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Clinico-therapeutic aspects of Peste-des-petits ruminants (PPR) in caprines.

Introduction

Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute or sub-acute highly febrile viral disease of goats and sheep characterized by pyrexia, erosive stomatitis, conjunctivitis, gastroenteritis and pneumonia (Tariq et al., 2014). The disease is highly contagious causing varying degree of morbidity and mortality in susceptible animals (Radostits et al., 2007).Therefore, WHO has identified PPR as a notifiable and economically important trans boundary viral disease of small ruminants (Balamuruganet al., 2011). PPR is also known as kata, stomatitis pneumoentritis complex, goat plague and pseudo rinderpest (Jubb et al., 2007). Goats are usually more severely affected than sheep (Rita et al., 2008). PPR virus is antigenically very similar to Rinderpest virus. It is now believed that many outbreaks in India previously attributed to rinderpest were actually PPR (Taylor, 2002).

In India, PPR was first reported in Tamil Nadu during 1987 and later epidemics in northen India. At present, PPR is enzootic in India and outbreak occur regularly among small ruminants throughout the country. No epidemic of PPR had been reported in Gujarat till 2014. But, presence of PPRV was serologically confirmed by Hinsu et al. (2001) and later on by few workers from Gujarat (Tiwari, 2004; Kanani et al., 2006; Nagraj, 2006; Chandrahas et al., 2011).

In the field, a presumptive diagnosis can be made on basis of clinical signs like fever, dry muzzle and serous nasal discharge some become mucopurulant, profuse diarrhea, erosion on mucous membrane of buccal cavity are accompained by marked salivation (Harish et al., 2009). Further, it can be made on charecteristic pathological lesions such as ulcerative stomatitis with necrotic erosions on buccal cavity involving tongue, gums and palates (Soni et al., 2008) but laboratory confirmation is absolutely required. The disease can be diagnosed by various referred serological tests as per OIE manual of dignostic tests and vaccines for terrestrial animals (OIE, 2013). PPR like other viral diseases has no specific treatment, however mortality may be decreased by using drugs that control the bacterial complications. Also, combined drug therapy can save the animal in field condition (Islam et al., 2012). Considering the above facts, the present study was undertaken.

Materials and Methods

During sero-epidemiological survey, randomly selected flocks were monitored for occurrence of PPR during the year 2014-15. Tentative diagnosis was made on basis of clinical findings and confirmed by C-ELISA. Serum were collected from approximately 10% affected PPR affected goats for confirmatory diagnosis using PPR C-ELISA kit for PPRV antibody detection along with the user manual obtained from ID Vet, France. Morbidity, mortality and case fatality were recorded in different groups of PPR affected goats. Total 186 affected goats were treated as per treatment protocol given in Table 1. Further, the information on various clinical symptoms observed were tabulated and their frequency of occurrence and mean rank were calculated using Friedman test on IBM SPSS statistical software version 20.0 as per method described by Snedecor and Cochran (1994).

Results and Discussion

During the present study, 186 clinical cases of PPR in goats were attended and clinical findings were recorded. Based on frequency of occurrence, different symptoms were ranked as detail given in Table-2. The occurrence of nasal discharge showed the highest frequency and ranked first among all. Thereafter, dull and depressed appearance and fever ranked second and third, respectively which indicate that nasal discharge along with fever, dull and depressed appearance are important early characteristic clinical findings observed in cases of PPR. Diarrhoea and dehydration appears later on as both scored 5.99 and 5.99, respectively. Occurrence of these altogether found deadly combination in affected goats. Earlier, Nwoha et al. (2013) studied the occurrence of various clinical signs and distributed them based their time of occurrence. They reported that serous to muco-purulent nasal discharge appeared initially along with variable appetitie and fever. During clinical-pathological and serological examination of PPR affected goats, Islam et al. (2014) and Tariq et al. (2014) recorded fever, muco-purulent nasal discharge, erosions on nasal and buccal mucosa, anorexia, depression and diarrhea as common complaints in PPR affected goats. In a recent report, Maina et al. (2015) also stated that fever and nasal discharges appears first i.e. between 8-9 days post inoculation in small ruminants. Whereas, diarrhea and dehydration observed at 13-14 days post infection as it was also observed during present study. Abortion in affected goats ranked last in the column indicated lower abortion in affected pregnant female goats. The occurrence 21.00% abortion rate in PPR affected goats is in accordance with finding of Singh et al. (2014) who reported 28.00% overall abortion rate in goats.

