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Cluster based secure performance on mobile ad-hoc network using zone routing protocol.


Ad-hoc networks are mobile wireless networks, they have no fixed infrastructure. There are no fixed routers instead of each node acts as router and forwards traffic from other nodes. Ad-hoc networks were first mainly used for military applications. They have become increasingly more popular within the computing industry [2]. Applications are include emergency search, rescue operations, deployment of sensors, conferences, exhibitions, virtual classrooms and operation environments. Where construction of infrastructure is difficult or expensive. Ad-hoc networks can be rapidly deployed because the lack of infrastructure. A MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network) is a type of ADHOC network rapidly changing topology. These type of networks have a large span and connect hundreds to thousands of nodes [16]. The term of Reconfigurable Wireless Networks (RWN) are refers to large ad-hoc networks that can be deployed without infrastructure and where the nodes are highly mobile [14]. We concentrate on routing into large ad-hoc networks with high mobility. Since the nodes in a MANET are highly mobile, the topology frequently changes and the nodes are dynamically connected in an arbitrary manner (Fig. 1.). The rate of change depends on velocity of the nodes. Moreover, the devices are small and the available transmission power is limited. The radio coverage of node is small. The low transmission power limits the number of neighbour nodes, which further increases rate of change in the topology as the node moves. Because of interference and fading due to high operating frequency are urban environment, the links are unreliable. Ad-hoc networks are further characterized by low bandwidth links. The differences in transmission capacity, some of the links may be unidirectional [4]. As a result of link instability and node mobility, topology changes frequently and routing is difficult.

In this paper routing protocols have been proposed for ad-hoc networks [2]. These protocols can be classified into two: proactive (table-driven) and reactive (source-initiated or demand-driven). Proactive routing protocols attempt to keep an up-to-date topological map for the entire network [5]. With this map, the route is known and immediately available in the packets are needs to be sent. The approach is similar to the one used in wired IP networks, for example in OSPF.

2. Related Work:

Proactive protocols are traditionally classified as either distance-vector or link-state protocols. The Distributed Bellman-Ford (DBP) algorithm is slow convergence because of the "counting-to-infinity" problem [6]. To address the problem, Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing protocol is proposed for ad-hoc networks. The link-state protocols are represented by OSPF have become standard in wired IP networks. In converge is more but require significantly control the traffic [7]. Ad-hoc networks are bandwidth limited and their topology are changes and Optimized Link-State Protocol has been proposed. While being suitable for small networks scalability problems are presented in larger networks and Improve convergence and reduce traffic has led to algorithms and then combine features of distance-vector and link-state schemes. The wireless routing protocol are eliminates the counting-to-infinity problem and avoids temporary loop and increasing the amount of control traffic. In contrast to proactive routing, reactive routing protocol does not attempt to continuously determine network connectivity. A route determination procedure is invoked on demand when a packet needs to be forward. The technique queries are flooded throughout the network. Reactive route determination is used to Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA), the Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) [8] and Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocols. In DSR and AODV protocol reply is sent back to the query source along the reverse path that the query travelled. The main difference is DSR performs source routing with the addresses obtained from query packet. While AODV uses next hop information stored in the nodes of the route. To these protocols, ZRP creates directed acyclic graphs are rooted at the destination by flooding the route replies in a controlled manner [9].

3. The Zone Routing Protocol:

Routing is the process of transferring a packet from source to destination. In the routing process, mobile nodes are search for a route to communicate with the other node in the network. Protocols are the set of rules through devices communicate each other. In MANET routing tables are used for routing purpose. The routing tables contain information for routes to all the mobile nodes. The routing protocols in MANET are broadly classified into three categories.

* Proactive Routing Protocols

* Reactive Routing Protocols

* Hybrid Routing Protocols

Proactive or Table Driven Routing Protocols are routing tables which contains the information of routes to all the nodes. Routes are predefined in the routing tables and packets are transferred to the routes. As route is already specified in the table. So packet forwarding is faster and routes have to be defined first before transferring the packets so overhead is more. All the routes are maintained at all the times and latency is low. Some highly used proactive routing protocols are Destination Sequenced Distance Vector and optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) and Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)[10].

Throughput rate = 1 / Cycle time (1)

In Reactive or On-Demand [1] Routing Protocols, routes are not predefined and packet transmission for source node calls for route discovery to determine the route. The route discovery mechanism is based on flooding algorithm employs node just broadcasts for the packet to all its neighbours and intermediate nodes are forwards to the packets and their neighbors [4]. Overhead network is smaller in reactive protocols but latency is higher. The reactive protocols are Dynamic Source Routing, Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector and Temporally Ordered Routing Algorithm.

