANOVA [F.sub.(2,39)] = 1.42, p=0.16). Future studies are planned to examine if a greater increase in artificial light intensity, more closely mimicking natural daylight, would result in a change of the gut-associated microbiome and melatonin levels in these animals.

Poster Board No. 129 - THE GUT MICROBIOME AND THE HEART. Elizabeth Naugle,, Holly Dyer, Alyssa Griffith, Katherine Krynak, Elena Less, Kristen Lukas, Patricia Dennis, Ohio Northern University, 402 W. College Ave., Ada OH 45810.

Cardiac disease is the leading cause of mortality in zoo-housed gorillas. A recent study has linked cardiac disease and the gut microbiome of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), an association also seen in humans. It was hypothesized that the diet of the zoo-housed gorillas could be altered to influence the gut microbiome, perhaps to more closely resemble that of unaffected animals. To assess the relationship between diet and gut microbiome composition, the gut microbiome of 2 communally-housed male western lowland gorillas, previously diagnosed with cardiac disease, was evaluated during a prescribed dietary change. The diet was changed from a processed nutritional biscuit diet to a high fiber/low starch diet consisting primarily of leafy greens. The new diet was designed to mimic the diet of gorillas in their native habitat. Fecal samples were used to assess the gut microbiome before and after this diet change (n=16). DNA was extracted using a phenol chloroform extraction methodology and samples were sequenced amplifying the 16S rRNA gene region of bacterial DNA using Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences were processed using MOTHUR and statistical analyses (PERMANOVA and NMDS) were performed in R (V 3.4.2) to assess beta diversity of the gut bacterial community. The dietary change resulted in shift in the gut microbiome composition (PERMANOVA [F.sub.(1,15)]= 10.703, P<0.001). The use of next-generation sequencing technology will allow for the comparisons of gut-microbiomes between heart-healthy individuals from a related study and the microbiome of these heart-diseased animals after their diet alteration.

Poster Board No. 130 - SOIL AGGREGATION BY STREPTOMYCES BACTERIA. Daniel J. Sedlacek,, Ashley Reinert,, Kathryn Morris,, Xavier University, 3800 Victory Parkway, Cincinnati OH 45207.

Experiments were conducted to assess the potential for Streptomyces bacteria to aggregate soil. Soil microbes known to stabilize soils are abundant and have filamentous growth habits that allow for enmeshing soil particles. Streptomyces exhibit both characteristics. Soil aggregation is an important ecosystem function provided by some soil microbes. Well aggregated soils hold more air and water, resist erosion, and sequester large amounts of carbon. The purpose of this study was to observe and quantify the ability of 4 Streptomyces strains to create soil aggregates from unstructured soil. Soil was crushed to 500 [micro]m particles and half was sterilized before being mixed with an equal mass of unsterilized crushed soil, and then inoculated with Streptomyces. Controls were treated with sterile growth medium, and 5 replicates were set up for each treatment. After inoculation and incubation, the samples were dried and measured for aggregation. This was done by placing the samples in a set of 4 sieves of decreasing mesh size which were submerged in a pail of water. The sieves were agitated, and the soil particles settled until trapped in a given sieve. The total mass of aggregates on each sieve was used to calculate the amount of aggregation compared to the controls to determine the effectiveness of each strain. The data were analyzed using an ANOVA with treatment as the factor. Half of the isolates examined significantly increased the size of the aggregates produced over 4 weeks (F9,56 = 8.5, p<0.0001). This research has important implications for soil conservation, nutrient retention and carbon sequestration.

Poster Board No. 131 - 3,4 METHELYNE-DIOXYMETAMPHETAMINE (MDMA) TREATMENT IN RAT ALTERS THE GUT MICROBIOTA POPULATION. Sayantan Roy Choudhury,, Emily Ann Ridge,, Jon Eric Sprague,, Raymond Anthony Larsen,, Vipaporn Phuntumart,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The gut microbiome is inhabited by at least a hundred trillion microorganisms which play a fundamental role in health, diseases and immune responses in humans. Previous studies have highlighted the ability of gut micro-organisms to communicate with the brain and modulate behavioral responses in diseases such as diabetes, inflammatory bowel syndrome, Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the alteration of the microbial population in the gut of rats in response to 3,4 methelyne-dioxymetamphetamine (MDMA) administration. To obtain the gut microbiome, fecal samples from animals before treatment and cecal contents from the animals at 90 minutes post-MDMA and saline treatment were collected and suspended in sterile phosphate buffered saline. Serial dilutions of samples were then carried out by plating on Leuria-Bertini (LB) agar plates. The plates were incubated overnight at 37 [degrees]C. The results showed no significant difference in numbers of bacterial colonies among animals after MDMA treatment as opposed to control animals treated with saline. Intriguingly, swarming colonies of bacteria were observed in the plates derived from cecal contents of rats treated with MDMA indicating changing behaviors of some bacteria in response to MDMA. A combination of biochemical tests, selective media and molecular identification of 16S rRNA gene revealed these bacterial swarmers were in the genus Proteus. This study indicates administration of MDMA changes the gut microbial composition, but the impact of this change is unknown.

Poster Board No. 132 - PERACETIC ACID--A SOLUTION TO CONTROL THE FISH PATHOGEN, SAPROLEGNIA SP. Satyaki Ghosh (1),, Sudhan Pachhain (1),, Joseph S. Toguchi (1),, David L. Straus (2),, Vipaporn Phuntumart (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403, (2) Harry K. Dupree Stuttgart National Aquaculture Research Centre, Stuttgart AR.

Saprolegniasis is a serious emergent disease of fish in both natural and commercial systems, causing losses approximately $40 million annually in the USA. It is caused by Saprolegnia, an oomycete pathogen, which can infect all life stages of fish. Peracetic acid (PAA) is being proposed as a control agent against Saprolegniasis, because it degrades readily in the environment, and leaves behind no toxic residues. The effect of PAA on Saprolegnia sp. growth was analyzed in vitro, by agar plate assays. Prior to subculture, mycelial plugs were treated with 0 (control), 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L PAA for 15 minutes (n=10, per concentration). Surface area of mycelia representing Saprolegnia sp. growth was measured daily for 5 days, using ImageJ v1.4. Growth reduction was observed at all of the PAA concentrations tested, compared to control, with 33%, 40%, 66% and 100% reduction, at 20, 25, 30 and 35 mg/L PAA, respectively. The same in vitro assay showed that PAA also reduced the growth of other oomycete fish pathogens, including Saprolegnia ferax (100% reduction at 20 mg/L), and Aphanomyces astaci (67% reduction at 30 mg/L). These results indicated that PAA could be a potential control agent for saprolegniasis. PAA degradation assay was performed spectrophotometrically, and it showed that water samples with higher organic matter content had a faster PAA degradation (half-life = 30 minutes) than waters with low organic matter content (half-life > 4 hours). Therefore, water quality needs to be considered when using PAA as a treatment for saprolegniasis.

Poster Board No. 133 - MONITORING HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 70 AND HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN 90 DURING HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS TYPE 1 INFECTION. Jordan P. Bagheri,, Adam C. Underwood,, Darlene G. Walro,, Walsh University, Dept. of Biology, 2020 East Maple St., North Canton OH 44720-3336.

Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) causes oral and genital lesions and is one of the most commonly acquired human pathogens. Although the virus can code for many of its own proteins needed during virus infection, HSV still requires host proteins to complete the replication cycle. Heat shock proteins (HSP's) constitute a highly conserved family of proteins that have been shown to assist in protein maturation and genome expression in infections with enterovirus. This laboratory is investigating the role of cellular HSP 70 and HSP 90 during HSV infection. Previous work by western immunoblot demonstrated that HSP70 increased 4-fold in HSV-infected cells until 6 hours post-infection and then leveled off to 2-fold the level found in mock-infected cells. The amount of HSP90 did not change over the 12 hour course of the virus infection. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to determine whether transcription of the HSP's was affected during virus infection. Results of qPCR showed that HSP70 transcription increased until 6 hours post-infection but HSP90 transcription did not change over the course of the infection. Subcellular fractionation of infected cells indicated that HSP70 accumulated in the cytoplasm of the cell. These findings are consistent with the possibility that HSP70 rather than HSP90 is upregulated during HSV infection and may be used during virus protein production in the cytoplasm. These results demonstrate not only an important mechanism of HSP70 in facilitating HSV replication, but also a potential target for antiviral drug development.

Poster Board No. 134 - EXPRESSION OF NATIVE AND MUTATED ACVR1 IN TRANSIENTLY TRANSFECTED HUMAN A375 MELANOMA CELLS. Kristen N. Bricker (1),, Deborah R. Nascimento (2),, Durval B. Palliares (2), dbpalhares@hotmail. com, Marilene G. Palhares (2), br. Amy Milsted (1),, Almir S. Martins (3),, Joseph Lupica (1),, Adam Underwood (1),, (1) Walsh University, 2020 East Maple St. NE, North Canton OH 44720, (2) Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande/MS, Brasil. (3) Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte/MG, Brasil.

Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva (FOP) is a condition leading to ossification of soft tissue subjected to trauma. This condition is linked to a heterozygous mutation of the Activin A Receptor type 1 (ACVR1) gene expressing a protein that encodes histidine (H) ratber than arginine (R) at residue 206 (R206H). This mutation is located in an intracellular glycine-serine activation domain leading to ligand independent activation of ACVR1. While antiinflammatory compounds are used to curtail severity of FOP flare-ups, there is no cure for this condition. However, administration of ascorbic acid (AA) has been shown to possibly play a role in stabilizing progression of FOP, although the mechanism is unknown. To begin to identify a mode of action for AA, the coding region of ACVR1 was cloned into the pEF1/Myc-HIS expression vector to generate pEF1/ACVR1 and pEF1/ACVR1-R206H constructs. Conditions were optimized to express and detect ACVR1 and ACVR1-R206H in human A375 melanoma cells to examine whether human A375 cells transiently transfected with either pEF1/ACVR1 or pEF1/ACVR1-R206H constructs will express native or mutated ACVR1 fusion proteins. To begin, 7.5X104 A375 cells were seeded in a 35 mm plate and incubated 24 hours followed by transfection with either native or mutated construct. After 24 hours, protein was collected, quantified, and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS PAGE) and western blot analysis using a goat anti-Myc epitope HRP conjugated primary antibody (Bethyl). Both pEF1 expression constructs expressed ACVR1, but further research is needed to determine whether or not the therapeutic potential of AA is being addressed.

Poster Board No. 135 - GENERATION OF NATIVE AND MUTATED PEF1/SOX18 MYC-HIS EXPRESSION CONSTRUCTS TO DETERMINE THE IMPACT OF AMINO ACID EXCHANGE ON NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION. Kristen N. Bricker (1),, Daniel Rasicci (1),, Amy Milsted (1),, Jeremy Prokop (2),, Adam Underwood (1),, (1) Walsh University, 2020 East Maple St. NE, North Canton OH 44720, (2) HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology.

SOX proteins are transcription factors containing a conserved High Mobility Group-box (HMG-box) DNA-binding domain that regulate embryogenesis and tissue maintenance. Mutations often result in cancer, developmental abnormalities, sex reversal, and circulatory dysfunction. Genomic analysis of 20 human SOX genes identified a mutation in the HMG-box of SOX18 that exchanges glutamic acid (E) for lysine (K). Mutation E137K is predicted to modify ability of SOXl8 to localize to the nucleus. No literature exists regarding E137K, although it is present in 0.82% of Latino population (as predicted in our analysis). The purpose of this project is to produce native and mutated SOX18 expression constructs to determine if nuclear localization is altered. The hypothesis is: SOX18 proteins encoding the E137K mutation will exhibit reduced nuclear accumulation compared to non-mutated SOX18 expressed in transiently transfected CHO cells. Human SOX18 was cloned into pEF1/Myc-HIS expression vector, followed by site-directed mutagenesis to synthesize pEF1/SOX18-E137K. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells were transfected with either native or mutated construct, or control (pEF1/Myc-HIS), in glass chamber slides. After 24 hours, cells were fixed in methanol, blocked, and SOX18 fusion proteins detected using c-Myc Antibody (9E10) Alexa Fluor[R] 488 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Inc.), diluted 1:800 in blocking solution. CHO were mounted in DAPI-containing medium, and micrographs captured on an Olympus iX51 with DP71 digital camera. Controls showing antibody specificity include CHO transfected with SOX18 incubated with PBS in place of primary antibody. From these trials, it was determined that E137K reduces nuclear localization of SOX18. Future experiments focusing on altered DNA binding and SOX18 homodimerization are underway.

Poster Board No. 136 - THE EFFECT OF HEROIN ON VITAMIN B12 ABSORPTION. Mackenzie G. Durdak,, (Somanth Dutta,, Defiance College, 701 N. Clinton Street, Defiance OH 43512.

Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that is used in the development of different physiological and cellular processes within the body. B12 is commonly used in the brain to synthesize amino acids and neurotransmitters in order to create neurochemical synthesis. Previous studies have found that opiates such as heroin interfere with the effectiveness of certain vitamins in the body. Although it is known from these studies that heroin use may interfere with the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins such as A and D, it is not known what effect heroin has on vitamin B12 absorption. The purpose of this study is to determine what effect heroin use has on the water-soluble vitamin B12. This experiment requires the use of 27 mice, divided into 3 separate subgroups of 9 mice each, all maintained on a B12 deficient diet provided ad libitum. The control group will receive one i.p. injection of physiological saline. The second group of mice will receive 1 i.p. injection of vitamin B12, to produce a known amount of the vitamin within the body. The final group of mice will receive both vitamin B12 and heroin injections every other day. Two milligrams of heroin per kilogram of body mass will be administered during each injection. Serum levels of vitamin B12 will be determined postmortem. Briefly, sera is reacted with the fluorescent adduct 3-bromomethyl-6,7-dimethoxy-1-methyl-1,2-dihydroquinoxaline-2-one (DMEQ). The fluorescently conjugated vitamin B12 is analyzed using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and detected spectrofluorometrically.

Poster Board No. 137 - OBTAINING A CCR5 KNOCKOUT USING THE CRISPR/CAS9 SYSTEM. Weizhuan He,, (Harry W. Kestler,, Isaiah Hagwood, Kayla S. Zamborsky,, Lorain County Community College, 1005 N. Abbe Rd., Elyria OH 44035.

