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Cognitive assessment instruments used in elderly Brazilians in the last five years.

Introduction

Increasing life expectancy and aging of the Brazilian population, associated with their impacts, have been the focus of studies for years. According to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) census in 2010, older adults accounted for 11% of the Brazilian population and it is estimated that they will reach 13.4% by 2030 (1).

Elderly people are exposed to functional losses due to aging (senescence) and/or age-related diseases (senility). In addition, some diseases have a higher prevalence in this age group, such as dementia. Alzheimer's disease is the most common type of dementia, which is coupled with severe debilitating cognitive deficits (2).

In order ensure reliable detection and monitoring of cognitive deficit, information from family members/caregivers should be provided, and patients' follow up, identification of clinical history and standardized tests (3) should also be performed. These tests may include imaging tests, biochemical exams and/or assessment instruments. The selection of a cognitive assessment instrument should be based on its reliability and whether its score results reflect the actual status of the patient without the influence of other factors, such as depressive symptoms, delirium, low level education or hearing impairment (3).

With the objective of analyzing the recent scientific production on the use of cognitive assessment instruments in the Brazilian elderly population, the following question was addressed in this integrative review: Which instruments are currently used for cognitive assessment in the Brazilian elderly population? Based on the findings, the characteristics of the most used instruments were analyzed.

Method

After defining the guiding question, the instruments were assessed for eligibility according to the following steps: 1) specification of inclusion criteria (original articles published in English and Portuguese from 2012 to 2016, the age criterion to define elderly individuals and scores higher than 6 in the adapted CASP) and exclusion criteria (conference abstracts submitted for publication); 2) searches using the following Health Science Descriptors (DeCS) and Boolean operators: ["cognition" OR "dementia" AND "geriatric assessment"], in the Scopus, Bireme, Pubmed and Web of Science databases in November 2016; 3) pre-selection of articles by reading the titles and abstracts and excluding duplicates; 4) critical assessment of the articles after reading them in full; and 5) presentation and discussion of results. The screening process was conducted by two reviewers independently, and disagreements were resolved by a third reviewer.

Two instruments were used for the critical assessment of the articles: the adapted Critical Appraisal Skill Program (CASP), which classifies the quality of the article from 0 to 10, with a score 6 indicating good methodological quality and reduced bias; and the Agency for Healthcare and Research and Quality (AHRQ), which hierarchically ranks the level of evidence of the study in (I) systematic review or meta-analysis, (II) randomized clinical trials, (III) clinical trials without randomization, (IV) cohort and case-control studies, (V) systematic review of descriptive and qualitative studies and (VI) descriptive or qualitative study (4,5).

Results

The screening process of articles from the Web of Science, Pubmed, Scopus and Bireme databases is summarized in Figure 1. The final sample consisted of 100 articles (6-105), 80% of which are in English and 20% in Portuguese, selected according to the established criteria and after critical assessment.

Most studies were conducted in the Southeast (72%) and the South (12%) of Brazil, with the highest publication frequency in 2014 (30%) and 2012 (23%). The predominant age criterion to define elderly individuals was [greater than or equal to] 60 (64%). According to the AHRQ instrument, the level of evidence VI (68%) stood out, followed by level IV (16%).

Regarding the study design, the majority of the articles (84%) were observational, 68% of which were transversal, 14% were cohort and 2% were case-control. Of the clinical trials, 9% were non-randomized and 7% were randomized.

Sixty-one instruments were used for cognitive assessment of Brazilian elderly individuals in the last five years (Chart 1). Most tests were short, with application time of less than 20 minutes.

Most studies (90%) used at least the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) for data collection. The most administered version was that proposed by Brucki et al. (2003) (34.4%), but twelve versions could also be observed during the analysis of the articles. The MMSE was followed by the Verbal Fluency Test (VFT) (24%), the Digit Span Memory Test (15%), the Cambridge Cognitive Examination- Revised (CAMCOG-R) (13%), the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Clock-Drawing Test (CDT) (10%).

Chart 2 presents a summary of the cognitive domains evaluated and which tests evaluated them.

Of the 100 articles, 39 mentioned only the use of the MMSE with three objectives in the Method section: screening, sample selection and evaluation of associations. The cut-off points for the MMSE varied mainly according to the individual's level of education. The most commonly used cut-off points are listed as follows:

Brucki et al. (2003): < 20 points for illiterates; 25 points for individuals with 1 to 4 years of schooling; 26.5 for 5 to 8 years of schooling; 28 for 9 to 11 years of schooling; and 29 for more than 11 years of schooling;

Bertolucci et al. (1994): < 13 for illiterates (sensitivity: 82.4%, specificity: 97.5%); 18 for 1 to 8 years of schooling (sensitivity: 75.6%, specificity: 96.6%); and 26 for 9 or more years of schooling (sensitivity: 80%, specificity: 95.6%);

Lourenco & Veras (2006): < 18/19 for illiterates (sensitivity: 73.5%, specificity: 73.9%) and < 23/24 for individuals with one or more years of schooling (sensitivity: 75%, specificity: 69.7%).

