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Clustering based dynamic duty-cycled multiple-rendezvous multichannel MAC (DMM-MAC) for Bursty traffic in underwater sensor network.

INTRODUCTION

A wireless sensor network (WSN) contains sensor nodes with collecting information from the environment and communicate with each other using wireless transceivers. Here, the collected data will be delivered to more sink node[1], generally via multi-hop communication. The sensor energy is, efficient utilization of the energy to prolong the network lifetime. To save energy, the multi-hop routing is used for distant sensor nodes from the sinks. The nodes near a sink can be loaded with relaying a huge amount of traffic from other nodes.

The battery power is used to operate the sensor nodes and when the nodes die, it is very difficult to replace or recharge it. This is the major issues in the network performance. Lifetime of the network is increased by energy conservation. By Optimizing the communication range and minimize the energy usage, the energy is conserved. Sensor nodes are arranged to gather information and that all the nodes works continuously, finally the information is transmitted as long as possible. Sensor nodes use their energy during transmitting the data, receiving the data and relaying packets. Hence, the routing algorithms that maximize the lifetime. Many routing protocols are established, but among these protocols cluster based routing protocols are energy efficient, more scalable and the network lifetime is prolonged.

The WSN is built by set of "nodes", where each node is connected to one or several sensors. Each sensor network node has some parts they are radio transceiver with two set of antenna they are internal antenna or external antenna, microcontroller is used, and finally an electronic circuit for interfacing with the sensors and an energy source. They are usually a battery or an embedded form of energy conservation.

In Underwater Sensor Networks:

The measurements of environmental events are normally monitored by the anchored nodes and transferred to a surface sink by multi-hops. For underwater transmission, both the electromagnetic waves and laser waves are not suitable and acoustic communication is the typical physical layer technology in UASNs. Underwater acoustic sensor networks (UASNs) are the technology that enables various underwater applications. The development of wireless detector networks was motivated by military applications [2] such as battlefield surveillance mainly to work monitoring and control, device life checking.

The performance of network protocols is affected by signal irregularity is directly or indirectly affects, such as MAC protocol, routing, then localization and topology control. The major issue in UASN is packet drop, and this problem can be solved by increasing the radius of adjacent node in underwater.

In Clustering, there are lack of centralized administration has numerous challenges. The network control traffic is increased when the node is failed or packet is dropped. The effective routing and QoS support while considering the bandwidth and power constraints are the main challenges. In clustering schemes, the size of the cluster are important parameters; here, reducing the number of clusters does not be more efficient architectures. To avoid unnecessary message the Control messages broadcast period should be dynamically adapted when the pattern of nodes is relatively static.

MAC protocol plays an important role in UWSN [3]. MAC is the sub layer task, which provide access to channels by avoiding possible collisions. The major goal in MAC protocol for WSN is energy efficiency in order to prolong the lifetimes of sensors.

In WSN, there are unnecessary energy waste:

Packet collision:

It can occur when nodes don't listen to the medium before transmitting. Packets transmitted at the same time collide, become corrupted and must be retransmitted. Unnecessary energy is caused by this.

Overhearing:

A node receives a packet which is addressed to another node.

Control packet overhead:

Control packets are successfully transmits the data transmission. They don't, however, represent useful data. They are very short.

Idle listening:

The main reason for energy waste is when a node listens to an idle channel waiting to receive data.

Over Emitting:

The node sends data when the recipient node is not ready to accept incoming transmission.

The MAC protocols fulfill the requirements of WSN needs:

Energy efficiency:

Most sensor nodes are battery powered and prolonging their lifetime is possible by designing energy-efficient protocols.

Collision avoidance:

The main goal is to reduce collisions as much as possible. This can be achieved either by listening to the channel or by using time, or by frequency or code channel division access.

Scalability and adaptability:

The MAC protocol can adapt the changes in network topology caused by node movement and nature of wireless transmission.