Some survivors of the Black Plague, caused by Yersenia pestis, have a selective advantage in that they lack a functional ccr5 gene. A 32 base pair deletion mutation, ccr5 delta 32, confers resistance to Yersenia pestis and HIV infections. Timothy Ray Brown, the only known person to be cured of both HIV and leukemia, received a bone marrow transplant from a homozygous donor who had the ccr5 delta 32 mutation. CCR5 is one of two secondary receptors for entry of the virus into human T-cells. It has been hypothesized that the amino-terminus of the CCR5 delta 32 protein can exert a negative regulatory effect on wild type CCR5 as well as CXCR4, the other secondary co-receptor. This study was designed to determine the effect of the complete removal of the ccr5 gene in human cells in vivo. Gene editing was performed using the CRISPR/Cas9 system to eliminate the expression of the CCR5 protein by removing a section of the sequence from both copies of the ccr5 gene. The human T-cell line, H9, was co-transfected with one plasmid containing the guide RNA sequences that has homology to the amino-terminus of the ccr5 gene and the CRISPR/Cas9 and a second plasmid containing a puromycin resistance gene. Puromycin toxicity was determined by serially diluting puromycin into medium and then counting cells. Transformants were obtained by puromycin selection at 21 days after transfection. The presence of the gene in transfected cells was confirmed by PCR of the puromycin gene.

Poster Board No. 138 - ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL MUTATION LOCATED IN THE CCR5 GENE WITH POTENTIAL EFFECTS ON HIV INFECTIVITY. Elianis G. Osorio (1,2),, (Harry Kestler,, Kennedy A. Figueroa (1),, Emily C. Negron,, Octavia J. Whitfield (1),, (1) Lorain County Community College, 1005 N. Abbe Rd., Elyria OH 44035, (2) 4259 Miami Ave., Lorain OH 44053.

A novel mutation in the ccr5 gene, which codes for the CCR5 protein, was found in a child of an African-American family. The mother contracted HIV before the birth of her first child in the early 1980s, and after she contracted the virus, she unknowingly exposed all 5 of her children to HIV through natural childbirth. Of the 5 children, the second born did not acquire the infection even though she was exposed to the virus at birth. The mother and the infected children all shed genetically similar virus, with the similarity inversely correlated with birth order. A missense point mutation in the cytoplasmic domain of the child's ccr5 gene was discovered. The mutation (TG5) changes a lysine codon at position 314 into an arginine codon. The allele containing the TG5 mutation was cloned into pCR[R]4-TOPO[R] Vector and was then sub-cloned into pLNCX2, the retroviral plasmid vector. Clones made from pLNCX2-TG5 will be used to transfect the packaging cell line PT67 which will assemble viral particles containing the TG5 mutation. The retroviral particles will be recovered and introduced into an H9 cell line as well as others, and the expression of the TG5 gene in H9 and its effect on HIV infectivity will be tested. It has been reported that CCR5 delta 32 can down-modulate wild-type CCR5 and CXCR4, and the ability of TG5 to down-modulate wild-type CCR5 and CXCR4 will be evaluated.

Poster Board No. 139 - EXPRESSION PATTERN OF THE CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEIN CALRETICULIN IN A MAMMALIAN CIRCADIAN CLOCK. Tyler M. Birkholz,, Dilshan H. Beligala,, Arpan De,, Michael E. Geusz,, Bowling Green State University, Dept. of Biological Sciences and J.P. Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind, and Behavior, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the principal circadian pacemaker of mammals. Retinal signals passing directly to the SCN through the optic nerve synchronize the clock's circadian rhythms to daily environmental cycles. These circadian rhythms are driven by clock gene transcription-translation feedback loops within individual cells. Cytosolic [Ca.sup.2+]mobilization, driven by the release of [Ca.sup.2+] from ryanodine-sensitive internal stores, has been shown to modify gene transcription within SCN neurons causing a shift in the phase of the circadian clock. Several calcium-binding proteins have been examined in the SCN for their role in the circadian clock. Calreticulin (CALR) is a major regulator of [Ca.sup.2+] levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and shows elevated expression in the SCN according to RNA in situ hybridization results. CALR interacts with ryanodine receptors of the ER to influence [Ca.sup.2+] release, yet its function within the SCN is largely unknown. To identify CALR protein distribution in the SCN we performed immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy of brain slices containing adult mouse SCN along with Hoechst staining to identify cell nuclei. Imaging revealed positive CALR expression along the inferior side of the SCN above the optic chiasm. Some of the cells also expressed SOX2 protein, a regulator of embryonic and adult neurogenesis. These early results show previously unknown expression of CALR within the SCN where retinal axons project to SCN neurons, suggesting that CALR could serve in this pathway of light signals to the clock that maintains its entrainment to the daily rhythms in the external environment.

Poster Board No. 140 - THE RELATIVE REWARD EFFECT: INSTRUMENTAL AND CONSUMMATORY CONTRAST FOR SUCROSE IN SPRAGUE-DAWLEY AND ALCOHOL-PREFERRING (P) RATS. Justin J. McGraw,, Robert S. Goldsmith,, Erin A. Tepe,, (Howard C. Cromwell,, Bowling Green State University, 1082 Fairview Ave., Apt. W6, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Relative reward effects highlight the impact of reward value shifts on goal-directed behavior. A popular method used to study relative reward effects is incentive contrast. Positive contrast is an upshift or increase in behavior toward an outcome due to an alternative while negative contrast is the opposite. The ability to compare rewards and utilize value shifts to make advantageous decisions may be altered in alcohol use disorders. We examined the reward comparison abilities of Sprague-Dawley (SD) and alcohol-preferring (P) rats in an operant task using 12 sucrose solution pairings to determine potential line differences in incentive contrast before P rat alcohol exposure. Animals underwent a repeated-measures design consisting of 2 single outcome blocks separated by a mixed outcome block. Appetitive and consummatory measures were used to assess positive and negative contrast toward single outcomes relative to those outcomes when they were compared to alternatives. Preliminary data in unrestricted animals show that alcohol-naive P rats are more vigilant to obtain sucrose and exhibit higher reward seeking and sucrose intake than SD rats. P rats also show more generalized responding and a complete lack of appetitive and consummatory contrast. Unrestricted SD rats show more reliable consummatory contrast as opposed to appetitive contrast. Results suggest that alcohol-naive P rats have inherent predispositions to outcome insensitivity and disrupted reward comparison abilities which are crucial in guiding goal-directed behavior. Future work will examine the impact of food restriction on contrast, alcohol's effect on contrast in P rats, and contrast effects on P rat alcohol consumption.

Poster Board No. 141 - ORDER EFFECTS ALTER WORK EFFORT IN RAT MODEL OF FREE CHOICE. Zackery T. Knauss,, Marko Filipovic,, Joseph A. Lubera,, Najae M. Bolden,, Melanie M. Queener,, Jasmine P. Smith,, Robert S. Goldsmith,, Kylee A. Smith,, Jacob E. Bischoff,, Alex Price,, Howard C. Cromwell,, Bowling Green State University, John Paul Scott Center for Neuroscience, Mind and Behavior and the Department of Psychology, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Examining the external and internal factors involved in motivation to work using animal models (e.g., rodent model) is an important question for psychological and behavioral sciences. The role of effort on work output has been a key variable under investigation. Previous work is highly limited, showing animals inconsistently choose higher effort work options and generally find effort aversive. A goal of the present study is to increase preference for effortful work. The methods included utilizing controlled testing experiences originating with completion of high effort options for greater reward. Our procedures tested choice for different effort options using a free-foraging task that allows animals to self-pace behavior and explore within a larger testing environment. Animals chose between a high effort option (5 lever press) with shifting reward outcome value either food magnitude descending (5, 4, 2, 1 pellets) or ascending (1, 2, 4, 5 pellets) over a 4-week period. Each week the alternative option was low effort and low reward (1 lever press for 1 pellet). Work motivation/output was determined using analysis of high effort reward discrimination, preference and incentive contrast between testing weeks. An order effect was observed with animals working harder and choosing the greater effort option significantly more when rewards were in descending order of magnitude as compared to ascending order. Further analysis will focus on a set of dependent variables including place preference, approach and consumption measures. In addition, the results allow for an analysis of error rates when obtaining reward options in different choice contexts. These findings suggest that rats experiencing higher levels of work initially will continue to choose a higher effort work option more often even when costs of food reward increase compared to a lower effort option. Results can lead to novel methods for understanding key factors involved in work aversion or justification, testing the impact of drugs of abuse on motivation, and exploring brain substrates of reward processing related to effort.