Velocity = Throughput time / Value-added time (2)

Hybrid Protocols are combination of both table-Driven and On-Demand protocols. These protocols take the advantage of best features. These protocols exploit the hierarchical network architecture and the nodes with close proximity to work together to form of backbone, thus increasing scalability and reducing route discovery. Nodes are within a particular geographical area said to be within the routing zone of the given node. For routing within this zone, Proactive table-driven is used. For all nodes are located outside this zone, Reactive an on demand approach is used. Hybrid Routing Protocols, the route is established with proactive routers and reactive flooding for new mobile nodes. In Hybrid Routing protocols, some of the characteristics of proactive and reactive protocols are combined, by maintaining intra-zone information are proactively. Reactively better solution for mobile ad hoc networks [3].

Operation time = Setup time + Run time (3)

Efficiency = Actual output / Standard Output (4)

Utilization = Time Activated / Time Available (5)

The Zone Routing Protocol is based on the concept of zones. A routing zone is defined each nodes are separately and zones of neighboring nodes overlap. The routing zone are radius expressed in hops. The zone thus includes the nodes distance from the node at multi-hops. An example routing zone is shown in Figure 1, where the outing zone of S includes nodes A-I, but not K. In the illustrations, the radius of the circle around the node in question. It should be note the zone is defined in hops, not as a physical distance. [11].

Each nodes are separate routing zone is defined. The routing zones of neighboring nodes overlap with each other's zone. Each routing zone are radius p expressed in hops. The zone includes the nodes distance from the source node is at most p hops. In routing zone of radius 2 hops for node A is shown. Routing zone includes all the nodes except node L because it lies to outside the routing zone node A. The routing zone is not defined physical distance are defined in hops. There are two types of nodes for a routing zone in ZRP.

* Peripheral Nodes

* Interior Nodes

The number of nodes routing zone can be regulated and adjusting the transmission power of the nodes. The nodes power consumption reduce to number of nodes are direct reach and vice versa. The number of neighbouring nodes are should be sufficient to provide the adequate reachability and redundancy. On the other hand, a too large coverage results in many zone members for update traffic becomes excessive and large transmission coverage adds to the probability of local contention [12].

3.1 Clustering in Mobile Ad hoc Network:

The process are divides the network into interconnected substructures, called clusters. Each cluster has a particular node elected as cluster head (CH) based specific metric or a combination of metrics such as identity, degree, mobility, weight, density. The cluster head plays role of coordinator within its substructure. Each CH acts as a temporary base station within cluster and communicates other CHs. A cluster are composed of a cluster head, gateways and members node [13].

Cluster Head (CH):

it is the coordinator of the cluster.


is a common node between more clusters.

Member Node (Ordinary nodes):

is a node that is neither a CH nor gateway node. Each node belongs exclusively to cluster independently its neighbors that might reside in a different cluster.

Collaborative Work:

The environments need for collaborative computing might be more important outside office environments in the inside. In the case where people do need to have outside meetings cooperate and exchange information [19].

Crisis-Management Applications:

By using Ad Hoc networks, are communication channel could be set up instead of required for wire-line communications.

Personal Area Networking and Bluetooth:

A personal area Network is short-range, localized network and nodes are usually associated. These nodes could be attached to someone's pulse belt, and so on. In scenarios, mobility is only a major consideration and interaction among several PANs. There are five major security goals that are reliable and secure Ad hoc network environment.

There are mainly followed by:

Confidentiality of Data- keeps data secret. Integrity of Data- prevents data from being altered. Availability of Data- data should be available on request. Authentication of Data- verification that the data or request came from a specific, valid sender.

Adhoc networks are easily attacked a wired network. The attacks prevalent on Ad hoc routing protocols are broadly classified by passive and active attacks. There are two classifications of attacks in MANETs [15].

> Active attack: In order to perform some harmful operations in the misbehaving node has some energy costs is called as active attacks.

> Passive Attacks: Passive attack is mainly lack of cooperation with the purpose of energy saving. The nodes are perform active attacks with the aim of damaging other nodes causing network outage are considered to be malicious nodes are perform the passive attacks with the aim of saving battery life to be selfish.