Latency:

Latency represents the delay of a packet when sent through the network. Here the importance of latency in WSN depends on the application monitoring

Throughput:

It shows that the amount of data within a period of time sent from the sender to the receiver through WSN. Fairness:

Fair medium access for all active nodes is provided by MAC protocol The rest of the paper is organized as follow: Section II presents the literature review. In Section III, the existing system, Section IV the proposed system is presented. Section V describes the results and discussion and Section VI concludes the paper.

Literature Review:

Scheduling scheme based on clustering mechanism [9], mainly used to balance the lifetime of network. The play major role in wireless sensor network. This clustering mechanism is further split into three sections. Each section is done one after another. At first, the level of energy at each node is calculated and tabled. Using this energy level, the cluster head (CH) is assigned. This assigned cluster head observers the cluster member energy, to identify the drain rate.

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Secondly, algorithm for scheduling is taken. It allocates the slots for data packets of cluster member (CM). And finally the model for consumption of energy is proposed. This model is used maintain the energy level.

The cluster is also selected based on the priority of the sensor nodes. These sensor keep tracking the nodes when they are in sleep, listen and transmission conditions. The proposed clustering mechanism improves certain metrics such like the lifetime of network, reducing the overhead and the delivery of packet percentage is increased. But the major drawback caused by this mechanism is retrieval of protocols when the cluster head is failed.

Dynamic cluster based routing [4] is a combination of clustering and routing algorithm. This cluster scheme contains two process they are inter and intra cluster, they are used to balance the energy using method called K-Medoids and its one of the clustering algorithm. The primary step for this algorithm is dividing the nodes, by distinct cluster format in K-Medoids method.

After the primary step, the head node is selected from each distinct cluster then the routing the tree using the dynamic function in the cluster formation. Using this clustering algorithm the energy are balanced, there are several models they are network model this model used to deploy the nodes and calculate the node distance using GPS or by localization algorithm. Then clustering algorithm model, here they use the K-medoids method and split the network into K-distinct cluster. Third model is updating the head using the intra cluster, when replacing the head node it changes awake section and after the replacing the node moves to sleep section to save the energy and finally routing the tree of the cluster heads mainly for acknowledging the data(ACK)

Joint optimization of lifetime and transport delay under reliability constraint wireless sensor network [5] analyzing the strategy to meet the requirements between the transport delay from source to sink and lifetime in wireless sensor network. BCMN/A called as broadcast combined with multi NACK /ACK, is used for data gathering. It is used to overcome the energy and delay in data gathering. This gathering has 2 function they are inter and intra cluster. One of the clustering scheme is intra it is the combination of TDMA and NACK is used. This NACK, retransmit the data which fail to send in first attempt.

Inter cluster are the multi ACK and used to reduce the node energy. In this, they proposed several models. The preliminary system model is network. First creating the nodes with N homogeneous sensors and placed in circular region. Here, the sinks are placed in middle, each node section are divided into multiple part and each part has an cluster head and cluster member to transmit the data from one divided section to another. For transmitting the data, they use the one hop or multi hop. After the network model the energy consumption model are taken and the major issues are lifetime, delay these are improved using this model. SW HBH ARQ protocol are used as an analyzing strategy for the node load, delay and lifetime. Here the , SW HBH ARQ states that send and wait (SW) Hop By Hop (HBH) Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ) with the BCMN/A protocol. Here this protocol has negative Acknowledgment and used in inter cluster process to improve the life tie and reduce the delay.

A self-organization management protocol for wireless sensor network[6],using clustering. The management protocol propose a cover clustering mechanism for organizing the cluster head, this cover clustering proposed work reduce the management among nodes. Intra clustering is a node of unicast has the mechanism called table driven routing. Here, the source nodes transmit the query packet about the route till the brim nodes and finally, the local cluster receive the message.