Some authors conducted further analysis and adapted these cut-off points according to the design, studied population, objective, among others, which allowed differentiation of the studies and an increasing number of versions. The VFT and the Digit Span Memory Test were the second and third most used tests, respectively. The VFT was administered with several categories, and in this review, the semantic category of animals stood out. The Digit Span Memory Test has only one version and can be applied in forward span and backward span. The CDT was also addressed in six forms, and the versions proposed by Sunderland et al. (1989) and Shulman et al. (1993) were most commonly used.

The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE), used in eight articles, does not directly assess the patient--it is completed by the caregiver or someone close to the patient. The Leganes Cognitive Test (LCT) can be pointed out, as it was used in the assessment of cognitive function only in one Brazilian state (Rio Grande do Norte).

Two studies mentioned the use of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), one in hospitalized elderly patients, and the other with elderly patients attending a geriatric outpatient clinic. When administering the CGA, both studies used the MMSE, but one of them associated it with the IQCODE.

Discussion

A considerable number of studies were included in this review, which indicates that cognition in the elderly population has been extensively addressed in the Brazilian literature. Most of the articles (72%) were published in the Southeast region. The distribution of stricto sensu postgraduate courses in Brazil in 2015 showed that the Southeast region accounted for 45.6% of the courses, followed by the South, Northeast, Midwest and North with 21.4%, 19.9%, 8.1% and 5% respectively (106). This shows how the existing regional inequality impacts the Brazilian scientific production.

Regarding the numerical criterion used for a definition of elderly individuals, the World Health Organization (WHO) has accepted the chronological age of [greater than or equal to] 60 years to refer to the older population in developing countries or 65 years in developed countries (107). Most studies used the criterion [greater than or equal to] 60 and the studies conducted in the Southeast, North and Northeast of the country used an older age for eligibility. Additionally, a pattern of use by region could not be observed.

A wide range of instruments could be identified, including brief tests and test batteries. The use of these instruments also ranged from screening to aid in diagnostic procedures. The administration of the instruments to monitor types of intervention (e.g., cognitive, motor, drug) provides data on the possible benefits of a specific physical stimulation for the cognition of elderly individuals.

In clinical practice, it is proposed that elderly individuals should be first evaluated with an instrument that provides a basic measure for cognitive function monitoring and/or an alert to the need for further investigation (108). Through a systematic review, the authors identified diagnostic errors rates of over 10% in 16 diseases prevalent in elderly patients, mainly in dementias. Underdiagnosis of dementia appears more prevalent in older patients with poor access to health care, lower socioeconomic status and lower levels of education (109). A Brazilian study found that only one third of the elderly individuals diagnosed with dementia by specialists had previous diagnosis of moderate to severe dementia (110). The causes of low case detection were not indicated.

In relation to the area of research, choosing an adequate instrument and establishing a cut-off point are necessary to avoid mistakes due to false-positive and false-negative test results. Researchers are able to find a cut-off point that best suits their sample (111) by retrieving published studies with samples containing related profiles, also taking into account the specificity and sensitivity of the test.

The analysis of the most used test in the Brazilian studies with elderly individuals--the MMSE-still shows no standardized administration of the test. The different versions and cut-off points support this statement. These issues display the cultural, educational and age biases that influence the test score. Although these different cut-off points are created to minimize bias and establish criteria for normality for the Brazilian population, the level of education is a variable that influences the MMSE score, and may generate false-negative results in individuals with higher levels of education (94,112).

It should be noted that, although the MMSE does not evaluate all cognitive domains, it is quick to administer and it is the most widely studied instrument for cognitive screening not only in Brazil but worldwide. The MMSE is also used as a gold standard and reference for validation of other assessment instruments. In Brazil, the first version was proposed almost 23 years ago (108).

The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) includes batteries of test covering all cognitive domains, but it was used in only one study. It requires longer administration time, which may be a negative factor for its use in research. Also, it does not have criteria for normality for the individuals' level of education.

As for the other instruments more commonly used, the Verbal Fluency Test and Digit Span Memory Test do not assess global cognition and are more specific for certain functions. The VFT focuses on the evaluation of executive functions and consists in recalling the greatest number of words during a pre-established time--usually one minute. The score is calculated by counting the total of produced words. In the phonemic fluency test, the individuals are requested to produce words beginning with a certain letter, for example, "F", "A", "S". The semantic fluency consists of naming words within a category, such as animals. Studies show that it is an instrument with good accuracy in the detection of cognitive deficits in the elderly population (113-115).

In the articles here, the semantic verbal fluency test of animal category was the most common test in association with other instruments. The semantic task, in addition to evaluating executive functions and language, has the advantage of accessing declarative semantic memory. The cut-offs points for the Brazilian versions varied according to levels of education and age (116,117).