Throughput time = Work-in-process / Throughput rate (6)

Attacks based on the modification:

This is the more simple way to disturb the operation of the Ad hoc network. The different kind of attacks is based on the modification of the metric value for a route or altering the messages passes through the route. Redirection by changing the route sequence number and redirection by altering the hop Count, Denial of service are altering routing information. Impersonation attacks are more generally this is known as spoofing. The malicious nodes are hides its IP and MAC addresses and uses that of another nodes. Since current routing protocols are like AODV and DSR are do not authenticate source IP address, a malicious nodes are can launch many attacks by using spoofing. The attacks are fabrication of informations are basically three subcategories are fabrication of information attacks and falsification of route error messages, Corrupting routing state, and routing tables are overflow attack [20].

Active attacks affect the normal operation of the network. Active attacks are attacker actively participates disrupting the normal operation of the network services are act as an internal node in the network. An active part of the network is easy for the node to exploit in any internal nodes are use for malicious packets injection service. The attacker drop packets, modify packets, replay packets, fabricate messages as some other nodes and nodes rush packets them over high speed private networks. [17].

In Passive attack, the attacker listen to network in order to get information to the network. In passive attacks are does not actively participate in bringing the network down. The network is order to know and understand, how the nodes are communicate to each node. Before the attacker launch an attack against the network.

Zone Routing Protocol is refers to the locally proactive routing component as the IntrA-zone Routing Protocol. The global reactive routing component is called IntEr-zone Routing Protocol. IERP and IARP are not specific routing protocols. Instead of IARP is a family of limited-depth, proactive link-state routing protocols. IARP maintains routing information for nodes are within the routing zone of the node. Correspondingly, IERP is a family of reactive routing protocols that offering for enhanced routing discovery and route maintenance services based on local connectivity monitored by IARP [18].

The topology of the local zone of each node is known can be used to reduce traffic when global route discovery is needed and instead of broadcasting packets, ZRP uses a concept called border casting. Border casting utilizes the topology information are provided by the IARP to direct query request to the border of the zone. The border cast packet delivery service is provided by Border cast Resolution Protocol (BRP). BRP uses a map of an extended routing zone to construct the border cast trees for query packets. Alternatively, it uses source routing based on the normal routing zone are employing query control mechanisms, route requests can be directed away from areas of the network that already have been covered. To detect new neighbor nodes and link failures, the ZRP relies on a Neighbor Discovery Protocol are provided by the Media Access Control layer. NDP transmits "HELLO" beacons at regular intervals are receiving a beacon, the neighbor table is updated. Neighbors, for which no beacon has been received within a specified time are removed from the table. If the MAC layer does not include a NDP, the functionality must be provided by IARP. Route updates are triggered by NDP which notifies the IARP. When the neighbor table is updated. IERP uses the routing table of IARP to respond to route queries. IERP forward to queries with BRP. BRP used to the routing table of IARP to guide route queries away from the query source.

3.2 Route Discovery Process:

The discover process of ZRP operates as follows

> The source node first checks whether the destination is within its zone. The destination node is known and no further route discovery process is required.

> The destination is not within the routing zone of source, the source node border cast a route request to its peripheral nodes.

> The peripheral nodes are checks whether the destination node is within their node or not. If so, a route reply is sent back to source node indicating the router to destination.

> If the destination node is not available in the routing zones are peripheral nodes, route requests are forwarded to their peripheral nodes.

Route maintenance is important for ad hoc networks, which links are broken and established as nodes moves relatively to each other with limited radio coverage. Route discovery must be performed the route broken or fails. Until the new route is available packets are dropped. In ZRP are knowledge of the local topology can be used for route maintenance. Link failures and sub-optimal route segments are within one zone can be bypassed. Incoming packets can be directed around the broken link through active multi-hop path. Therefore topology can be used to shorten the routes, for example, when two nodes have moved within radio coverage. A relaying node can determine the closet route to the destination that is also a neighbour.

Border casting can be more efficient than flooding, since route request packets are sent to the peripheral nodes and thus only on the corresponding links. Further efficiency are gained by utilizing the multicast techniques. In that case, only one packet is sent on a link although several peripheral nodes can be reside behind this link. The routing zones of neighbouring nodes overlap, each node may be forward to route requests several times, which results are more traffic than in flooding. When a node border casts are query and the complete routing zone is effectively covered. Any further query messages entering the zone are redundant result for wasted transmission capacity. The excess traffic is a result from queries returning to covered zones instead of covered nodes as in traditional flooding.