In inter clustering, reduce the overhead. in this mechanism 20/80 rule is used. there are two levels of nodes they are high level node and low level node. CN telecast a CREQ Cover REQuest regularly, they check the nodes are active or sleep.C2 are high level nodes and C3 are low level nodes combined to form a CH (cluster head ) each shares the CREQ and maintain log of each nodes. Here, the gradient levels are compared with the previous node and finally select header part. After this process, the routing algorithms are used. They are inter cluster routing algorithm and intra cluster routing algorithm. These algorithms maintain the data about route of all nodes. Marinating the log about the route, avoid the bottleneck and reduce the controls over the packet in selecting the cluster head.

Multiple-Rendezvous Multichannel MAC Protocol [7] protocol is designed for Underwater Sensor Networks [3]. Transmission collisions are undesirable since they waste network capacity and node energy. The collision issue is more deliberate in UWSN, its negative effect increases. Applying existing WSN MAC solutions is not feasible because of the acoustic transmission features in UWSN. To avoid transmission collision, in some existing centralized UWSN protocols, a particular node arranges transmission schedules for all the nodes. These protocols works in a single-hop environment. In other UWSN MAC protocols like, ToneLohi (T-Lohi), slotted ALOHA, and slotted floor acquisition multiple access (FAMA), time is divided into fixed-length slots, and packets are transmitted only at the start of the time slot.

Secondly, multiple node pairs complete their channel negotiations on different channels concurrently. This avoids producing a bottleneck on any channel. Finally, credited to the separation of control and data packet transmissions. Here, the control and data packets will not collide with each other. Simulation results verify that the existing, MM-MAC improves network throughput and efficiency.

The MM-MAC protocol aims to use a single modem to emulate multiple-transceiver Multiple-rendezvous give result to enable a communication, a transmission pair must switch to the same channel at the same time. In MM-MAC, time is divided into a series of super frames. Each superframe is further divided into control and data periods, Multichannel MAC protocol for UWSNs since it achieves a great improvement over existing MAC protocols such as slotted FAMA and slotted PCAM. The most important function is the joint allocation of channel and time for all the nodes in the network.

Quorum-Based Energy-Saving MAC Protocol [8], it has the concept of IEEE 802.11 mode of powersaving, to remain active each node wakes up at the beginning of each beacon. S-MAC, nodes exchange the synchronization and used to schedule the information with their neighbors at the beginning of each period. This ensures that two neighboring nodes would listen and go to sleep at the same time. Nodes that adhere to the same schedule form a virtual cluster.

S-MAC, adopts an adaptive duty cycle. A sensor node in listen mode will not go to sleep until there is no activity for a certain time TA. A power-down strategy such as this may produce the early sleeping problem wherein potential receivers go to sleep too early.

DMAC is another protocol that uses an adaptive duty cycle. By staggering active times along the data-gathering tree, DMAC reduces the transmission latency in a many-to-one communication model. DMAC achieves better performance in transmission latency, throughput, and energy conservation when compared with S-MAC.

In QMAC, power saving is achieved by reducing the number of wakeup time frames. As mentioned earlier, a quorum set to represent the time frames wherein a sensor node must wake up. However, during these wake-up time frames, a sensor node does not always stay awake for the entire time frame. A sensor node can go to sleep whenever it identifies that another transmission that it is not involved in is activated.

Existing System:

In existing system the DMM-MAC (dynamic duty-cycled multiple-rendezvous multichannel medium access control) used to transmit the bursty data. This DMM-MAC contains two phases they are MM- MAC and duty cycle. These phases are mainly used to reduce the collision rate.

Drawbacks:

There is no clustering scheme It is provides the high traffic when their time slot condition. In multihop environment, it cannot identify the correct current time slot node. It consumes the more energy in communication.

Proposed System:

A new mesh network is proposed to support such a dynamically changing mesh topology, sensor nodes can be classified into the following types according to their current roles in this network: 1) Intra Cluster. 2) Inter Cluster. Each sensor node is fully charged in the initial location and has enough power to update its location and forward data for sensor to cluster head and finally to base station. However, once inter- or intra cluster detects that its energy level is low; it can request to be replaced by another sensor node that is act as cluster head.