The Digit Span Subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) consists of two tasks of repeating a sequence of numbers in forward span and backward span, especially used in the evaluation of attention. Although both tasks can be administered independently, the studies included in this review used both tasks. The backward version is also widely used to evaluate working memory. The cut-off point was not cited. The VFT and the Digit Span Memory Test can be used in association with the MMSE for an enhanced cognitive assessment, provided that it is the goal of the professional and/or researcher. The combined use of instruments may be beneficial to avoid false diagnosis in the elderly population (118).

The CDT is a cognitive screening instrument used to evaluate executive function, praxis and visuospatial skills. It also presents several versions with different scores. In the most used version, the patient is asked to draw the face of a clock and place the hands to designate a specific time, e.g., 11h10min (119). Combined with the MMSE, the CDT has a sensitivity of 84.9% and specificity of 90.4% in the screening for cognitive impairment in elderly populations (120). But, individuals with symptoms such as tremor and motor coordination deficits may show lower scores, or even fail to perform a task due to these motor impairments.

As for the instrument administration time, frail or multimorbid elderly individuals may need more time to complete the evaluation. Individuals who require hearing aids, glasses and dental prostheses should be using them during the evaluation (121).

A limitation of the study lies in the fact that after the application of the eligibility criteria, the whole Brazilian literature was not evaluated, given that dissertations and theses were not included. This could have increased the variation of the instruments used.

Conclusion

The variability of cognitive deficits due to aging or associated pathological process points to the need to address the issue of how to identify these deficits earlier and whether this early identification influences the course of the disease and the quality of life of the individuals and their relatives.

This integrative review addresses the use of cognitive assessment instruments in the Brazilian literature, their different versions and domains evaluated. The recent literature includes a large number of instruments. The most used tests were the MMSE (version proposed by Brucki et al.), the Verbal Fluency Test (animal category) and the Digit Span Memory Test (forward span or backward span). The findings presented in this review are relevant not only for observational and experimental research but also for clinical practice.

Collaborations

NIM Martins designed, outlined, analyzed and interpreted the data and drafted the article. PR Caldas conducted data analysis. ED Cabral performed the critical review of the article. CCSA Lins contributed to the article design and critical review. MGWS Coriolano contributed to the concept, design, interpretation of data and critical review of the article.

DOI: 10.1590/1413-81232018247.20862017

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Articled submitted 03/04/2017

Approved 02/10/2017

Final version submitted 04/10/2017

Nubia Isabela Macedo Martins (https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1132-9111) [1]

Priscila Romao Caldas (https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3492-2882) [2]

Etenildo Dantas Cabral (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8446-7091) [3]

Carla Cabral dos Santos Accioly Lins (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1018-5331) [3]

Maria das Gracas Wanderley de Sales Coriolano (https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7937-7761) [3]

[1] Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Gerontologia, Centro de Ciencias da Saude (CCS), Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). Av. Prof. Moraes Rego 1235, Cidade Universitaria. 50670901 Recife PE Brasil. nubiaamartins@ hotmail.com

[2] Departamento de Terapia Ocupacional, Centro de Biociencias, UFPE. Recife PE Brasil.

[3] Departamento de Anatomia, CCS, UFPE. Recife PE Brasil.

Caption: Figure 1. Flowchart summarizing the article screening process.
Chart 1. Cognitive assessment instruments used in studies with
Brazilian elderly individuals between 2012 and 2016.

       Instrument           N (%)                   Use

MMSE                       90 (90%)   Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To evaluate association and risk

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To compare means between groups

                                      To follow-up on the evolution of
                                      the disease

Verbal Fluency Test        24 (24%)   Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To evaluate association and risk

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To compare means between groups

                                      To follow-up on the evolution of
                                      the disease

                                      To evaluate executive functions

Digit Span Memory          15 (15%)   Correlation with scores of other
Test (a)                              tests

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To compare means between groups

CAMCOG-R (b)               13 (13%)   Screening

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To compare means between groups

CDR (a)                    10 (10%)   Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To classify severity of dementia

CDT                        10 (10%)   Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

                                      To compare means between groups

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate association

TMT (b)                    9 (9%)     Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      To compare means between groups

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

RAVLT                      8 (8%)     To evaluate executive functions

                                      To compare means between groups

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To evaluate association

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

MoCA (a)                   8 (8%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

IQCODE (a)                 8 (8%)     Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

BCSB (a)                   5 (5%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

RBMT (a)                   4 (4%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

BNT (a)                    4 (4%)     To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

FOME (a)                   3 (3%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

WCST (a)                   3 (3%)     To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

List of words              3 (3%)     To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

                                      To evaluate association

LCT (a)                    3 (3%)     Sample selection

                                      Screening

                                      To evaluate association

Vocabulary Subtest of      3 (3%)     To evaluate effects of
the WAIS-III test (a)                 intervention

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

Digit Symbol-Coding        3 (3%)     To evaluate effects of
subtest                               intervention
of WAIS-III test (a)
                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

