Clinico-therapeutic management of tetanus in caprines.
Tetanus affects almost all mammals. Horses are highly sensitive to the disease, followed by sheep and goat, while dogs and cat are relatively resistant. Typically, tetanus is a toxemia caused by neurotoxin produced under anaerobic conditions by Clostridium tetani, a gram positive bacilli. The neurotoxin is released when these spore-forming rod is confined to an oxygen deprived area, such as a deep puncture wound (Kahn and Line, 2005). The clinical signs usually appear 4- 21 days after entry of organism. In goats, clinical signs include erect ears, elevated tail, extended and stiff neck, general muscle stiffness, third eye lid prolapse, dysphagia, lock jaw and hyperaesthesia. In the later stages, the animal goes to lateral recumbency and deaths results (Matthews, 1999). In goats like other ruminants, constipation and tympany are very pronounced. The paper addresses diagnosis on the basis of characteristic clinical signs and microscopic identification of organism as well as treatment of tetanus in two goats.
History and Clinical observation
Two female goats aged about 3 months and 5 years with history of fever and anorexia for three days. The detailed clinical examination revealed that there was a chronic wound at the carpal region, high fever (104.2[degrees]F and 105.3[degrees]F), stiff limbs and tail, pricked ears, general muscle stiffness, third eye lid prolapse and jaws clamped together (lock jaw) and lateral recumbancy (Fig. 1). The blood samples with anticoagulant were collected for hematology, further wound swabs were also collected for microbiological examination.
Diagnosis and Treatment
Hematological examination revealed leukocytosis with neutrophilia and other parameters viz. Hb, PCV, TEC, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils in normal range. Gram's staining of impression smear showed typical Gram positive rods of Clostridium tetani with spore which appeared like the drum stick (Fig. 2). Based on clinical and laboratory findings animals were diagnosed as positive for tetanus.
Wound was aseptically cleaned with 2% Hydrogen peroxide aqueous solution and left opens for application of topical antiseptic spray.Treatment was started with Tetglob (a) (Anti-tetanus serum, ATS)@ 250 IU I/V and some of the ATS was infiltrated around the site of wound to neutralize the unbound toxin for prevention of further absorption. The goats were further treated with Amoxycillin + Cloxacillin (Intamox (b)) @ 10mg/ kg b.i.d, Meloxicam (Melonexb) @ 0.5mg/kg b.i.d, Diazepam (Calmpose (c)) @ 0.5mg/kg b.i.d, Tribivetb @ 3 ml, Anistamin (b) @ 2ml intramuscularly and fluid therapy with Intalyte (b) @ 10ml/kg IV for 7 days. The goats were unable to stand without support on the day of presentation but they started taking feed and slight improvement in muscle stiffness and able to stand after three days (Fig.3).
Result and Discussion
C. tetani is a ubiqutous organism which get entry into host from cuts and bruish on skin. In present case, C. tetanigot entry from the wound developed while grazing in thorny plants. The anarobic condition in abscess provided suitable environment for proliferation of C. tetani which produces exotoxins, tetanospasmin. In the present study, clinical signs are similar as described by Matthews (1999) and neutrophilia in hematological changes were in accordance with Srikanth et al. (2013). Tetglob (Tetanus Immunoglobulin) is a clear to slight opalescent sterile non-pyrogenic solution of hyper immune globulins prepared from plasma of healthy volunteers (human) specifically immunised against tetanus. Tetanus Immunoglobulin act to neutralise free form of powerful exotoxin produced by bacterium. Diazepam acts as mild sedative and relaxes intercostal muscles and diaphragm, resulting in normal respiration whereas Meloxicam act as analgesic and antipyretic (Yousaf et al., 2010). Tribivet was given as nervine tonic and fluid therapy helped in survival of animal as it was not able to consume feed orally due to locked jaw condition as well as for rehydration and neutralization of circulating toxins.
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Kahn C.M. and Line, S. (2005). The Merck Veterinary Manual. 9th Ed. Merck and Co., Inc. Whitehouse Station, N.J., USA.
Matthews, J.G. (1999). Diseases of Goat. 2nd Ed., Blackwell Science Ltd. P. 160-62.
Srikanth, K., Kumar, K. S., Ayodhya, S. and Jyothi, J. (2013). Clinico pathological and diagnostic aspects of tetanus in a goat. Int. J. Livest. Res. 3: 122-25.
Yousaf, A., Ahmad, T., Zafar, M. A. and Abbas, R. Z. (2010). Trials on tetanus treatment in beetal goats. Eg. J. Sheep Goat Sci. 5: 341-47.
(a)--Brand of Bharat Serums and Vaccines Ltd., Mumbai
(b)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
(c)--Brand of Ranbaxy Ltd., Delhi
V.L. Parmar (1), Amit Prasad (2), J.S. Patel (3), B.B. Javia (2) D.B. Barad (2)
Department of Veterinary Medicine
College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry
Junagadh Agriculture University (JAU)
(1.) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
(2.) Assistant Professor
(3.) Professor and Head
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|Title Annotation:||Clinical Article|
|Author:||Parmar, V.L.; Prasad, Amit; Patel, J.S.; Javia, B.B.; Barad, D.B.|
|Date:||Jul 1, 2015|
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