Advantages:

* To achieve better overall end-to-end delay.

* Inter cluster for subsequent local adaptation.

* Dynamic cluster head changes

* Reduce the energy consumption and increase the data rate

[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 2 OMITTED]

Figure 1 and 2 shows that the data unit is used to generate the data. Each and every node has the energy unit. Energy unit has the current energy level.

Routing manager controls the all events such as sending, receiving and data transmission.

In base station, node has the node list and energy compassion unit and data unit. Data unit collects all info. Energy comparison unit compare the energy level and gives high remaining energy node name. Routing manger will selects CH. And timer used for trigger the event to compare the energy level.

Modules:

A) Communication Model:

Creation of node is occurred at the communication model. It creates sensor nodes and sink nodes. The sensor nodes are used to collect the sensory data, after the completion of this process it sends the request message to the nearby nodes. The node which is nearer to the sensor node will give the response message. After the response message the sensor node send the data. If there is no response then the sensor node waits until it gets the response.

B) DMM-MACprotocol:

The DMM-MAC protocol is mainly used to send the bustry data. It also contains two phases they are dynamic duty cycling and MM-MAC protocol. The combination of these two phases forms DMM-MAC protocol. The dynamic duty cycle is used to modify the duty cycle according to the amount of data and traffic. This cycle is based on time function; this time is split into series of cycle. Each cycle consist of frames and apportioned into active and sleep section. When the node having data to send then they will be in active mode and the node having no data to send then they will be in sleep mode. These processes also contain initial wake up frames and extended wake up frames. Initial wakeup frames, nodes that uses the initial duty cycle and ends the process within the given time. Extended wakeup frames, when traffic occurs it uses this wakeup frames. It extends the active section for extra frames.

MM-MAC protocol, here the time is subdivided into super frames. These super frames contain two periods they are control period and data period. The control period contains the allocation slot for the given allocated time. The data period, it gives acknowledgment for the requested node.

MM-MAC protocol used to handle the channel negotiation and reduce the rate of collision. The dynamic duty cycle is also applied with it. This combination of MM protocol and duty cycle forms a DMM-MAC protocol that uses the RTS/CTS process. RTS and CTS are two handshake processes that reduce the energy level.

C) Route Discovery & packet transmission:

Route discovery, used to update the routing table at regular intervals. And the packet transmissions are time synchronized. The detectors are used to shift the modes of nodes from active to sleep and sleep to active. Each node has an ID (identifier) to identify the neighbor node.

D) Clustering:

Clustering mechanism is divided into two pattern they are inter cluster and intra cluster. The process of the intra cluster that sense the data from non-cluster head and transfers them to the cluster head node. Similarly, the process of the inter cluster, that transfer the data to base station and to the other cluster head nodes from the cluster head.

Hierarchical clustering:

A representative of each sub-domain (cluster) is 'elected' as a cluster head (CH) and a node which serves as intermediate for inter-cluster communication is called gateway. Remaining members are called ordinary nodes. The boundaries of a cluster are defined by the transmission area of its CH.

E) Lifetime Analysis:

Reducing the collision and reducing the energy consumption in idle listening are the two way to conserve the energy. Here the MM-MAC reduce the transmission collision and DMM MAC used to transfer bursty traffic. Finally to improve the network lifetime the MAC protocol is incorporated with the clustering mechanism.

Simulation Result Analysis:

[FIGURE 3 OMITTED]

Simulation is a process of designing a model of clustering mechanism for the purpose of understanding the behavior of the system or module Intra Cluster

A mesh sensor node is an intra router if it detects at least one client within its radio range and is in charge of monitoring the movement of clients in its range. Figure 3 shows, the Intra cluster that monitor and gather data from group members can communicate with each other via multi-hop routing. Square nodes in if it plays the role of a relay node helping to interconnect different groups.