Poster Board No. 142 - CONSTRUCTION OF A LOW COST, FIXED STAGE MICROSCOPE FOR EXPERIMENTS IN NEUROSCIENCE. Mallory Soska,, David C. Sheridan,, Otterbein University, Department of Biology & Earth Science, 1 South Grove Street, Westerville OH 43081.

A fixed stage microscope is essential for electrophysiological studies of the rodent brain. Epifluorescent fixed stage scopes cost approximately $50,000, a prohibitive price tag for labs with limited funding or at non-R01 teaching universities. The goal of this project was to systematically add or subtract commercially available, recycled, or engineered components to improve the capabilities and flexibility of a modular microscope. The Phase 1 microscope produced brightfield images of biological specimens that rivaled those captured with higher end commercial microscopes. In Phase 2, an excitation LED (approximately 465 nm, blue) and emission filter (515 nm long pass) were added to permit epifluorescence imaging of AlexaFluor[R] 488 stained convoluted tubules and glomeruli in a prepared slide of mouse kidney section. Phase 3 involved engineering or 3D printing rapidly interchangeable filter set components for detection of multiple types of fluorescent proteins. The final, Phase 4 microscope, the CardyScope, included the listed features as well as light polarizers, Nomarski prisms, and water immersion objectives to allow for differential interference contrast (DIC) imaging of rodent brain tissue slices and neurons for in vitro anatomical and electrophysiological experiments. The cost of the final, fixed stage microscope was approximately $6,000 and had functional capabilities comparable to higher end microscopes. The cost and functionality of these modular microscopes make it possible for underfunded laboratories to conduct neuroscience experiments that promote student learning.

Poster Board No. 143 - ENHANCING THE DIRECT VISUALIZATION OF MICROGELS VIA SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY. Tony D. Dobrila (1,2),, Kiril A. Streletzky (1),, Petru S. Fodor (1), (1) Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH, (2) 6903 Regal Drive, Parma OH 44129.

To gain a greater understanding of the dynamics of microgels in solution, their volume phase transition, and to correlate images of individual particles with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) data on their diffusion, 2 sample preparation techniques were developed to enhance the imaging obtained using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microgels are micelles of amphiphilic polymers, making them a viable drug delivery mechanism. Direct visualization of microgels is important in understanding their dynamics and size distribution. Accurate imaging of such systems is challenging as microgels lose water content under the standard high vacuum SEM protocols. To address this issue, a controlled environment chamber was first developed, allowing the microgels to dry over a longer period of time at higher humidity levels than standard room conditions. A humidity sensor in a control loop was used to monitor the environment inside the chamber. The humidity was then set using controlled evaporation from a buffer reservoir. Using the controlled humidity environment allowed microgels to better maintain their original structure for imaging and produced microgel size distributions more consistent with DLS. Another sample preparation method used for microgel imaging was suspending particles in ionic liquid (1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium Trifluoromethanesulfonate). Lower vapor pressures and higher ionic concentrations of these suspensions allowed the capture of real-time microgel dynamics. Microgels in ionic liquids were observed to be smaller than expected, while maintaining size distribution uniformity observed by DLS. Such observations could be due to charge screening or the increased salt concentration due to the ionic liquid.

Poster Board No. 144 - TUNING THE PHASE AND MICROSTRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF Ti[O.sub.2] FILMS THROUGH PULSED LASER DEPOSITION AND EXPLORING THEIR ROLES AS BUFFER LAYERS FOR CONDUCTIVE FILMS. Eryn B. Doyle,, Sahil Agarwal,, and Farida A. Selim,, Bowling Green State University, Physics and Astronomy Department, 806 Ridge St., Bowling Green OH 43403.

Titanium oxide (Ti[O.sub.2]) is a semiconducting oxide of increasing interest due to its chemical and thermal stability and broad applicability. In this study, thin films of Ti[O.sub.2] were deposited by pulsed laser deposition on sapphire and silicon substrates under various growth conditions and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), optical absorption spectroscopy and Hall-effect measurements. XRD patterns reveal that a sapphire substrate is more suitable for formation of the rutile phase in Ti[O.sub.2] while a silicon substrate yields a pure anatase phase, even at high temperature growth. AFM images indicates that the rutile Ti[O.sub.2] films grown at 805 [degrees]C on sapphire substrate have a smoother surface than anatase films grown at 620 [degrees]C. Optical absorption spectra confirmed the band gap energy of 3.08 eV for the rutile phase and 3.29 eV for the anatase phase. All the deposited films exhibited the usual high resistivity of Ti[O.sub.2], however when employed as a buffer layer, anatase Ti[O.sub.2] deposited on sapphire significantly improves the conductivity of Indium Gallium Zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films. The study illustrates how to control the formation of Ti[O.sub.2] phases and reveals another interesting application for Ti[O.sub.2] as a buffer layer for transparent conducting oxides.

Poster Board No. 145 - NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HIGH EFFICIENCY ALL-BACK-CONTACT PHOTOVOLTAICS USING LONG LIFETIME CADMIUM TELLURIDE. Christopher K. Pyles (1,2),, Marco Nardone (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green OH, (2) 5333 W. Arlington Park Blvd., Fort Wayne IN 46835.

The concept of All-Back-Schottky-Contact (ABSC) thin-film photovoltaic (TFPV) devices was recently introduced as a means to reduce the cost of solar electricity while improving reliability. Rather than a typical p-n junction, electron-hole pair separation is achieved by Schottky junctions formed between the semiconductor and interdigitated, bi-metallic back contacts. This type of device minimizes the number of semiconductor layers and removes the need for extrinsic doping to build a high efficiency device. Here, theoretical study is presented of the optimal parameter set for an ABSC device that employs long-lifetime, polycrystalline cadmium telluride (CdTe) as the absorber layer and CdMgTe as a passivation layer. The parameter space includes relevant geometric and material properties. The Poisson equation coupled with the continuity equations for electrons and holes in an illuminated semiconductor device are solved using the finite element method (COMSOL Multiphysics[R] software) to simulate device performance and determine the power conversion efficiency. It is determined that >20% efficiency can be achieved for a reasonable device architecture as long as surface defects are effectively passivated. These results provide guidance for the fabrication of a prototype.

Poster Board No. 146 - STUDYING THE EFFECT OF CROSS-LINKER ON POLYMERIC MICROGELS. Samantha C. Tietjen (1,2),, Samantha Hudson (3), Kiril A. Streletzky (1). (1) Cleveland State University, Cleveland OH, (2) 4530 Poe Road, Medina OH 44256, (3) Hiram College, Hiram OH.