                                      To aid in diagnostic procedures

Corsi block-tapping        2 (2%)     To compare means between groups
test
                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

SKT (a)                    2 (2%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

FAB (a)                    2 (2%)     Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

MAC-Q (b)                  2 (2%)     To evaluate association

                                      To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

MDRS (b)                   2 (2%)     To aid in diagnostic procedures

SMMSE (b)                  2 (2%)     To evaluate association

TN-LIN (a)                 2 (2%)     To compare means between groups

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

Verbal Paired              2 (2%)     To evaluate effects of
Associates of the                     intervention
WMS-R (b)
                                      To evaluate association

PDMT                       2 (2%)     To evaluate association and risk

Stick Design Test (b)      2 (2%)     To compare means between groups

                                      Correlation with scores of other
                                      tests

Symbol search subtest      2 (2%)     To evaluate effects of
of WAIS-III (a)                       intervention

Cookie Theft picture       2 (2%)     To evaluate effects of
test of the Boston                    intervention
Diagnostic Aphasia
Examination

CANSMCI-BR (a)             1 (1%)     Screening

ADAS-Cog (b)               1 (1%)     Screening

                                      To evaluate association

CERAD (b)                  1 (1%)     To evaluate association

The Arizona Battery        1 (1%)     To evaluate association
for Communication
Disorders of
Dementia

TROG-2                     1 (1%)     To evaluate association

Community Screening        1 (1%)     Screening
Instrument for                        To evaluate association
Dementia

Metamemory                 1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
Adulthood                             intervention
Questionnaire (a)

MSEQ (a)                   1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

Raven's Progressive        1 (1%)     To evaluate association
Matrices Test (b)

Stroop test (a)            1 (1%)     To compare means between groups

Similarities subtest of    1 (1%)     To compare means between groups
WAIS-III (a)

Information subtest of     1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
WAIS-III (a)                          intervention

Cube design subtest of     1 (1%)     To evaluate association
WAIS-III (a)

Matrix reasoning           1 (1%)     To aid in diagnostic procedures
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Comprehension              1 (1%)     To aid in diagnostic procedures
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Arithmetic subtest of      1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
WAIS-III (a)                          intervention

Letter-number              1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
sequencing subtest of                 intervention
WAIS-III (a)

Logical memory             1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
subtest I and II of                   intervention
WMS-R (b)

Delay Visual Memory        1 (1%)     To evaluate association
task
Short form of WAIS-        1 (1%)     To evaluate association
III (a)

NEUPSILIN test (a)         1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
                                      intervention

Groton Maze Learning       1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
Test; Set-Shifting test,              intervention
One-back and Two-
back tests

Five-digit test (a)        1 (1%)     To compare means between groups

Concentrated               1 (1%)     To evaluate effects of
Attention Test                        intervention
(Toulouse-Pieron) (b)

Buschke Selective          1 (1%)     To evaluate association
Reminding Test (b)

Token Test--short          1 (1%)     To compare means between groups
version (a)

Delayed recall of          1 (1%)     To aid in diagnostic procedures
simple pictures

Labyrinth Test             1 (1%)     To aid in diagnostic procedures

Tower of Hanoi (b)         1 (1%)     To evaluate association

Test of Variables of       1 (1%)     To evaluate association
Visual Attention (1)

       Instrument           N (%)             Domains assessed

MMSE                       90 (90%)   Temporal orientation

                                      Spatial orientation

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Attention

                                      Calculation

                                      Language

                                      Constructive praxis

Verbal Fluency Test        24 (24%)   Language

                                      Semantic memory

                                      Executive functions

Digit Span Memory          15 (15%)   Attention
Test (a)

                                      Concentration

                                      Learning

                                      Working memory

                                      Executive functions

CAMCOG-R (b)               13 (13%)   Temporal orientation

                                      Spatial orientation

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Attention

                                      Calculation

                                      Language

                                      Executive functions

                                      Constructive praxis

                                      Praxis

CDR (a)                    10 (10%)   Memory

                                      Orientation

                                      Executive function (problem
                                      solving)

CDT                        10 (10%)   Visuospatial skills

                                      Constructive praxis

                                      Executive functions

                                      Attention

TMT (b)                    9 (9%)     Attention

                                      Executive functions

RAVLT                      8 (8%)     Recent memory

                                      Episodic memory

                                      Learning

MoCA (a)                   8 (8%)     Constructive praxis

                                      Attention

                                      Executive functions

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Language

                                      Orientation

IQCODE (a)                 8 (8%)     Not applicable as it evaluates
                                      the cognitive

                                      decline through an interview
                                      with caregiver

BCSB (a)                   5 (5%)     Language

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Calculation

                                      Executive functions

                                      Constructive praxis

RBMT (a)                   4 (4%)     Memory

BNT (a)                    4 (4%)     Language

FOME (a)                   3 (3%)     Learning

                                      Episodic memory

                                      Language

                                      Executive functions

WCST (a)                   3 (3%)     Executive functions

List of words              3 (3%)     Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Learning

