Collaborators came in various shades.
Traitors posed as captors of US soldiers who, when let into President Aguinaldo's camp, jumped and lassoed him. Face shrouded in "bayong" with tiny slits to see through, "Makapili" betrayed guerrillas to Japanese invaders.
Many were such quislings. Historians have revealed their motives: fear, ambition, financial gain, religion and superstition, vengeance, even jingoism and ideology.
Prof. Augusto de Viana differentiates five types of abettors of the Japanese Occupation, in his book "Kulaburetor!" (University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 2016): Political collaborators
Consisting of members of the pre-War political elite, they mostly were high Philippine Commonwealth officials.
Some were members of President Quezon's cabinet others anti-American Katipunan ex-generals. They formed for the Japanese a "puppet government", consisting of the Executive Commission, a Preparatory Committee for Philippine Independence, the second Philippine Republic, and provincial and municipal governments.
"While some may have been coerced by the invaders into serving, others needed no encouragement," de Viana describes the enumerated collaborators. Economic opportunists
Businessmen and politicos found opportunity to amass wealth as suppliers of strategic materials and other items needed by the Japanese war effort.
Many became millionaires overnight as procurers and agents of scrap iron, copper ore, construction materials, labor, plantation produce, and even sex slaves. After the War entire families were indicted for selling machine parts to the Japanese.
Companies they owned were seized by the US Army or denied commercial reparations. "Compared to political collaborators who were forced or coerced into service, economic collaborators acted on free will and were driven by purely selfish motives," de Viana notes.
They were rewarded with huge profits and ownership of automobiles. Cultural collaborators
They were mostly staff members of publications that the Japanese utilized for propaganda.
(In contrast was journalist and short story writer Manuel E. Arguilla who, for forming an urban guerrilla intelligence unit, was beheaded.
) Among them were writers in vernaculars, who appreciated the Japanese encouragement of local literature. Nonetheless the Japanese used them as tools to obtain popular support, says de Viana: "This paved the way for the blossoming of their work in the national language which was previously eclipsed by the prewar preference for English.
Similarly, the policy allowed Filipinos to write themes based on Asia and Filipino values that had been set aside with the wholesale adoption of American culture." Civil order and police forces
They were members of the police and the Japanese-led Bureau of Constabulary, consisting of former USAFFE officers and men.
Some were pressed into the service of the Japanese while others joined voluntarily for livelihood. The Kalibapi (Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas) was set up in Dec.
1942 to replace all political parties and civic organizations. Numbering 350,000 in 1943, members included government employees who were coerced to join lest they lose their jobs.
Kalibapi had two youth arms, Kabataang Maghahanda for those aged 7 to 15, and Kabataang Katulong for 16- to 18-year-olds. Kalibapi was formed ostensibly for national unity and community welfare through patriotism, self-reliance, bravery, discipline, self-sacrifice, and hard work.
The true objective was a docile population that suited the invaders. A major project was to "enjoin the opposition, particularly guerrillas, to embrace the new order, the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.
" Established in Aug. 1942 were District and Neighborhood Associations in the barrios, for peace and order.
Tasked to "report to the authorities the presence of suspicious persons and to help the Constabulary effect their arrest," the DANAS spied on the populace. Military quislings
The Makapili, Ganap, Palaak, Pampar, and United Nippon were formed directly to support Japanese army operations.
Former rebels in the bloody Sakdal agrarian uprising of May 1935, the Ganaps served as informers to the Japanese. The Palaaks, also known as Bamboo Army because armed with bamboo spears, were recruited as informers as well.
United Nippon, or Yoim, was a military adjunct of the Ganap, armed and uniformed like the Japanese. Pampar (Pambansang Pagasa ng mga Anak ni Rizal) also was trained and equipped for combat in Rizal province.
Makapili, or Malayang Katipunan ng Pilipino, was the largest salaried force of military collaborators, mainly to suppress guerrilla resistance. Copycats were the Borong-Borong, Kaigun Hatai, and Nishimura Butai gangs who were random executioners.
Added to them were individual spies, informers, common criminals, and servants of the Japanese. "Collaborators lived a life of relative ease," de Viana researches.
"While most civilians suffered hunger and malnutrition, the collaborators profited from their association with the enemy. In a speech in the House of Representatives on June 12, 1945 Congressman Leon Cabarroguis remarked: 'During the Japanese Occupation the collaborator was easy to distinguish.
If you saw a husky fellow, and most of them, not all maybe, have all the pep in life but with big bulging pockets, he was a collaborator..
. In contrast, a non-collaborator could be easily noticed.
He trudged down the street wearing dirty clothes and old broken shoes. He was thin, emaciated and so were members of his family.
They were constantly on the verge of starvation.'" CatchSapolradio show, Saturdays, 8-10 a.
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