Microgels are spherical particles suspended in solution, comprised of crosslinked polymer chains. Due to the amphiphilic property of the parent polymer, microgels display a temperature dependent volume phase transition (de-swelling), and thus have the potential to be used for drug delivery. Previous studies suggest that increasing the concentrations of the chemical cross-linker reduces the hydrodynamic radius ([R.sub.h]) and the de-swelling ability, thus primary experiments focused on the variation of cross-linker to polymer ratios. Microgels were synthesized using the polysaccharide polymer hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and chemical cross-linker divinyl sulfone (DVS), in a surfactant solution. Synthesized particles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS) for temperature and angular dependence to study their shape and determine the apparent [R.sub.h] of the swollen and de-swollen states. Initial microgel synthesis revealed a dependence of [R.sub.h] on microgel concentration in samples, requiring a correction for infinite sample dilution during analysis. Increasing DVS:HPC ratio from 1 to 30 causes [R.sub.h] to decrease from 150 to 190 nm at 25 [degrees]C, and from 65 to 95 nm at 50 [degrees]C. Ratios from 40 to 50 resulted in swelling from 70 nm at 25 [degrees]C to 165 nm at 50 [degrees]C. At a ratio of 60, an apparent bulk gelation occurred. The increase in DVS:HPC ratio allowed for the controlled synthesis of more compact microgels that display reversible temperature controlled deswelling. However, at ratios above 30, particles were found to grow in size above the transition temperature.

Poster Board No. 147 - CHARACTERIZATION OF DEFECTS IN B-GA2O3 THIN FILM GROWN BY METAL ORGANIC CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION. Armando Hernandez,, Sahil Agarwal, Pooneh Saadatkia, Farida A. Selim,, Bowling Green State University, Center for Photochemical Sciences, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green Ohio 43403.

[beta]-gallium(III)oxide ([Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3])is emerging as a semiconducting material of great interest for fabrication and advancement of high powered devices because of its very wide bandgap, excellent electrical properties and high breakdown voltage. In this work, epitaxial films of as-grown and Si doped [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] were fabricated by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermoluminescence (TL) and Hall effect measurements. The XRD patterns revealed formation of pure epitaxial [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] phase. Luminescence was recorded in the range of 200 to 800 nm using TL between -190 [degrees]C to 360 [degrees]C to detect all emission centers. An electron trap was identified at very low temperatures. Electrical properties including resistivity, density and mobility were determined using Hall effect measurements. This study illustrates an efficient method to grow pure epitaxial [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] as well as identify its fundamental properties and investigate the role of defects.

Poster Board No. 148 - STUDY OF ELECTRONIC DEFECTS IN [beta]-Ga2O3 SINGLE CRYSTALS USING THERMOLUMINESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY. Md Minhazhul Islam (1,2),, Dhan Rana (2),, Armando Hernandez (1,2),, Farida A. Selim (1,2),, (1) Center for Photochemical Sciences, (2) Bowling Green State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green OH 43403.

The presence of electronic defects in gallium oxide single crystals greatly affects the transport of electrons and excitons. The origin of these electronic defects could be the anion/cation vacancies or the incorporation of impurities into the crystals during the growth process. The defects can act as electron/exciton traps. Consequently, they can affect the optical as well as electrical properties of [Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] crystals by introducing intermediate energy levels in the bandgap. Identification of the nature of the defects is crucial for the successful application of [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] in optoelectronics. Both shallow and deep level defects in [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] single crystals were studied using temperature and wavelength resolved thermoluminescence spectroscopy. Undoped, Fe-doped, Sn-doped and Mg-doped [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] single crystals have been studied. Thermal activation energies of defects have been calculated using multiple heating rates and/or initial rise method depending on the kinetics and suitability. Undoped [Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] exhibited three, Fe-doped four, and Mg-doped two luminescence peaks associated with respective defect energy levels. Sn-doped [Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] did not display any luminescence peak. The defects were found to be related to oxygen vacancies and iron impurities. Optical absorption spectroscopy was performed on the samples and bandgaps were calculated from Taue plot. It was found that the dopants do not change the bandgap. Hall effect measurements were carried out for all samples in identical conditions and electrical parameters were determined at room temperature.

Poster Board No. 149 - ELECTRICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CZ (CZOCHRALSKI) AND EFG GROWN [beta]- GA2O3 USING MMR HALL EFFECT MEASUREMENT SYSTEM. Dhan B. Rana (1,2),, Pooneh Saadatkia (1),, Farida A Selim (1),, (1) Bowling Green State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green OH, (2) 834 4th Street, Apt. #6, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Gallium oxide ([Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] is the widest band gap (4.8 to 5.0 ev) transparent (up to UV-C range) semiconducting oxide known so far. Due to large band gap and expected Baliga's figure of merit (FOM), it possesses excellent material properties for high power device applications. It exists in 5 different polymorphs ([alpha], [beta], [gamma], [delta] and [epsilon]), [beta] being the most stable polymorphs throughout all temperature. Electrical characterization of CZ (Czochralski) grown and EFG (edge defined film fed growth) grown sample was carried out by using MMR Hall effect measurement system, which uses Van der Pauw technique. The electrical contacts on the samples were made using indium and the electrical transport properties were evaluated. The conductivity of samples was found to be highly dependent on doping material. Un-doped [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] single crystal is highly resistive ([approximately equal to] [10.sup.7] ohm*cm), but the Sn-doped [beta]-[Ga.sub.2][O.sub.3] has substantially decreased resistivity. The resistivity of Mg-doped and Fe-doped samples were relatively higher than the undoped samples. Positron annihilation measurements were conducted to investigate the effect of compensating defects on conductivity.

Poster Board No. 150 - POSITRON MEASUREMENT OF TRANSIENT PHOTOCONDUCTIVITY IN OXIDES. Pooneh Saadatkia (1,2),, Petr Stepanov (1,2), Farida Selim (1,2), (1) Center for Photochemical Sciences, (2) Bowling Green State University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Complex oxides with the AB[O.sub.3] perovskite crystal structure reveal a range of spectacular phenomena such as superconductivity, ferroelectricity, and metal-insulator transitions. SrTi[O.sub.3], has been the focus of intense research in the world of oxide materials due to its functional, dielectric and ferroelectric properties. Vacancies are usually suggested to be the dominant point defects in perovskite oxides which significantly affect the material properties. Therefore, identifying the nature of vacancy defects is crucial to understand the origin of novel phenomena in complex oxides such as room temperature persistent and transient photoconductivity in bulk single crystals of STO, as well as unusual thermo-luminescence and photoluminescence behavior of STO during phase transition. This can be achieved using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) which is an excellent technique to identify vacancy-related point defects in materials on the atomic scale. PALS and digital coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy have been applied to examine the presence of defects and their role in room temperature photoconductivity of bulk STO single crystals.

Poster Board No. 151 - EFFECTS OF POPULATION DENSITY AND FOOD AVAILABILITY ON XENOPUS METABOLIC RATE AND ORGAN SIZE. Muna M. Ahmed,, Nikolina Stefanova,, (Sarah Bouchard,, Otterbein University, Dept. of Life Sciences, 1 S. Grove St., Westerville OH 43081.

