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Cloud over COUNTRYyside has a silver lining; Professor Terry Marsden looks at what's needed to revive Wales' rural areas in an age of Brexit and austerity.

As the slow and uncertain Brexit process continues and talk of "cliff-edges" becomes more common, it is even more critical to develop a collective vision and set of policy principles for rural areas in the UK, not least here in Wales.

Talking to many key stakeholders, businesses and rural householders over recent months has convinced me that somehow we need to develop a plan for rural Wales post-Brexit which harnesses and develops its human and ecological potential as a heartland for (post-carbon) economic development.

There is an urgent need for rural stakeholders in Wales, perhaps with the convenorship of the Welsh Government, to develop a new rural policy which will put in place the bases for developing a more resilient and sustainable rural Wales post-Brexit.

So far there have been only limited scenario analyses conducted with no meaningful ministerial statements or leadership. There is a bunker mentality in Cathays Park; at best a waiting or shadow-boxing game with Westminster on the terms of the exit and the likely consequences for the future devolution settlement.

This approach tends to overly focus on the likely agricultural conditions once we leave the EU. These scenarios are foreboding enough, with Brexit bringing the double jeopardy of significantly reduced EU market access for agricultural products and, at the same time, a loss of the ring-fenced access to EU CAP and regional development funding.

But if we take a wider view of the Welsh countryside, we have to recognise that the prospect of Brexit is only part of the story.

The triple problem For too long, and increasingly out of step with many other innovative European rural regions, my recent researches show that UK rural areas have been made far more vulnerable, especially since the financial and fiscal crisis in 2007-08, due to the confluence of two other major macroeconomic and political logics.

First have been the cutbacks in public policy programmes commonly known as "austerity" measures. Second, and combined with this, has been an invigorated but narrow economic competitiveness logic which prioritises and centralises both public and private investment and growth in the larger urban areas.

This is a false logic of agglomeration, which argues that if you concentrate facilities and resources into central nodes and locations, the benefits of proximity will both develop there and then overflow in a "trickledown" manner to surrounding lessprivileged areas. Under conditions of public austerity, it doesn't. Rather, it leads to more peripherality.

The combination of both logics - austerity and centralisation - has further hollowed out rural and more scattered public and private rural services and facilities such as schools, hospitals, libraries, pubs, post offices, banks and legal and financial services. Simultaneously it has meant that the services and markets provided and accessed by rural businesses and households have become even more highly concen-trated and centralised (such as retailing, energy provision, care facilities, catering and food processing).

These processes have been exacerbated by the still-chronic undercapacity of digital broadband infrastructure and investment in remoter parts of the Welsh countryside.

A distributed strategy for rural Wales: a new platform The three overarching structural negatives must now be addressed and, indeed, reversed with regard to rural development - the effects of austerity, the accelerated centralisation of provision and infrastructure, and now the prospect of uncertain regulatory divergence following Brexit.

It is a very different world to 20 years ago, when the fresh and innovative process of Welsh devolution coincided with a supportive Blairite Labour government and substantial regional and rural development funding from Brussels.

The need to recognise these macroeconomic and political realities is important at this juncture in order to create a new platform and new development paradigm for rural Wales. This needs to be built upon several basic principles which I will outline here.

The post-carbon transition in Wales, as elsewhere, will mean that we will need to obtain not just our foods but our energy, materials, timber, water and fibre from the countryside and its biosphere. Many countries (Canada, Sweden, Finland, Germany) now recognise this and are strategically planning their distributed "bio-economies" as central and national macroeconomic and policy frameworks.

Rural areas should thus promote themselves as central players in the development of the bio-eco economies, given that we will have to create more added value from biobased resources and use these far more efficiently, applying circular economy principles.

This will mean we need to plan for more distributed systems of provision and markets, especially in rural areas and in the relationships between rural areas and urban areas.

Distributed systems mean not just decentralising facilities or decisionmaking. It means really re-localising activities so that you obtain synergies and ecological efficiencies between the exchange and transformation of energy, materials, food and water resources.

This is a more networked and place-based approach to developing re-localised economies which are linked together, and with their larger, more agglomerated urban neighbours, through efficient communication and transport connections. This incorporates and should stimulate micro-renewables, telemedicine, and community and cooperative activities in rural areas. Now is the time to really support and develop the new rural distributed economy. In Wales we are fortunate to have created an innovative statutory framework within which this could prosper.

The Future Generations Act and the Environment Act both give the legal framework to establish these rural policies. Currently all public bodies are wrestling with how to manage the onset of public service boards, wellbeing plans, area statements and community planning initiatives, all of which have derived from this new statutory framework and all of which are supposed to espouse principles of sustainable resource management.

The current timely opportunity is to give all this institutional apparatus a real, concerted and cohesive policy direction and leadership - one which recognises and enrols all the rural stakeholders, private and public, and landed and community interests.

| Prof Terry Marsden is professor of environmental policy and planning at Cardiff University.


<B A bold new paradigm for Wales' agricultural policy is urgently needed, writes Prof Terry Marsden Thomas Llywelyn/Athena Pictures
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Title Annotation:Features
Publication:Western Mail (Cardiff, Wales)
Geographic Code:4EUUK
Date:Mar 6, 2018
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