Inter connecting groups:

In this module the sensor nodes are communicate with the cluster head of their group. In figure 4, the Cluster members are continuously sent the data to Cluster head finally the data forward to the base station. In this network two network communicate each other one in intra another one is inter cluster.

[FIGURE 4 OMITTED]

[FIGURE 5 OMITTED]

End to end delay is defined as difference of received time and sent time. Figure 5 shows the comparison result of DMM and DMM with clustering. The delay rate is increased in DMM because each node has to transmit its own data. It cannot be clustered. The DMM is incorporated with clustering mechanism, here, the delay rate is reduced. Because clustering can collect the data from CM and send to CH.

The energy level are being compared in Figure 6. The energy is also taken by the combination of energy usage taken in percentage and time. Here are overhead (OH), energy level is compared with the DMM and DMM with clustering.

[FIGURE 6 OMITTED]

Here, the energy level is high in DMM, even though it has sleep and awake condition. Hence, the cluster collect the data with dynamic cluster head by calculating the energy level at each section while transmitting the data. By comparing the clustering with DMM it give the best result when compared with DMM.

Conclusion:

In the proposed work, clustering is incorporated with DMM MAC to improve the performance. The results of DMM-MAC with and without clustering are analyzed. Utilizing the dynamic duty cycling scheme, nodes running DMM-MAC switch between active and sleep modes effectively to deliver bursty traffic. In this paper, by using inter and intra cluster communication the network lifetime of the application is improved.

REFERENCES

[1.] Umesh Jawarkar, Pankaj Panchore, Shubham Deshmukh, " Overview of Wireless Sensor Network and its Applications", International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Engineering, 4(2), ISSN 2249-071X.

[2.] Kiran Maraiya, Kamal Kant, Nitin Gupta, 2011. "Application based Study on Wireless Sensor Network", International Journal of Computer Applications, 21: 8.

[3.] Joseph Kabara and Maria Calle, 2012. " MAC Protocols Used by Wireless Sensor Networks and a General Method of Performance Evaluation" ,International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks", Article ID 834784Vol.

[4.] Lin Zhao, Zhibo Chen,Guodong Sun, 2014." Dynamic Cluster-based Routing for Wireless Sensor Networks", Journal Of Networks, 9(11).

[5.] Mianxiong Dong, Kaoru Ota, 2016." Joint Optimization of Lifetime and Transport Delay under Reliability Constraint Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems, 27(1).

[6.] Yao-Chung Chang, Zhi-Sheng Lin and Jiann-Liang Chen, 2006. ''Cluster Based Self-Organization Management Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics, 52(1)

[7.] Chih-Min Chao, Yao-Zong Wang and Ming-Wei Lu, 2013. "Multiple-Rendezvous Multichannel MAC Protocol Design for Underwater Sensor Networks" , IEEE Transactions On Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Systems, 43(1).

[8.] Chih-Min Chao and Yi-Wei Lee, 2010. " A Quorum-Based Energy-Saving MAC Protocol Design for Wireless Sensor Networks", IEEE Transactions on vehicular technology, 59(2).

[9.] Srie Vidhya Janani, E. and P. Ganesh Kumar, 2015. "Energy Efficient Cluster Based Scheduling Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks", The Scientific World Journal, DOI :10.1155/2015/185198.

(1) P. Swapna and (2) Dr. R. Alageswaran

(1) PG student Department of CSE, K. L. N. College of Engineering, Pottapalayam, Sivagangai 630612 INDIA

(2) Professor Department of CSE, K. L. N. College of Engineering, Pottapalayam, Sivagangai 630 612 INDIA

Received 27 May 2016; Accepted 28 June 2016; Available 12 July 2016

Address For Correspondence:

P. Swapna, PG student Department of CSE, K. L. N. College of Engineering, Pottapalayam, Sivagangai 630612 INDIA

E-mail: swapnaengineer@gmail.com
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Author:Swapna, P.; Alageswaran, R.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Date:Jun 30, 2016
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