LCT (a)                    3 (3%)     Orientation

                                      Language

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

Vocabulary Subtest of      3 (3%)     Language
the WAIS-III test (a)

                                      Semantic memory

Digit Symbol-Coding        3 (3%)     Attention
subtest
of WAIS-III test (a)
                                      Visuospatial skills

                                      Memory

Corsi block-tapping        2 (2%)     Working memory
test
                                      Executive functions

SKT (a)                    2 (2%)     Attention

                                      Concentration

                                      Executive functions

                                      Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Recognition

FAB (a)                    2 (2%)     Executive functions

MAC-Q (b)                  2 (2%)     Prospective memory

MDRS (b)                   2 (2%)     Working memory

                                      Executive functions

                                      Attention

                                      Praxis

SMMSE (b)                  2 (2%)     Constructive praxis

                                      Language

                                      Attention

                                      Memory

                                      Verbal fluency

TN-LIN (a)                 2 (2%)     Semantic memory

                                      Language

Verbal Paired              2 (2%)     Immediate and delayed memory
Associates of the
WMS-R (b)

PDMT                       2 (2%)     Immediate and delayed memory

Stick Design Test (b)      2 (2%)     Visuospatial skills

Symbol search subtest      2 (2%)     Attention
of WAIS-III (a)                       Executive functions

Cookie Theft picture       2 (2%)     Language
test of the Boston
Diagnostic Aphasia
Examination

CANSMCI-BR (a)             1 (1%)     Memory
                                      Language
                                      Executive function

ADAS-Cog (b)               1 (1%)     Immediate and delayed memory

                                      Language

                                      Visuospatial skills

                                      Ideomotor and constructive
                                      praxis

CERAD (b)                  1 (1%)     * Includes Verbal Fluency Tests;
                                      MMSE; Boston Naming Test; Word
                                      List: Visuoconstructive Skills

The Arizona Battery        1 (1%)     Language
for Communication                     Episodic memory
Disorders of                          Visuospatial skills
Dementia                              Constructive praxis

TROG-2                     1 (1%)     Language

Community Screening        1 (1%)     Language
Instrument for                        Memory
Dementia                              Praxis
                                      Orientation

Metamemory                 1 (1%)     Metamemory
Adulthood
Questionnaire (a)

MSEQ (a)                   1 (1%)     Memory

Raven's Progressive        1 (1%)     Executive functions
Matrices Test (b)

Stroop test (a)            1 (1%)     Executive functions

Similarities subtest of    1 (1%)     Language
WAIS-III (a)                          Executive functions

Information subtest of     1 (1%)     Immediate memory
WAIS-III (a)

Cube design subtest of     1 (1%)     Visuospatial skills
WAIS-III (a)                          Executive functions

Matrix reasoning           1 (1%)     Executive functions
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Comprehension              1 (1%)     Executive functions
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Arithmetic subtest of      1 (1%)     Attention
WAIS-III (a)                          Calculation

Letter-number              1 (1%)     Working memory
sequencing subtest of
WAIS-III (a)

Logical memory             1 (1%)     Episodic memory
subtest I and II of                   Ability to recall
WMS-R (b)

Delay Visual Memory        1 (1%)     Episodic memory
task
Short form of WAIS-        1 (1%)     Attention
III (a)                               Executive functions
                                      Working memory
                                      Episodic memory
                                      Calculation
                                      Language

NEUPSILIN test (a)         1 (1%)     Attention

                                      Orientation

                                      Working memory

                                      Episodic, semantic and
                                      prospective memory

                                      Calculation

                                      Language

                                      Praxis

                                      Executive functions

Groton Maze Learning       1 (1%)     Attention
Test; Set-Shifting test,              Working memory
One-back and Two-                     Executive functions
back tests

Five-digit test (a)        1 (1%)     Executive functions

Concentrated               1 (1%)     Attention
Attention Test
(Toulouse-Pieron) (b)

Buschke Selective          1 (1%)     Episodic memory
Reminding Test (b)

Token Test--short          1 (1%)     Semantic memory
version (a)                           Language

Delayed recall of          1 (1%)     Delayed memory
simple pictures

Labyrinth Test             1 (1%)     --

Tower of Hanoi (b)         1 (1%)     Executive functions

Test of Variables of       1 (1%)     Attention
Visual Attention (1)

       Instrument           N (%)                Versions

MMSE                       90 (90%)        Brucki et al., 2003

                                         Bertolucci et al., 1994

                                        Lourenco e Veras, 2006 (a)

                                          Folstein et al., 1975

                                              Almeida, 1998

                                           Icaza e Albala, 1999

                                           Herrera et al., 2002

                                        Castro-Costa et al., 2008

                                           Bottino et al., 2001

                                             Kochhann et al.

