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Clinico-Haematological Studies of Traumatic Pericarditis in Buffaloes.


Among various diseases of foreign body syndrome in bovines, traumatic reticuloperitonitis and traumatic pericarditis are the most common (Mohamed, 2010). It is a highly fatal disease of bovines. Inflammation of pericardium either by traumatic or other reasons, results in accumulation of fluid or exudate between visceral or parietal pericardium. Traumatic pericarditis is often caused by reticular foreign body penetrating the reticular wall, diaphragm and pericardial sac (Athar et al, 2012 and Reef et al, 2009). Rarely it may be caused by penetration of sharp object through skin with subsequent migration into sternebrae and pericardial sac (Sokja et al, 1990).

Diagnosis of traumatic pericarditis is based upon clinical examination and haematological changes. In present study, clinico-haematological profile of 12 buffaloes suffering with traumatic pericarditis was assessed to find out clinical and haematological changes associated with traumatic pericarditis.

Material and Methods

Total twelve buffaloes were diagnosed affected with traumatic pericarditis and subjected to various clinical and haematological examination. The clinical examination was undertaken using standard techniques. Pain tests were conducted according to methods of Rosenberger (1979). Pole test and palpation for tenderness was performed. To perform the pole test, a 2-3 meter long pole was placed under the animal at xiphoid region. The pole was pulled upward slowly and then allowed to fall suddenly.

Haematological investigation was undertaken using autohaematology analyzer, IDEXX Vet Autoread (a) Blood was collected in Sodium citrate vial from jugular vein of each animal for haematological investigation.

Ultrasonographic examination of each animal was performed with a 3.5 MHz convex probe. For ultrasonographic examination, the areas extending from tuber coxae to 3rd intercostal space and from dorsal midline to linae alba on both sides was shaved, cleaned with alcohol and then coupling gel was applied to enhance the contact with probe. Postmortem examination of all died animals was also undertaken.

Results and Discussion

The clinical findings observed in all buffaloes suffering with traumatic pericarditis included anorexia or off feed, arched back, abducted elbows, increased respiratory rate, distention of jugular vein, oedematous swelling at brisket region, ventral abdomen and submandibular region, exercise intolerance, reluctant to walk and voiding of scanty faeces either loose or hard. These findings were in agreement with those previously reported by Ward and Ducharme (1994); Radostits et al. (2007) and Divers and Peek (2008).

The other clinical signs observed in most buffaloes included increased rectal temperature, tachycardia, decreased ruminal movement or ruminal atony, muffled heart sounds or asynchronous abnormal heart sound (splashing, friction rub or metallic sound), painful xiphoid region on palpation, congested mucous membrane and prolonged capillary refill time in most cases. Signs of pain were elicited by upward pressure on xiphoid in nine buffaloes. A grunt was elicited when a strong pressure was applied just behind xiphoid to perform palpation for tenderness. These observations were in agreement with that described by Radostits et al. (2007). Mean values of clinico-haematological parameters in traumatic pericarditis and healthy buffaloes are presented in Table 1.

Haematological investigation revealed decrease in mean haemoglobin concentration and haematocrit values whereas mean MCHC, mean leucocytes count and mean granulocyte count was found increased, mean lymphocytes and mean monocyte count was found decreased in buffaloes affected with traumatic pericarditis. There was no change in mean thrombocyte count.

Ultrasonographic examination revealed hypoechoic to echoic pericardial effusion interspersed with fibrin deposition. The result were in agreement with that described by Mohamed (2010).

In post-mortem examination, there was thickening of pericardium with fibrinous and suppurative inflammation of pericardium and epicardium. Different types of foreign bodies were recovered in different cases. The foreign bodies recovered were of metal, included wire, nail, all pin and needle. Similar post mortem findings were also reported by Mohammed (2010).

Pericarditis is inflammation of pericardium with accumulation of serous or fibrous inflammatory products (Ibrahim and Gomm, 2016). There are three general forms of pericarditis, effusive, fibrinous and constructive; although combination of three can also occur. Effusive pericarditis is characterized by accumulation of protein rich fluid in pericardial sac. Subsequent fibrin deposition lead to fibrinous pericarditis and if fibrin within the pericardial sac matures to fibrinous tissue leading to fibrosis of pericardium and epicardium the constrictive pericarditis will result (Radostits et al, 2007).

Prognosis is usually guarded in cases of traumatic pericarditis in buffaloes. Proper management practices are required for prevention of traumatic pericarditis mainly including searching of foreign bodies in feed and fodder before feeding, phosphorus supplementation in diet and early diagnosis of disease.


Athar, H., Parrah, J.D., Moulvi, B.A., Singh, M. and Dedmari, F.H. (2012). Pericarditis in Bovines - A Review. International J. Advan. Vet. Sci. Technol. 1: 19-27.

Braun, U., Gotz, M. andMarmier, O. (1993). Ultrasonographic findings in cows with traumatic reticuloperitonitis. Vet. Rec. 133: 416-22.

Divers, T.J. and Peek, S.P. (2008). Rebhun's Disease of Dairy Cattle (2th Ed). Elsevier Inc USA: p. 141-45.

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Radostits, O.M., Gay, C.C., Hinchcliff, K.W. and Constable, P.D. (2007). Veterinary Medicine - A Textbook of Diseases of Cattle, Horses, Sheep, Pigs and Goats, 10th Edn., Saunders and Elsevier, USA: p. 471-530.

Reef, V.B. and Mcguirk, S.M. (2009). Diseases of Cardiovascular System. In: Smith BP. Large Animals Internal Medicine, 4th Edn., Mosby Inc., Philadelphia, USA, p. 474-78.

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Ward, J.L. and Ducharme, N.G. (1994). Traumatic reticuloperitonitis in dairy cows. J Vet. Med. Assoc. 204: 874-877.

S.K. Sharma (1), Kuldeep Kumar, Monika Joshi and Parmjeet

Department of Veterinary Medicine

College of Veterinary and Animal Science

Rajasthan University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (RAJUVAS)


Udaipur - 313601 (Rajasthan)

(1.) Head and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(a -) Brand of IDEXX Laboratories, Maine, USA
Table 1: Clinico-haematological parameters in traumatic pericarditis
affected buffaloes

                                       Mean values in
Sr. No.  Particulars                   affected buffaloes

1        Temperature ([degrees]F)      103.14[+ or -]0.40
2        Respiration rate (Per min)     50.29[+ or -]2.71
3        Heart rate (Per minute)        79.76 [+ or -]2.84
4        HCT (%)                        22.71[+ or -]1.39
5        Hb (gm/dl)                      6.96[+ or -]0.48
6        MCHC (gm/dl)                   39.41[+ or -]0.39
7        WBC (x[10.sup.9]/L)            14.74[+ or -]0.68
8        Granulocytes (x[10.sup.9]/L)    8.12[+ or -]0.69
9        L/M (x[10.sup.9]/L)             2.21[+ or -]0.78
10       Platelets (x[10.sup.9]/L)     291.29[+ or -]23.87

         Mean values in
Sr. No.  healthy buffaloes

1        100.76[+ or -]0.38
2         25.33[+ or -]3.76
3         29.66[+ or -]3.14
4         36.41[+ or -]2.65
5         10.71[+ or -]1.75
6         30.31[+ or -]2.06
7          7.38[+ or -]2.66
8          3.83[+ or -]1.01
9          6.01[+ or -]1.23
10       270[+ or -]65.36
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Sharma, S.K.; Kumar, Kuldeep; Joshi, Monika; Joshi, Parmjeet
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Date:Jan 1, 2018
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