Standard metabolic rate is the energy expended by a resting organism. Studies suggest that metabolic rate may be plastic in response to developmental conditions. Such plasticity could help organisms survive low resource environments. Changes in metabolic rate could occur via changes in organ size, such as the gut and the brain. African clawed frog tadpoles, Xenopus laevis, were reared at low and high population densities with low or high food levels. The hypothesis was that tadpoles reared with low food levels (at either low or high density) would have lower metabolic rates, larger guts, and smaller brains than those reared at high food levels. Tadpoles were reared in 12-liter tanks replicated 38 times. There were 20 low-food tanks with high (n = 10) or low densities (n = 10) and 18 high-food tanks with low (n = 9) or low densities (n = 9). High density tanks each had 15 tadpoles and low density tanks each had 3 tadpoles. Tadpole growth was determined by measuring changes in tadpole length over time. Metabolic rates were measured on at least 2 tadpoles from each tank (n = 14 to 18 tadpoles per treatment) by measuring changes in oxygen levels with closed system respirometry. Tadpoles were euthanized and preserved in 10% formalin, so that their brains and guts can be dissected and weighed. We will determine effects on organ masses from each tadpole that we dissect. Preliminary analyses suggest that tadpoles reared at low food levels have lower metabolic rates than those reared at high food levels.

Poster Board No. 152 - INCREASING MEMBRANE REPAIR AS A NOVEL THERAPEUTIC APPROACH IN THE TREATMENT OF MYOSITIS. Ana Capati,, Kevin E. McElhanon,, Thomas A. Bodnar,, Brian J. Paleo,, Eric X. Beck, eric., Aubrey L. Rose,, Wael Jarjour,, (Noah Weisleder,, The Ohio State University, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 W. 12th Ave., Columbus OH 43210.

Myositis is an idiopathic autoimmune disorder characterized by severe skeletal muscle inflammation and degeneration. Treatment is limited to systemic immunological suppression and development of future therapeutic strategies are contingent upon the elucidation of pathogenic mechanisms. Recent studies under Dr. Noah Weisleder at The Ohio State University show that muscle antigen exposure due to compromised membrane resealing accompanies myositis progression. TRIM72 is a critical facilitator of the membrane resealing process and has been identified as a novel myositis specific autoantigen (MSA). TRIM72 proteins may act as autoantigens following membrane injury, resulting in TRIM72 autoantibodies that compromise membrane resealing and increase inflammation. Using an indirect ELISA, myositis patient sera was screened for increased levels of TRIM 72 antibodies. Patient sera positive for high levels of TRIM72 antibodies (> 1 standard deviation) will be tested for membrane resealing capacity using a glass bead damage assay and human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells. Readout is intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release after membrane injury. Further experiments will utilize a multi-photon infrared laser injury assay and a lipophilic dye that fluoresces only when exposed to membrane phospholipids to quantify cellular membrane damage in the presence of positive patient sera. If TRIM72 autoantibodies prove to be crucial in myositis associated membrane-resealing impairment, it presents a potential therapeutic target. Exogenous poloxamer 188 (P188) is proven to enhance membrane-resealing capacity in muscle membranes. Later laser injury assays will be performed in the presence of P188 to investigate if there is an improvement in myositis related membrane resealing capacity.

Poster Board No. 153 - NOVEL MEMBRANE INJURY ASSAYS TO ASSESS IMPACT OF POLOXAMERS ONMEMBRANE REPAIR. Alex Carsel,, Brian Paleo, paleo.1@buckeyemail.osu.ed, Kevin McElhanon,, Eric X. Beck, eric.beck@osumc.ed, Noah Weisleder,, The Ohio State University, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 W. 12th Ave., Columbus OH 43210.

Membrane repair is an endogenous cellular process that actively reseals membrane disruptions to allow a cell to survive injuries that would normally destroy the cell. Co-block polymer (poloxamer) compounds have the capacity to increase plasma membrane repair in skeletal muscle tissue. Specifically, poloxamer 188 (P188) can increase plasma membrane repair in a number of tissues, including muscle tissue. There are several advantages to the use of poloxamer compounds as therapeutic agents to remedy muscular degenerative diseases like Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), as seen previously in mouse and dog models with P188. Since the poloxamer group is a diverse group of chemical polymer entities, it is likely that there are other poloxamers that could prove to be more effective than P188. Establishing which existing poloxamers will provide new potential therapeutic agents for DMD and help guide development of novel poloxamers that have even greater efficacy. We will use a novel saponin cell wounding assay to injure mouse C2C12 myoblasts cells. C2C12 cells will be cultured overnight until confluent in a 10% serum culture medium. The cells will be damaged with varying doses of saponin to permeabilize the membrane. The amount of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) that leaks into the extracellular Tyrode solution will be measured by spectrophotometry to resolve the extent of membrane repair in the presence of various poloxamers. This should determine poloxamer characteristics that maximize effectiveness as therapeutic agents, which will help to design better therapies in the future.

Poster Board No. 154 - VISUAL DETECTION THRESHOLDS OF WALLEYE UNDER VARYING TYPES OF TURBIDITY. Andrew L. Oppliger,, Chelsey L. Nieman,, and Suzanne M. Gray,, The Ohio State University, School of Environment and Natural Resources, 2021 Coffey Rd., Columbus Ohio 43210.

Increasing turbidity could alter the visual ecology of Lake Erie Walleye (Sander vitreus) through changes to the visual environment. Knowledge of how individual Walleye respond to changes in the visual environment will provide a framework for understanding expected community and population level interactions. The ability of an animal to distinguish between an object and its background (i.e., visual sensitivity) is expected to be altered by fluctuating turbidity due to decreased light penetration and a change in the color of light underwater. The objective was to determine if varying turbidity types differentially influence visual sensitivity of Walleye. To determine how visual sensitivity is impacted by turbidity, optomotor response tests were used to establish visual detection thresholds for three different types of turbidity: algal, sedimentary, and a combination of the two. Turbidity was increased incrementally in a cylindrical tank to a point in which the Walleye (n = 6 x 6 trials/fish = 36 trials) was unable to distinguish between a rotating black stimulus and a white background, indicated by an inability to follow the moving object. Visual detection thresholds were determined to be significantly higher in the sedimentary treatment (mean = 99.98 [+ or -] 5.31 NTU) than the combination (mean = 66.47 [+ or -] 3.27 NTU) and algal (mean = 40.35 [+ or -] 2.44 NTU) treatments. This indicates that algae may disrupt vision at a much lower turbidity than suspended sediment. Walleye remain an important species in the Lake Erie sport fishing industry, as well as an ecological top predator, thus understanding the potential impacts of changing turbidity levels on the visual ecology of Walleye allows us to understand the dynamics of how populations may respond to increasing anthropogenic turbidity.

Poster Board No. 155 - EVALUATING POLOXAMERS AS AGENTS FOR ACCELERATION OF SKELETAL MUSCLE MEMBRANE REPAIR. Aubrey L. Rose,, (Noah Weisleder,, Thomas A. Bodnar,, Sayak Bhattacharya,, Kevin McElhanon,, Brian J. Paleo,, Eric X. Beck,, The Ohio State University, Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, 473 W. 12th Ave., Columbus OH 43210.