Total 553 out of 776 goats showed clinical signs of PPR yielded 71.26% morbidity. The result is in accordance to findings of previous reports in which such high morbidity was reported (Kumar et al., 2001; Rita et al., 2008; Khan et al., 2008; Islam et al., 2012). Further, the disease caused 42.65% mortality in PPR affected goats. Similarly, higher mortality (>40%) was also reported previously by Saliuet al. (2008) and Harish et al. (2009). Whereas, few reports documented mortality between 8.53 to 26% (Rita et al., 2008; Thomare and Sinha, 2009; Abd. El-Rahim et al., 2010). Such high mortality observed in present study might be due to delay in diagnosis and lack or insufficient veterinary services availability in particular area under the study. During the study, the case fatality was 37.63% and 71.12 in goats received timely treatment or not received timely treatment respectively. The case fatality was reduced by 50% in treated goats. In affected goats, treatment with Inj. Enrofloxacin LA along with supportive therapy reduced further complication and mortality. The results are accordance to the findings of previous reports (Rita et al., 2008, Islam et al., 2012; Soni et al., 2013). In PPR affected goats, timely Veterinary intervention with broad spectrum antibiotics and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) along with necessary rehydration therapy help to reduce economic losses to goat farmers by reducing mortality in PPR affected goats. The details of morbidity, mortality and case fatality are given in Table-3.

It is concluded that certain important clinical signs help in ea rly d iag no sis of d isease in field condition which can further confirmed by C-ELISA in laboratory. Further, the higher morbidity and mortality cause heavy economic losses to farmers can be reduced by providing timely Veterinary aids to farmers. Due to high morbidity and mortality in PPR affected goats, disease surveillance at regular intervals and mass vaccination programmes are urgently needed to implement for control of PPR in goats of South Gujarat.

Acknowledgements

Authors are thankful to Principal Investigator, AICRP on goat improvement: Surti field unit and Research Scientist, Livestock Research Station, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari for providing necessary infrastructure facilities.

References

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Harish, B.R., Chandranaik, B.M., Shivaraj, R., Venkatesha, M.D. and Renuka Prasad, C. (2009). Epidemiology and diagnosis of Peste des petits ruminants in Karnataka. Indian Vet J. 86: 773-75.

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Islam, M.S., Khan, M.S.I., Kader, H.A., Begum, M.R. and Asgar, M.A. (2012). Prevalence of PPR of goat and their response to antibiotic treatment at Mirzaganjupazila of Patuakhali distrtict. J. Environl. Sci. Natural Resour. 5: 181-84.

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R.B. Thakor (1), M.D. Patel (2), I.H. Kalyani (3), R.M. Patel (4) and K.K. Tyagi (5)

Department of Veterinary Medicine

Vanbandhu College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry

Navsari Agricultural University (NAU)

Navsari - 396450 (Gujarat)

(1.) Post Graduate Scholar

(2.) Assistant Research Scientist, Livestock Research Station and Corresponding author.

E-mail: drmanish911@yahoo.com

(3.) Associate Professor and Head, Department of Vet. Microbiology,

(4.) Professor and Head, Department of Vet. Medicine

(5.) Assistant Research Scientist, LRS, Navsari
Table 1: Treatment protocol for PPR affected goat

Sr.   Treatment Protocol            Dose              Duration
No.                                                   of course

1     Inj. Enrofloxacin long     7.5mg/kg IM     Repeated once after
      action (100mg/ml)
      (Flobac SA (a))                             72 hours interval
2     Inj. Meloxicam with      0.5mg/kg OD; IM         5 days
      Paracetamol
      (Melonex plus (a))
3     Inj. Hivit (b)            1.5 ml OD; IV          5 days
4     Inj. DNS / RL             500ml OD; IV           3 days
5     Pul. Neblon (c)          20 gram OD; PO          5 days
      Total Expenditure            330 INR

(a) - Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

(b) - Brand of Zoetis Animal Health, Mumbai

(c) - Brand of Indian Herbs, Saharanpur

Table 2: Frequency distribution of Clinical
symptoms with their scores in PPR
affected caprines

                    Observed
Clinical Signs      in cases   Score   Ranked

Nasal discharge       168      7.75      1
Dull, depressed       162      7.57      2
Fever                 141      6.91      3
Anorexia              133      6.65      4
Erosion on
nasal mucosa          112      5.99      5
Diarrhoea             112      5.99      6
Dehydration           105      5.77      7
Stomatits              98      5.55      8
Occular discharge      91      5.33      9
Coughing               70      4.67      10
Aboration              42      3.79      11

Table 3: Morbidity, mortality and
fatality rates in caprines

Age       Total                      Case fatality (%)
group    Animals    Mor-    M or-
          (no.)    bidity   tality      Un       Treated
                    (%)      (%)      treated

0-6        112     77.67    48.21      64.62      54.55
Months              (87)     (54)     (42/65)     12/22

6-12       175     69.71    28.00      48.24      21.62
Months             (122)     (49)     (41/85)     (8/37)

>12        489     70.34    46.62      82.03      39.37
Months             (344)    (228)    (178/217)   (50/127)

Grand      776     71.26    42.65      71.12      37.63
Total              (553)    (331)    (261/367)   (70/186)

Figures in parenthesis indicates numbers of animals
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Thakor, R.B.; Patel, M.D.; Kalyani, I.H.; Patel, R.M.; Tyagi, K.K.
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jul 1, 2015
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