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Clinical training in integrative Christian doctoral programs: the Regent University example.

This article addresses several areas regarding clinical training in the APA-accredited doctoral program in Clinical Psychology (Psy.D.) at Regent University. Our clinical psychology program is a Psy.D. program in the Vail tradition training approximately 20 students per cohort in the practitioner-scholar model. The Vail tradition emphasizes clinical practice of psychology. Regent graduated its first Psy.D. student in 1999 and was first accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) in 2002.

Regent University was founded by Pat Robertson in 1977. The University's original focus has been on training graduate students to be servant leaders in pivotal professions. It has more recently developed undergraduate offerings and is currently transitioning to a comprehensive, multi-level university with growing emphasis on a Christian liberal arts core. The Psy.D. program is housed within a School of Psychology and Counseling, with sister programs in the Counsel on Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (CACREP) model of counseling, both on campus and online.

The unique history of the Psy.D. program, having been born out of the counseling program, has culminated in a collaborative multidisciplinary school. Because we share an admissions office with the related but distinct profession of counseling, we have spent much time exploring the professional self-identity differences between psychology and professional counseling. It is important to note here that we are not discussing counseling psychology but rather professional counseling, a separate field of study from psychology and a distinct profession licensed by different licensing boards and accredited by different accrediting bodies.

A complete discussion of these rich issues would be beyond the scope of the current article. But we would like to emphasize that the process of cultivating an affirmative, working relationship between psychology and counseling has motivated both programs to more greatly appreciate their disciplinary distinctives. This has meant for us a greater emphasis on the identity of clinicians with the science of psychology, thereby stressing their primary identity as psychologists to the applied work of clinical practice (i.e., Vail tradition). The Vail model was generated from an influential conference that took place in Vail, Colorado in 1973 (Korman, 1976). The conference called together a number of working groups that made various recommendations for professional training in clinical psychology. They suggested that doctoral programs focused primarily on graduating practitioners rather than scientific researchers award the Doctor of Psychology (Psy.D.) degree. This was sometimes identified as a "practitioner" model of training in contrast to the previously-established "Boulder model" that attempted to train its graduates simultaneously as practitioners and scientific researchers (Peterson, 2010; Raimy, 1950). In order to emphasize the importance of scientific thinking despite the delimited focus on training for practitioner career, the practitioner-scholar label emerged.

We emphasize the importance of passionately embracing both the skills and existing knowledge base from psychological science for clinical practice with our students. Even prior to admission, we counsel applicants who describe primary interests in pursuing a counseling career without developing a psychological science identity to consider other career paths.

We now turn our attention to describing our clinical training model and sequence. We will first discuss our basic philosophy of training, followed by how we collaborate with the professional community. Integrative dimensions of our training are then described. We conclude with a discussion of rewards, challenges, and future directions for clinical training. We do not attempt to describe the full clinical curriculum, either through required courses or electives in our Psy.D. program but are instead focusing on the experiential-didactic aspects of our clinical training sequence. Of course, this often occurs as part of formal coursework as we cover the range of clinical training courses characteristic of an APA accredited program in clinical psychology. As is often typical for Psy.D. programs, we require our students to take a number of courses that are more commonly seen as electives in Boulder model programs (emphasizing the creation, dissemination, and application of research to practice), such as Community Psychology or Clinical Child and Pediatric Psychology.

Basic Philosophy of Clinical Training

The basic philosophy of Regent's program embraces coordinated and sequential didactic and experiential clinical training within the context of a Christian worldview. Over the typical course of five years, our program emphasizes a developmental model that facilitates student progression from beginning student to emergent professional. A particular emphasis is placed on intentional cultivation of the competencies and professional self-understanding that are distinctive for clinical psychology. Among other things, these include being centered in the discipline of psychology with its general scientific attitudes and foundations, fostering an appreciation for life-long learning and discovery, willful alignment with the contexts of accountability supervening professional practice, and the recognition that the professional path brings with it responsibilities to not only conform with the professional practice of psychology but help shape that profession in God-honoring ways as well.

Regent Psy.D. students begin their clinical training in their first year through involvement in highly structured learning activities linked to specific first-year courses and lab experiences (Pre-practicum). The pre-practicum experiences are designed to carefully instill basic clinical competencies such as appropriately opening a clinical session, establishing rapport with clients, demonstrating microprocessing skills, administration/scoring/basic interpretation of personality and intelligence measures, psychodiagnostics, and rudimentary clinical conceptualization with increased awareness of diversity issues. These competencies are fostered in protected situations with non-clinical subjects, vicarious learning through clinical observations, extensive feedback on clinical practice utilizing evaluation rubrics that specify the criteria for successful skill demonstration, opportunities for repeat performance until a desired level of competence is obtained, and a fixed progression of courses that provide the pre-requisite course instruction to support cultivation of these competences.