To solve this problem, ZRP needs query-control mechanisms, which can be direct queries away from the covered zones and terminate query packets before they are delivered to peripheral nodes in regions of the network are already covered by the query. ZRP uses three types of query-control mechanisms are query detection, early termination are random query-processing delay. Query detection caches the queries relayed by the nodes. With early termination, this information is used to prune border casting to nodes already covered by the query.

When a border cast is issued, only the border casting node is aware that the routing zone is covered by the query. When the peripheral nodes continue the query process by border casting to their peripheral nodes, the query may be relayed through the same nodes again. The node S in Figure 6 border casts a query to its peripheral nodes F-J. As the node J continues by border casting to the nodes C, S and E, the query is again relayed by nodes D and E. The query issued by the node J to nodes C, S and E is redundant, since these nodes have been covered by the previous query.

To prevent queries from reappearing in covered regions are nodes must be detect local query relaying activity. BRP provides two query detection methods. They are QD1 and QD2. QD1 nodes that relay the query are able to detect the query (QD1). Secondly, in single-channel networks is possible to listen the traffic by other nodes within the radio coverage (QD2). To detect queries are relayed by the other nodes in the zone. QD2 can be implemented by IP broadcasts to send route queries. A unicast can be used for the MAC and IP layers operate in promiscuous mode. All nodes except node B relay query of S. They are able to use QD1. Node B does not belong to bordercast tree, it is able to relayed query using QD2. The node K does not overhear the message and therefore unaware that the zone of node S is covered.

A query detection table is used to cache the detected queries. The cache contains address of the source node and the query ID. The address-ID pair is uniquely identify all queries for the network. The cache may also contain other information depends on the query detection scheme. Especially the address of the node that most recently border casted a query is important.

4. Experimental Classification Results and Analysis:

The key idea of ZRP is to utilize the features both proactive and reactive routing. With proactive routing inside limited zone, the connection establishment time can be reduced. Reactive routing reduces to the amount of control traffic by discovering path on demand for destinations outside the routing zone. The dominant parameter influencing on the efficiency of ZRP is zone radius. In this paper have written and analyze the protocol performance of control traffic as a function of the zone radius.

ZRP control traffic under different query control mechanisms are measured. The results show that the IARP traffic grows with number of nodes in the zone is proportional to the "area" of the zone, r2. The cost of maintaining an extended routing zone (in DB) is high and compared to the use of only a normal routing zone (in RDB). The RDB and DB are similar number of packets IERP route discovery. The RDB has a higher bit load, since the packets must contain the border cast tree map. The effects of query control mechanisms are significant in multiple-channel networks. The multiple-channel networks are routing zone of radius r=2 reduces query traffic with 50% compared to flooding (r=1) the same improvement in single-channel networks are only 15%. If RQPD is employed in the traffic is reduced by 10%. The improvement rate slows down the increasing radius. Since the amount of control traffic depends on node mobility and route query rate, the call-to-mobility ratio (CMR) is characterize relative traffic amounts. The large values of CMR, where mobility is low and the traffic amount can be reduced a larger radius. The cost maintaining proactive information are low relatively to the route discovery traffic. The opposite behavior is low CMR values. In ZRP tested in a small network with few nodes and low traffic amounts. IARP increased rapidly with increasing zone radius. Increasing velocity did not affect IARP traffic, but IERP overhead increased due to route repairs. Link stability increased larger zones BRP utilizes local topology information around failed links.

In 200 nodes randomly distribute within the square area of the 200m * 200m, the base station is located in the centre of the region, the base station coordinates is (100,100). It can be seen from the figure 4 that the nodes' distribution are not very evenly (Fig. 5 to Fig. 9). In above result is 50 number of rounds performed in the dead node. the energy consumption of the whole networks, extended the lifetime of cluster heads which may die earlier and optimized the performance of the network thereby reduced the total energy consumption of the effective lifecycle.

The network initialization parameters are illustrated in figure 10a.The figure shows Ubuntu Command window.

The figure 10 represented network simulator synopshot for Cluster Formation using ZRP protocol.

The figure 11a represented network simulator synopshot for Cluster based security analysis.

The figure 11 demonstrated network simulator synopshot Analysis failure node in the WIFI Application using ZRP.

The figure 12 demonstrated Simulation of WIFI Application using ZRP

The figure 13 demonstrated Simulation of Throughput Vs Mobile Speed.

