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Clinico-therapeutic management of actinomycosis--a clinical study of 4 buffaloes.

Introduction

Actinomycosis is a bacterial disease characterized by a classical rarefying mandibular osteomyelitis The disease is commonly known as 'lumpy jaw' in bovines and is caused by Gram-positive, branching filamentous organism Actinomyces bovis. It is an obligatory organism on the mucous membranes of oropharynx and predisposition to osteitis seems invariably to occur through direct extension of infection from gums, presumably following injury or as a complication of periodontitis of other causes (Jubb et al., 1993). The basic lesion is represented by granulation tissue having small abscesses, sulphur granules and occasionally draining sinus tracts. Involvement of adjacent bone frequently results in facial distortion, loose teeth, dypsnea due to swelling in nasal cavity. The treatment protocol described by various author have sub satisfactory response (Mettler et al., 2009). The various antimicrobial agents viz. Sulfonamides, Penicillin, Streptomycin and other broad spectrum antibiotics are recommended for its treatment (Radostitis et al., 2000). The present paper reports lumpy jaw in four buffaloes with achievement of complete recovery by treatment with antibiotics and Potassium iodide.

History and Clinical examination

Total four female buffaloes aging 7-11 years were presented with history of proliferative growth in intermandibular region with unusual careful mastication without any opening or discharge (Fig.1). The clinical parameters (temperature, pulse and respiration) were found within the normal range. After cleaning out the site of lesions, fluid material was collected using sterilized syringes and immediately transferred into sterilized tubes for investigation of the causative organism following standard microbiological procedures.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The samples of all animals were positive for Actinomyces bovis. The distinct gram positive filaments organism was pragmatic under the microscope (Fig.2). Thus, Actinomyces bovis was incorrigible on the basis of both clinical and microbiological examinations. The antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that organisms were sensitive to Streptomycin, Penicillin, Tetracycline and Cloxacillin.

The treatment was initiated with Dicrysticin-S (a) @ 2.5 gm i/m (Each vial contains Procaine PenicillinG 1500000 I.U., Penicillin G Sodium -500000 I.U. and Streptomycin sulphate- 2.5 gm), Inj.Melonex (b) (Meloxicam)@ 0.5 mg/kg i/m, Inj. Tribivet (b) (Thiamine + Pyridoxine + Cyanocobalamin) @ 15 ml i/m daily for 7 days, along with Potassium Iodide @ 10 gm PO daily for 10 days till symptoms of iodism like salivation, lacrimation, inappetence and coughing developed. Besides, local dressing of wounds in mandible region was requisite daily till complete cure.

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Results and Discussion

Actinomycosis is associated with osteomyelitis typical causing formation of periosteal new bone and fibrosis in the mandible, most commonly on the horizontal ramus. It can occasionally cause ganulomatous abscesses in the soft tissues of the head, esophagus, forestomachs, and trachea. Treatment of Actinomycosis along with Potassium Iodide @ 6- 10 gm /day orally for 7-10 days has been found effective (Radostits et al., 2000). Effective treatment of actinomycosis in cows with oral administration of Potassium iodide in combination with Penicillin and Streptomycin or Oxytetracycline has also been reported (Gopala Krishna Murthy and Dorairajan, 2008). Therefore, it could be concluded that the successful treatment of actinomycosis in cattle can be done by parenteral administration of Strepto-Penicillin along with oral administration of Potassium iodide and daily dressing of local wound.

Acknowledgement

The authors are highly thankful to the Dean, College of Veterinary Science and Department of Veterinary Microbiology for providing necessary facilities to carry out this work.

References

Gopala Krishna Murthy, T.R. and Dorairajan, N. (2008). Clinical management of actinomycosis in crossbred cows. Indian Vet. J. 85: 241-42.

Jubb, K. V. F., Kennedy, P. C. and Palmer, N. (1993). Pathology of Domestic Animals, Vol.I, 4th ed., Academic Press, New York, London.

Mettler, S., Brunner, F. and Lambrecht, J. T. (2009). Cervicofacial actinomycosis. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed 119: 239-251.

Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Blood, D.C. and Hinchcliff, K.W. (2000). Veterinary Medicine. 9th ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia. p. 935-36.

(a)--Brand of Zydus Animal Health Limited, Ahmedabad

(b)--Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

V.B. Vaja (1), V.L. Parmar (2), Amit Prasad (2), G.M. Chaudhari (3) and V.R. Nimavat (4)

Department of Veterinary Medicine

College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Junagadh Agriculture University (JAU)

Junagadh--362001 (Gujarat)

(1) Post Graduate Scholar

(2) Assistant Professor and Corresponding author. E-mail: viki07290@gmail.com

(3) Assistant Professor, Department of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry Extension

(4) Post Graduate Scholar, Department of Veterinary Microbiology
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Vaja, V.B.; Parmar, V.L.; Prasad, Amit; Chaudhari, G.M.; Nimavat, V.R.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
Words:727
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