This first year is followed by two years of intensive practicum training in both our on-site Psychological Services Center (PSC; 2nd year) and a community external site (3rd year). The intensive practicum sequence is designed to allow in-depth development and refinement of our core clinical competencies while amassing substantial clinical experience. All second year students complete a three-semester placement in the PSC under the supervision of a clinical psychology faculty member. The students spend 10-15 hours per week in the PSC during these three semesters. This initial PSC placement is structured to allow for a paced and carefully planned transition from the pre-practicum clinical experiences to functioning as a clinical staff member maintaining a bona fide clinical case load. By mid-to late fall, students are usually managing several clients and performing psychological assessment batteries. By the end of this second year, students must demonstrate pre-established benchmark levels of psychotherapeutic, report writing, multicultural, integration, case conceptualization, assessment and treatment planning competencies. They must also complete a minimum of 600 hours of supervised experience during the year with most students well exceeding that number.

In addition to providing services to clients from the campus, the PSC placement includes subrotations to underserved populations in the community. Consequently, a broad spectrum of clients are seen by the students both in terms of personal demographics and presenting issues. The students have access to various empirically supported treatment protocols in the PSC. While they are not limited to manualized therapies or Cognitive Behavior Therapy, we do emphasize the importance of outcome assessment and evidence based practice. Students are required to demonstrate important evidence based practice skills as part of their clinical performance in the PSC.

The third year continues this same sequential progression but with continued assessment of case conceptualization and other competencies by community supervisors in a variety of sites ranging from Veterans Administration/military settings, Christian group practices, neuropsychology services, medical settings, juvenile agencies, community services board, to chronic and severe clients of the oldest psychiatric hospital in the Americas. Students are again required to amass a minimum of 600 hours of clinical experience during the third year.

Student on-campus training is completed in the Spring of their fourth year through involvement in activities specifically directed toward development of leadership skills within the clinical context (Advanced Practicum). The goal of the fourth year is not focused on the quantity of clinical experience but rather on fostering some advanced competencies. The fall semester is spent developing leadership and consultation skills in lab experiences associated with a course in Supervision and Consultation. Fourth year students provide several sessions of "shadow supervision" to second year students who are placed in the PSC. This supervision practicum is carefully structured to safeguard against potential problems and to allow demonstration and refinement of supervision skills. The supervision practicum was added early in the program's history after it became a requirement for licensure in Virginia.

During the spring semester, fourth year students complete an advanced practicum seminar. In this seminar, students must design and implement a clinical service project under faculty supervision. The goal of this project is to inculcate rudimentary practice building skills, encourage innovation, and raise awareness in our students of the entrepreneurial aspects of professional practice. Students have completed a wide range of fascinating projects that have often made a valuable contribution to our community. For instance, a local court system needed to help prepare juvenile witnesses to deal with the emotional stresses of the court system. One of our students worked with experts to create a training video that has been used in that system for juveniles who may be called as witnesses.

The final component of the pre-doctoral clinical training sequence is the completion of the pre-doctoral internship. We expect our students to pursue American Psychological Association (APA) accredited internship experiences. While we will allow Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) approved non-APA sites and sometimes other alternatives with special justifications, we strongly encourage students to obtain APA sites.

Christian Distinctive

A key distinctive of our program is the fact that all instruction occurs within the broad perspective of a Christian framework. Regent is an inter-denominational university. This broad commitment provides extensive variety in both faculty and student approaches to clinical training, and our faculty represent a wide range of Christian traditions. Students do not sign a faith statement; however, their major purpose in selecting the Regent Psy.D. program typically lies in the Christian commitment and training in integration. The faculty affirm a faith statement and demonstrate Christian vitality in yearly review.

This Christian commitment has several implications for training in clinical psychology. First, the religious context is viewed as a value-added component of clinical training. A key element of the Christian worldview is the view of vocation as a calling. In this sense, careers may be viewed as service contexts that emerge from a more general spiritual commitment, with a concurrent emphasis on excellence. Second, students are expected to become proficient in working with issues of religious diversity. Ethical and respectful approaches to working with client religious diversity are incorporated throughout the program. Along these lines, students are required to develop skills in the integration of psychology and Christianity as well as receive exposure to the clinical psychology of religion with other faith traditions. Although Regent's Psy.D. program does not mandate a specific approach to integration, students are taught to intentionally integrate Christian perspectives, practices or techniques in a professionally competent and ethical manner. This includes challenging students throughout the program to develop self-awareness regarding their personal values and worldviews, and the impact of these on both clients and other professionals.

Supervision of Clinical Development

Another major distinctive of our program is that practica training is facilitated by intensive supervision provided at training sites combined with secondary practica seminars instructed by Regent faculty. Although external site supervisors retain primary responsibility for the student's supervision, these on campus practica seminars extend this training and facilitate extensive exploration of integration issues. Further, Regent faculty serve as individual supervisors for the first intensive practica year in our on-site Psychological Services Center. This fosters important foundational modeling and training experiences in addition to focused efforts towards integration--both theoretical and applied.