The figure 14 demonstrated Simulation of Throughput vs Packet Size

The figure 15 shows that Simulation of Cluster Handover delay vs speed

The figure 16 shows that Simulation of Cluster based network during packet losses.

In above results are NS2 software used to analyse throughput of the ZRP having smaller zone radius decreases as compared to ZRP having higher zone radius of the node density is increases. The possible reasons are as node density increases number of neighbor around the node increases and number of zones in the area increases. Due to this number of zones increases, so that reactive traffic of ZRP increases as compared to proactive one and large number of query packet are generated, to share information between zones.


In wireless routing protocols are discovered reactive component IERP with route requests and replies. In this paper proposes to protocols are used to design the cluster based security network. The combining broadcasting query detection and early termination are possible to reduce the amount of route query traffic. In this paper, we proposed efficient secure routing protocol for MANET and the discovery of correct connectivity information over the unknown network, and the presence of malicious nodes. The protocol introduces a set of features, such as the requirements are query verifiably arrives at the destination, the explicit binding of network, routing layer functionality and the consequent verifiable return to the query response over the reverse query propagation route, the acceptance of the route error messages only when generated by nodes on actual route and the query/reply identification by a dual identifier, protection of the source and destination nodes and the regulation of the query propagation.

Analyzed the Black hole attack on AODV, leach and ZRP with respect to different performance parameters such as Average end-to-end delay, throughput and packet delivery ratio. We conclude the effect of black hole attack is more on AODV protocol as compared to others. In future work we can implement some security algorithm on these protocols to avoid the black hole attack.


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(1) Dr. S. Gopalakrishnan, (2) S. Jaganath, (3) P. Parthasarathy, (4) Dr. P. Jesu Jairin, (5) R. Ragumadhavan

(1) Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624 622, India.

(2) Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624 622, India.

(3) Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624 622, India.

(4) Associate Professor, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeppiaar Engineering College, Chennai -600119, India.

(5) Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624 622, India.

Received 1 April 2017; Accepted 18 June 2017; Available online 2 July 2017

Address For Correspondence:

Dr. S. Gopalakrishnan, Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, PSNA College of Engineering and Technology, Dindigul-624 622, India.

Caption: Fig. 1: Mobile Ad hoc Network

Caption: Fig. 2: Routing Zone of Node A with Radius [rho]=2 hop

Caption: Fig. 3: Architecture of ZRP

Caption: Fig. 4: Query detection example

Caption: Fig. 5: Construct number of nodes using Leach

Caption: Fig. 6: Round Number vs Average Energy of Each Node

Caption: Fig. 7: AODV Protocol

Caption: Fig. 8: Round Number vs Average Energy of Each Node

Caption: Fig. 9: Round Number vs Number of Dead Node

Caption: Fig. 10a: Ubuntu Command window

Caption: Fig. 10: Cluster Formation using ZRP protocol

Caption: Fig. 11a: Cluster based security analysis

Caption: Fig. 11: Analysis failure node in the WIFI Application using ZRP

Caption: Fig. 12: Simulation of WIFI Application using ZRP

Caption: Fig. 13: Throughput Vs Mobile Speed

Caption: Fig. 14: Throughput vs Packet Size

Caption: Fig. 15: Cluster Handover delay vs speed

Caption: Fig. 16: Cluster based network during packet losses
Table 1: Different attacks against different layers

Layers                Attacks

Application layer     Repudiation, Data

Transport layer       Session hi-jacking, SYN
                      Wormhole, Black hole,

Network layer         Byzantine, Flooding,
                      Resource Consumption,
                      Location disclosure Attack.
                      Traffic analysis.

Data link layer       monitoring disruption
                      MAC, WEP weakness.

Physical layer        Jamming, interception,

Multi-layer attacks   impersonation, replay,
                      man-in-middle attack.

Table 2: Comparison between Proactive and Reactive routing protocols

Routing Protocols   Proactive              Reactive

Advantages          A Route can be         Lower bandwidth is
                    selected immediately     used maintaining
                    without any delay        Routing tables.
                                           More energy
                                           Effective route

Disadvantages       Produce more control   Have higher
                      traffic.             latencies when it
                    Takes a lot more       comes to route
                      bandwidth.           discovery.
                    Produces network
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Author:Gopalakrishnan, S.; Jaganath, S.; Parthasarathy, P.; Jairin, P. Jesu; Ragumadhavan, R.
Publication:Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2017
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