Sarcolemmal membrane fragility is a major pathologic mechanism in various muscular dystrophies. Muscle fibers with more fragile membranes are more likely to be damaged and are more prone to necrosis. One potential therapeutic approach targeting membrane fragility is to increase membrane repair by exposing muscle fibers to poloxamer 188 (P188), a polymer that is able to bind to exposed lipid bilayer to reseal membrane injuries. P188 is one of many poloxamers, all of which contain a hydrophobic region of polyoxypropylene flanked by two hydrophilic chains of polyoxyethylene of varying length in different poloxamers. Although P188 has shown promise in increasing membrane repair, few other poloxamers have been tested for their effects on membrane repair. It was hypothesized that other poloxamers in the P188 family such as F38, P84, and P407 will reseal membranes as effectively, or more effectively, than P188. To investigate this hypothesis, a novel rotation damage assay was used, where cells are exposed to poloxamers and damaged through impact with small glass beads (106 [micro]m diameter), and the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) released from the cell into the supernatant is measured. Initial observations show that exposing cells to multiple poloxamers leads to a significant decrease in LDH levels when compared to vehicle controls, indicating improved membrane repair. A laser injury assay was used to confirm these results in muscle fibers that were damaged with a multiphoton laser to allow entry of a lipophilic dye. Entry of this fluorescent dye was measured over time to determine the membrane repair capacity.

Poster Board No. 156 - ENDOPHYTIC ROOT FUNGAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND THE SUCCESS OF LESSER CELANDINE. Allison Paolucci (1),, Emily Rauschert (1),, David Burke (2),, Sarah Kyker (2),, (1) Cleveland State University, Dept. of Biology, Geology, and Environmental Science, Cleveland OH 44115, (2) The Holden Arboretum, 9550 Sperry Rd., Kirtland OH 44094.

Lesser celandine (Ranunculus ficaria) is an invasive spring ephemeral in northeast Ohio. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind its variable success in the region. One possible mechanism behind the performance of lesser celandine is the presence of fungal root associations. This study focuses on determining the influence of endophytic root fungi colonization on the variable success of lesser celandine. It is hypothesized that plant performance will be correlated to community composition of endophytic root fungi. Sites (n = 64) chosen in Rocky River Metroparks, Ohio along a 35 meter disturbance gradient from the river. Methods of terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning were used in conjunction to determine the differences in the community composition of endophytic root colonization for each site. These were then compared to plant biomass to determine differences in success across test sites. Lesser celandine that was colonized by fungal communities consisting of parasitic fungal endophytes, ericoid mycorrhizae, and dark septate endophytes had a higher biomass (0.63 g) than plants that were colonized by fungal communities consisting of other groups of general root endophytes (0.29 g) (t-test, df = 60.9, P<0.0001). However, colonization was not associated with reproductive output of lesser celandine (t-test, df = 61.8, P>0.05). Further analyses should be conducted to determine the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizae and its influence on success of lesser celandine in conjunction with general fungal endophytes.

Poster Board No. 157 - COPPER METALLOPOLYMER AS A BIOMIMETIC CATALYST FOR CATECHOL OXIDASE. Travis C. Green,, Alexis D. Ostrowski,, Bowling Green State University, Center for Photochemical Sciences, 141 Overman Hall, Bowling Green OH 43402.

Coordination complexes can provide a way to tune the mechanical properties, reactivity and assembly of materials. These coordination complexes can also be useful creating supramolecular metallopolymer materials comprised of a short chain telechelic polymer backbone, metal binding ligand and transition metal ions. The metal binding ligands are covalently linked to the polymer backbone and the transition metal ions act to cross link the polymers to form a supramolecular network. Recent work has focused on choosing complexes that can act as catalysts to form biomimetic materials. Specifically, covalently linking a copper (II) complex to a polymer to create a biomimetic catalyst for catechol oxidase. Recent work has shown that using metal binding groups on a polymer can create effective metallopolymer catalysts. Using a hydrophobic polymer backbone a polymer analog of our complex has been synthesized to investigate the effects of the polymer on the reactivity of the complex. Using UV-Vis spectroscopy the reactivity of the copper complex and metallopolymer complex have been studied and an increase in reactivity was observed after the inclusion of a polymer backbone. This increased reactivity has been investigated in terms of redox potential of the copper and the second coordination sphere created by the polymer.

Poster Board No. 158 - EFFECTS OF A HISTORY OF CONCUSSION ON COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE IN COLLEGIATE ATHLETES: AN FMRI STUDY. Joshua M. Ricker,, Kylee Smith,, Alexandra Schmidt,, Xin Wang, Xin., Howard C. Cromwell,, Bowling Green State University, 206 Psychology Building, Bowling Green OH 43403

With concussions occurring at a rate of between 1.6 and 3.8 million per year in the United States, the well-being of athletes has become a recent cause for concern. The heterogenous nature of these injuries leads to a range of symptoms that fall under multiple categories: physical, neurobehavioral, and cognitive. The current study set out to examine the cognitive and physical effects of concussions using collegiate athletes. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while performing the emotional face assessment task (EFAT) and a modified version of the conjunctive continuous performance task (CCPT). The EFAT assesses a subject's ability to judge affect while examining faces expressing different emotions. The CCPT measures sustained attention by requiring the subject to attend to changing stimuli and responding to a specific shape and color. Results are expected to reflect different patterns of activation between those with and without a history of concussion. Those without a history of concussion are expected to show activation in frontal lobe attentional networks during the CCPT, and activation in subcortical nuclei such as the amygdala during the EFAT, while those with a history of concussion will show reduced activation in these areas. Those with a history of concussion are also expected to have a slight decrease in accuracy and reaction times on the two tasks. This study will add to the development of the neural profile and cognitive effects that may persist in those with a history of concussion. This, in turn, will help in understanding the complexity of the effects of concussions.

Poster Board No. 159 - GUILT, SHAME, AND EMBARRASSMENT AS MODERATORS OF FOOD INSECURITY. Emma M. Kett,, Philip J. Welch,, Bowling Green State University, 124 College of Health & Humans Services, Bowling Green OH 43403.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, food insecurity is reduced quality, variety or desirability of diet with or without reduced food intake. Food insecurity affects 12% of US adults and approximately 17% of adults in Ohio. Food insecurity is linked to low socioeconomic status (SES) and to diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Pilot research conducted by the second author suggests the ability to become food secure may be restricted, in part, by feelings of guilt, shame, and embarrassment. The purpose of this study is to understand the emotions surrounding food insecurity and to model how those emotions may hinder the ability to become food secure. A literature review of EBSCO, Web of Science, and PubMed yielded 28 observational and qualitative studies using the keywords food insecurity and shame, emotion, mental health, guilt, and anxiety. Key phrases from the results and discussions of each article were analyzed by determining the number of times a specific emotion was mentioned. Themes of shame, guilt, anxiety, embarrassment, and poor mental/emotional health in relation to food insecurity emerged from this analysis. The resources that are available to adults experiencing food insecurity need to be changed to help reduce this problem. Offering emotional and psychological support to users of food assistance programs could alleviate the negative emotions associated with the inability to provide healthy foods for oneself and family members. This presentation describes a new model explaining the potential psychological variables that moderate the ability to become food secure.

Poster Board No. 160 - NUTRIENT LIMITATIONS IN THE CENTRAL BASIN OF LAKE ERIE. Madeline M. Lambrix (1), Justin D. Chaffin (1,2),, 95 E. Norwich Ave., Columbus OH 43201. (1) The Ohio State University, (2) The Ohio State University, Franz Theodore Stone Laboratory.