                                           Nitrini et al., 2007

                                           Nitrini et al., 1994

                                           Seabra et al., 1990

                                              Not mentioned

Verbal Fluency Test        24 (24%)         Semantic (animals)

                                          Semantic(animals (a)
                                           and fruits (a))

                                          Semantic (animals and
                                               supermarket)

                                          Semantic (no category)

                                             Phonemic(F,A,Sa)

                                              Phonemic (A,F)

                                         Phonemic (no categories)

                                               Free choice

                                              Not mentioned

Digit Span Memory          15 (15%)
Test (a)

CAMCOG-R (b)               13 (13%)                 --

CDR (a)                    10 (10%)                 --

CDT                        10 (10%)    Sunderland et al., 1989 (a)

                                         Shulman et al., 1993 (a)

                                         Mendez et al., 1992 (b)

                                          Freedman et al., 1994

                                          Shulman e Silver, 1986

                                              Shulman, 2000

TMT (b)                    9 (9%)               TMT A e B

                                                  TMT A

RAVLT                      8 (8%)                   --

MoCA (a)                   8 (8%)

IQCODE (a)                 8 (8%)

BCSB (a)                   5 (5%)

RBMT (a)                   4 (4%)

BNT (a)                    4 (4%)

FOME (a)                   3 (3%)

WCST (a)                   3 (3%)

List of words              3 (3%)

LCT (a)                    3 (3%)

Vocabulary Subtest of      3 (3%)
the WAIS-III test (a)

Digit Symbol-Coding        3 (3%)
subtest
of WAIS-III test (a)

Corsi block-tapping        2 (2%)
test

SKT (a)                    2 (2%)

FAB (a)                    2 (2%)

MAC-Q (b)                  2 (2%)

MDRS (b)                   2 (2%)

SMMSE (b)                  2 (2%)

TN-LIN (a)                 2 (2%)

Verbal Paired              2 (2%)
Associates of the
WMS-R (b)

PDMT                       2 (2%)

Stick Design Test (b)      2 (2%)

Symbol search subtest      2 (2%)
of WAIS-III (a)

Cookie Theft picture       2 (2%)
test of the Boston
Diagnostic Aphasia
Examination

CANSMCI-BR (a)             1 (1%)

ADAS-Cog (b)               1 (1%)

CERAD (b)                  1 (1%)

The Arizona Battery        1 (1%)
for Communication
Disorders of
Dementia

TROG-2                     1 (1%)

Community Screening        1 (1%)
Instrument for
Dementia

Metamemory                 1 (1%)
Adulthood
Questionnaire (a)

MSEQ (a)                   1 (1%)

Raven's Progressive        1 (1%)
Matrices Test (b)

Stroop test (a)            1 (1%)

Similarities subtest of    1 (1%)
WAIS-III (a)

Information subtest of     1 (1%)
WAIS-III (a)

Cube design subtest of     1 (1%)
WAIS-III (a)

Matrix reasoning           1 (1%)
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Comprehension              1 (1%)
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Arithmetic subtest of      1 (1%)
WAIS-III (a)

Letter-number              1 (1%)
sequencing subtest of
WAIS-III (a)

Logical memory             1 (1%)
subtest I and II of
WMS-R (b)

Delay Visual Memory        1 (1%)
task
Short form of WAIS-        1 (1%)
III (a)

NEUPSILIN test (a)         1 (1%)

Groton Maze Learning       1 (1%)
Test; Set-Shifting test,
One-back and Two-
back tests

Five-digit test (a)        1 (1%)

Concentrated               1 (1%)
Attention Test
(Toulouse-Pieron) (b)

Buschke Selective          1 (1%)
Reminding Test (b)

Token Test--short          1 (1%)
version (a)

Delayed recall of          1 (1%)
simple pictures

Labyrinth Test             1 (1%)

Tower of Hanoi (b)         1 (1%)

Test of Variables of       1 (1%)
Visual Attention (1)

       Instrument           N (%)       n           %

MMSE                       90 (90%)    31         34,4

                                       15         16,7

                                       10         11,1

                                        8          8,9

                                        6          6,7

                                        5          5,6

                                        3          3,3

                                        2          2,2

                                        2          2,2

                                        1          1,1

                                        1          1,1

                                        1          1,1

                                        1          1,1

                                        4          4,4

Verbal Fluency Test        24 (24%)    16         66,7

                                        2          8,3

                                        1          4,2

                                        3         12,5

                                        4         16,7

                                        2          8,3

                                        1          4,2

                                        1          4,2

                                        1          4,2

Digit Span Memory          15 (15%)
Test (a)

CAMCOG-R (b)               13 (13%)                --

CDR (a)                    10 (10%)                --

CDT                        10 (10%)     5         50,0

                                        3         30,0

                                        2         20,0

                                        1         10 0

                                        1         10 0

                                        1         10,0

TMT (b)                    9 (9%)       8

                                        1

RAVLT                      8 (8%)

MoCA (a)                   8 (8%)      --

IQCODE (a)                 8 (8%)      --

BCSB (a)                   5 (5%)      --

RBMT (a)                   4 (4%)      --

BNT (a)                    4 (4%)      --

FOME (a)                   3 (3%)      --

WCST (a)                   3 (3%)      --

List of words              3 (3%)      --

LCT (a)                    3 (3%)      --

Vocabulary Subtest of      3 (3%)      --
the WAIS-III test (a)

Digit Symbol-Coding        3 (3%)      --
subtest
of WAIS-III test (a)

Corsi block-tapping        2 (2%)      --
test

SKT (a)                    2 (2%)      --

FAB (a)                    2 (2%)      --

MAC-Q (b)                  2 (2%)

MDRS (b)                   2 (2%)      --

SMMSE (b)                  2 (2%)      --

TN-LIN (a)                 2 (2%)      --

Verbal Paired              2 (2%)      --
Associates of the
WMS-R (b)

PDMT                       2 (2%)      --

Stick Design Test (b)      2 (2%)      --

Symbol search subtest      2 (2%)      --
of WAIS-III (a)

Cookie Theft picture       2 (2%)      --
test of the Boston
Diagnostic Aphasia
Examination

CANSMCI-BR (a)             1 (1%)      --

ADAS-Cog (b)               1 (1%)      --

CERAD (b)                  1 (1%)      --

The Arizona Battery        1 (1%)      --
for Communication
Disorders of
Dementia

TROG-2                     1 (1%)      --

Community Screening        1 (1%)      --
Instrument for
Dementia

Metamemory                 1 (1%)      --
Adulthood
Questionnaire (a)

MSEQ (a)                   1 (1%)      --

Raven's Progressive        1 (1%)      --
Matrices Test (b)

Stroop test (a)            1 (1%)      --

Similarities subtest of    1 (1%)      --
WAIS-III (a)

Information subtest of     1 (1%)      --
WAIS-III (a)

Cube design subtest of     1 (1%)      --
WAIS-III (a)

Matrix reasoning           1 (1%)      --
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Comprehension              1 (1%)      --
subtest of WAIS-III (a)

Arithmetic subtest of      1 (1%)      --
WAIS-III (a)

Letter-number              1 (1%)      --
sequencing subtest of
WAIS-III (a)

Logical memory             1 (1%)      --
subtest I and II of
WMS-R (b)

Delay Visual Memory        1 (1%)      --
task
Short form of WAIS-        1 (1%)      --
III (a)

NEUPSILIN test (a)         1 (1%)      --

Groton Maze Learning       1 (1%)      --
Test; Set-Shifting test,
One-back and Two-
back tests

Five-digit test (a)        1 (1%)      --

Concentrated               1 (1%)      --
Attention Test
(Toulouse-Pieron) (b)

Buschke Selective          1 (1%)      --
Reminding Test (b)

Token Test--short          1 (1%)      --
version (a)

Delayed recall of          1 (1%)      --
simple pictures

Labyrinth Test             1 (1%)      --

Tower of Hanoi (b)         1 (1%)      --

Test of Variables of       1 (1%)      --
Visual Attention (1)

(a): There are studies showing the accuracy of the instrument for
the Brazilian elderly population; (b): There are studies showing the
accuracy of the instrument for the Brazilian population; MMSE: Mini-
Mental State Examination; CAMCOG: Cambridge Cognitive Examination-
Revised; CDR: Clinical Dementia Rating; CDT: Clock-Drawing Test;
TMT: Trail Making Test; RAVLT: Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test;
MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; IQCODE: Informant Questionnaire
on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; BCSB: Brief Cognitive Screening
Battery; RBMT: Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test; BNT: Boston Naming
Test; FOME: Fuld Object Memory Evaluation; WCST: Wisconsin Card
Sorting Test; LCT: Leganes cognitive test; WAIS_III: Wechsler Adult
Intelligence Scale; SKT: Syndrom-Kurztest (Short Cognitive
Performance Test); FAB: Frontal Assessment Battery; MAC-Q: Memory
Complaint Questionnaire; MDRS: Mattis Dementia Rating Scale; SMMSE:
Severe Mini-Mental State Examination; TN-LIN: Naming Test of the
Laboratory of Neuropsychological Investigations; WMS-III: Weschler
Memory Scale; PDMT: Picture drawings memory test; CANSMCI-BR:
Computer-Administered Neuropsychological Screen For Mild Cognitive
Impairment for Brazilian Portuguese; ADAS-Cog: The Alzheimer's
Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale; CERAD: Consortium to
Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease; TROG-2: Test for
Reception of Grammar; MSEQ: Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.

Chart 2. Cognitive domains and respective instruments that
evaluate these domains.