Freshwater phytoplankton growth is assumed to be phosphorus (P) limited, but nitrogen (N) limitation has been documented in N-fixing cyanobacteria dominant N-limited waters. The central basin of Lake Erie has low P and high nitrate-N concentrations, but blooms of the N-fixing cyanobacteriua of the genus Dolichospermum occur nearly every summer. Low P and high N concentrations make the presence of Dolichospermum spp. difficult to understand. Iron (Fe) is required for nitrate assimilation and if Fe availability is too low, nitrate assimilation will be constrained. Four nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted with water from offshore Avon, Ohio, from June 2nd to July 11th, 2017. We hypothesized that more algal productivity would occur with combination enrichments of P (1.0 [micro]M) plus Fe (0.5 [micro]M) and P plus ammonium-N (25 [micro]M) than compared to P alone enrichments, because increased Fe and P would allow for ambient nitrate assimilation and ammonium assimilation is not dependent on Fe. Chlorophyll a (chla) and nitrate concentrations were measured before and after 1-week incubation. In 3 of 4 experiments, chla concentrations were significantly (p<0.05, ANOVA) higher in P treatments compared to the control, which indicate that P was the primary limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, but enrichments of ammonium plus P resulted in higher chla than P alone. In all experiments, P plus Fe additions compared to P alone did not have a significant (p>0.05, ANOVA) impact on nitrate assimilation. Our results indicate that nitrogen and trace metal limitations may favor Dolichospermum spp. production in high P, low N water.

Poster Board No. 161 - NUTRIENT REMOVAL POTENTIAL OF CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS IN GRAND LAKE ST. MARYS WATERSHED. Stephen J. Jacquemin, Stephen., Phillip Poore,, Nichole Mazzone,, Tiffany Ricketts,, Nicholas Gnau,, Wright State University - Lake Campus, Celina OH 45822.

Constructed wetlands are becoming an increasingly important management tool to reduce nutrient rich agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes region. The objective of this study was to assess the removal efficiency of two constructed wetlands operating on tributaries of Grand Lake St. Marys (Prairie Creek and Coldwater Creek) located in northwest Ohio. Water samples were collected weekly during summer and fall 2017 (n = 24) from inflow and outflow points. They were analyzed for nutrient (nitrate-N, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus) concentrations following standard EPA colorimetric methods. Overall, while both wetlands experienced high mean nutrient inputs (concentrations in mg/L) across both fall and summer seasons ranging from 0.4 to 4.3 N[O.sub.3.sup.-], 1.1 to 1.7 TP, and 0.2 to 0.6 DRP, respectively, high removal efficiencies (often in excess of 75%) produced significantly reduced outflow concentrations (paired t tests; p<0.05) largely consistent with EPA recommended TMDL target values for watersheds of these size (~20 [mi.sup.2]: 1.0 mg/L N[O.sub.3], 0.10 mg/L TP). Extending these concentration reductions to effect size and loading impact, mean monthly stream discharge rates compared with wetland discharge data (continuously monitored using pressure transducers) revealed that PC and CC Treatment Train Wetlands were found to have processed an average of 10% to 29% of flows during summer and 35% to 40% of flows during the fall season, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of constructed wetlands towards freshwater conservation strategies.

Poster Board No. 162 - MOSQUITO COMMUNITY STRUCTURE AND WNV OCCURRENCE IN MOSQUITOES IN WOOD COUNTY, OHIO, DURING 2017. Hannah Alanis,, Erica Eskins,, (Daniel Pavuk,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are known vectors of a variety of pathogen that cause devastating diseases in humans and other animals worldwide. During the past 2 years (2016 and 2017) the Ohio Department of Health, in collaboration with county health departments and with funding from The Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, has begun a statewide mosquito surveillance and West Nile Virus (WNV) testing program. The purpose of this program is to capture Culex spp., which are known vectors of West Nile Virus to humans and horses, and test these mosquitoes for the occurrence of WNV. Two hypotheses were also being tested. Hypothesis 1: the mosquito community in Wood County, Ohio, is characterized by more than 15 species over the trapping period (June through August, 2017). Hypothesis 2: the occurrence of West Nile Virus in Culex spp. collected in Wood County, Ohio, would increase during late summer (August and September, 2017). Three mosquito traps were utilized in Wood County, Ohio, during 2017 to capture mosquitoes: the CDC Light Trap, a gravid mosquito trap, and a BG Sentinel trap. Mosquitoes were trapped each week from early June until the end of August. None of the Culex spp. samples from June and July tested positive for WNV. Twenty-seven of the 43 trap catches of Culex spp. from August tested positive for West Nile Virus. Seventeen mosquito species were identified over the 2017 trapping period, which reflects a diverse mosquito community in Wood County, Ohio.

Poster Board No. 163-PARASITOIDCOMMUNITY ASSOCIATED WITH THE OBLIQUE-BANDED LEAFROLLER, CHORISTONEURA ROSACEANA, IN SOYBEAN AGROECOSYSTEMS. Audrey Keune,, (Daniel Pavuk,, Bowling Green State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green OH 43403.

Soybean (Glycine max) supports a wide diversity of insect herbivores. Many species of natural enemies, such as predators and parasitoids, of those herbivores exist. Study of natural controls of insect herbivores feeding on soybeans is increasingly needed in order to reduce the reliance on synthetic insecticides and mitigate environmental pollution by these chemicals. During a 2016 study of insect diversity in soybean agroecosystems of Wood County, Ohio, a relatively large number of oblique-banded leafroller (OBLR) caterpillars were observed feeding on soybean. This species is polyphagous, feeding on numerous species of tree and herbaceous species, including soybean. A study of this species was initiated to determine the parasitoid community associated with OBLR caterpillars feeding on soybean. The hypothesis was that the parasitoid community associated with OBLR would have no species in common with the recorded parasitoid communities of other caterpillars feeding on soybean. Over 200 OBLR caterpillars were collected from four soybean fields throughout the growing season and reared in the lab on fresh soybean leaves under constant conditions (16:8 [light:dark], 25 [degrees]C, and 70 to 80% humidity) to determine the parasitoid community utilizing OBLR larvae in soybeans. A large number of parasitoids emerged from collected OBLR caterpillars, including species of Ichneumonidae, Eulophidae and Chalcididae.


Longhorned or cerambycid beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are an important component of temperate forest ecosystems. Many longhorned beetle species feed on dead and dying trees and facilitate the decomposition of these trees. Fragmentation of temperate forests may be causing the loss of insects in these forests, including loss of cerambycid beetle species. Three types of traps were used to capture longhorned beetles in forests in northwest Ohio during 2008 to test the hypothesis that larger forests have a greater species diversity and abundance of cerambycid beetle than smaller forests. The traps used were the Lindgren funnel trap, the Intercept[TM] panel trap, and a window pane type trap. The traps were hung from tree branches and the bottom of each trap was at least 1 meter above the ground. Each trap had a collecting bottle containing a 50:50 mixture of propylene glycoi:water to kill and preserve beetles captured in the trap. A small plastic bottle with four 2 millimeter holes in the top was filled with 95% ethanol and was used as a chemical attractant. Traps were deployed starting the first week of June and were left to capture beetles continuously until the first week of October. A total of 129 cerambycids were captured, with 70 of these being caught in the largest forest (Oak Openings Preserve). Large forests had a greater cerambycid species richness than small forests (t = 3.16, P = 0.02), and there was a significant relationship between forest size and cerambycid species richness ([R.sup.2] = 0.80).

Note: All posters will be displayed in both morning and afternoon sessions.
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Publication:The Ohio Journal of Science
Article Type:Abstract
Date:Apr 1, 2018
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