Attention      MMSE; Digit Span Memory Test; CAMCOG-R; CDT: TMT; MoCA;
               Digit Symbol-Coding Subtest, Symbol search and
               Arithmetic Subtest of WAIS-III; SKT; MDRS; SMMSE;
               CERAD; Short form of WAIS-III; NEUPSILIN test;
               Concentrated Attention Test of Toulouse-Pieron; Groton
               Maze Learning Test; Set-Shifting test, One-back and
               Two-back tests; Test of variables of Visual Attention

Orientation    MMSE; CAMCOG-R; CDR: MoCA; LCT; CERAD; NEUPSILIN test;
               Community Screening Instrument for Dementia

Language       MMSE; Verbal fluency Test; CAMCOG-R; MoCA; BCSB; BNT;
               FOME; LCT; SMMSE; TN- LIN; CANSMCI-BR; ADAS-Cog; CERAD;
               Cookie Theft picture test of the Boston Diagnostic
               Aphasia Examination; The Arizona Battery for
               Communication Disorders of Dementia; TROG-2; Community
               Screening Instrument for Dementia; Similarities subtest
               of WAIS-III; NEUPSILIN test; Short Form of WAIS-III;
               Token Test

Memory         MMSE; Verbal fluency Test; Digit Span Memory Test;
               CAMCOG-R; CDR; RAVLT; MoCA; BCSB; RBMT; FOME-list of
               words; LCT; Vocabulary, Digit Symbol-Coding Subtest,
               Information, Number and Letter Sequencing subtests of
               WAIS-III; Corsi block-tapping test; SKT; MAC-Q; MDRS;
               SMMSE; TN-LIN; Verbal Paired Associates I and II and
               Logical Memory I and II of WMS-III; PDMT; CANSMCI-BR;
               CERAD; ADAS-Cog; The Arizona Battery for Communication
               Disorders of Dementia; Community Screening Instrument
               for Dementia; MSEQ; Metamemory in Adulthood
               Questionnaire; Delayed Visual Memory task; Short form
               of WAIS-III; NEUPSILIN test; Groton Maze Learning Test;
               Set-Shifting test, One-back and Two-back tests;
               Buschke Selective Reminding Test; Token Test; Delayed
               recall of simple pictures

Executive      Verbal fluency Test; Digit Span Memory Test; CAMCOG-R;
functions      CDR; CDT; TMT; MoCA; BCSB; FOME; WCST; Corsi
               block-tapping test; SKT; FAB; MDRS; Symbol Search, Cube
               Design, Comprehension, Matrix reasoning subtests of
               WAIS-III; CANSMCI-BR; CERAD; Short term of WAIS-III;
               NEUPSILIN test; Groton Maze Learning Test; Set-Shifting
               test, One-back and Two- back tests; Five-digit test;
               Tower of Hanoi

Praxis         MMSE; CDT; CAMCOG-R; MoCA; BCSB; MDRS; SMMSE; ADAS-Cog;
               CERAD; The Arizona Battery for Communication Disorders
               of Dementia; Community Screening Instrument for
               Dementia; NEUPSILIN test

Visuospatial   CDT; Digit Symbol-Coding and Cube Design subtests of
skills         WAIS-III; Stick Design Test; ADAS- Cog; CERAD;

Calculation    MMSE; CAMCOG-R; CERAD; Arithmetic subtest of WAIS-III;
               Short form of WAIS-III; NEUPSILIN test

MMSE: Mini-Mental State Examination; CAMCOG: Cambridge Cognitive
Examination-Revised; CDR: Clinical Dementia Rating; CDT: Clock-
Drawing Test; TMT: Trail Making Test; RAVLT: Rey Auditory Verbal
Learning Test; MoCA: Montreal Cognitive Assessment; IQCODE:
Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly; BCSB:
Brief Cognitive Screening Battery; RBMT: Rivermead Behavioral Memory
Test; BNT: Boston Naming Test; FOME: Fuld Object Memory Evaluation;
WCST: Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; LCT: Leganes cognitive test;
WAIS_III: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale; SKT: Syndrom-Kurztest
(Short Cognitive Performance Test); FAB: Frontal Assessment Battery;
MAC-Q: Memory Complaint Questionnaire; MDRS: Mattis Dementia Rating
Scale; SMMSE: Severe Mini-Mental State Examination; TN-LIN: Naming
Test of the Laboratory of Neuropsychological Investigations; WMS-
III: Weschler Memory Scale; PDMT: Picture drawings memory test;
CANSMCI-BR: Neuropsychological Screen For Mild Cognitive Impairment
for Brazilian Portuguese; ADAS-Cog: The Alzheimer's Disease
Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale; CERAD: Consortium to Establish
a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease; TROG-2: Test for reception of
grammar; MSEQ: Memory Self-Efficacy Questionnaire.
COPYRIGHT 2019 Associacao Brasileira de Pos-Graduacao em Saude Coletiva - ABRASCO
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Author:Martins, Nubia Isabela Macedo; Caldas, Priscila Romao; Cabral, Etenildo Dantas; Lins, Carla Cabral d
Publication:Ciencia & Saude Coletiva
Article Type:Bibliografia
Date:Jul 1, 2019
Words:9707
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