The aspiration of our practitioner-scholar training model is to prepare students to function as local clinical scholars in their practice contexts wherein they are capable of practicing with cognitive and investigative competencies of an applied psychological scientist. When this goal has been realized, the Regent graduates should have an ability to practically appropriate the evidence based practice literature, to utilize outcome assessment in treatment planning and implementation, and to continuously refine their clinical competencies in light of the evidence. This competency and role-related training goal is naturally conducive to the assumption of leadership and supervisory roles in mental health contexts. Some of the specific features of our competency training aimed at achieving the training goal are described below.

Benchmarks of competency

Over the course of their training, it is expected that a student's perspective and behaviors gradually shift from those of a student to those of an emerging professional. This transition is marked at Regent by the demonstration of a number of specific clinical competencies which are consistent with those identified by the American Psychological Association's Committee on Accreditation, the core competency areas outlined by the National Council of Schools and Programs of Professional Psychology (NCSPP), and the 2002 Scottsdale Competencies Conference. Content domains and assessment criteria for each of these competencies falls into the following ten categories: Professional Character, Ethics; Interpersonal/Interviewing Skills; Application of Theory, Techniques; Diagnostic Assessment; Case Formulation; Treatment Planning; Psychotherapeutics; Professional Writing; Leadership; and Integration.

Practicum and internship supervisor evaluations are completed using a rating form that assesses each student's development across these ten competency areas. More detailed assessment of specific competency attainment occurs through the probe evaluations (described in greater detail later) that are staggered throughout the clinical training sequence. The probes and supervisor ratings provide more delineated criteria to assess the knowledge, skills and attitudes associated with each of the competency categories. Some key training priorities, such as adequate inclusion and management of diversity considerations in all phases of clinical practice, are operationalized across these various competency assessments. Multicultural competency, for instance, is assessed through criteria on supervisor evaluations and several of the probes from the evaluations of pre-practicum clinical performance through internship.

The various competence objectives and other outcome indicators function to create a series of mileposts that benchmark successful progress through the clinical training sequence. Alternately, they may create potential roadblocks that prevent further progression towards degree completion until mastered at the requisite level of skills. An example of our Milepost and Roadblock chart for the two core competencies of Professional Character, and Ethics and Interpersonal/Interviewing Skills may be found in Table 1. This Table outlines the specific ways that outcome indictors function in these twin roles for each of the competencies targeted by the clinical training sequence.

There is an additional feature about the way we have set up the benchmark and milepost strategy for clinical training that bears highlighting. One common rite of passage for doctoral candidacy in clinical programs has been the passing of a clinical competency assessment as part of a doctoral preliminary examination. Psychiatry programs have often done this through a high stakes perform on demand clinical skills demonstration with a real client or hypothetical case presented by an examination committee. Another approach has been for candidates to submit a clinical portfolio for review as part of the doctoral comprehensive exam. Our sequential clinical benchmark strategy essentially requires staggered assessment of clinical skills as they are developing over the first three years of foment positive relations within the professional community and potential practicum sites. These attempts have resulted in 25% of our external third-year sites containing a primary element of integrative or Christian counseling. Several of these sites have recruited and hired our Psy.D. alumni, which further extends positive relationships between the Psy.D. program and the professional community. Faculty have been active in working with several of these sites to write self-studies and apply for APPIC approval for internships. The Psy.D. program maintains regular contact with these practicum sites. We also have a distinguished colloquium series on a monthly the program. Students are not eligible to sit for the remaining elements of the comprehensive examinations until they have successfully demonstrated milepost attainment on our competency indicators in the context of their ongoing clinical practice with actual clients.

Collaboration and Interface with the Professional Community

As noted earlier, students complete an external practicum placement in their second year of intensive practicum study (their third year in the program). The Psy.D. program and faculty have made focused and deliberative attempts to foment positive relations within the professional community and potential practicum sites. These attempts have resulted in 25% of our external third-year sites containing a primary element of integrative or Christian counseling. Several of these sites have recruited and hired our Psy.D. alumni, which further extends positive relationships between the Psy.D. program and the professional community. Faculty have been active in working with several of these sites to write self-studies and apply for APPIC approval for internships. The Psy.D. program maintains regular contact with these practicum sites. We also have a distinguished colloquium series on a monthly basis and site supervisors are invited to attend these for CEU credit.

The Psy.D. program has not generally encountered unique challenges in placing students in practicum or internship sites. Practicum site supervisors have routinely made positive comments about the emotional maturity and self-awareness of the majority of our students. Further, the majority of our practicum sites request our students on a yearly basis, further suggesting their background in Christian integration serves a "value-added" function in clinical practice. However, we have encountered challenges for several of our students while on internship.

Challenges are associated with students educated at an avowedly Christian university. With respect to internship experiences, one challenge we have noted involves stereotyping and unwarranted assumptions regarding a student who comes from such an institution. We've had infrequent instances where students on internship encountered difficult site supervisors who have directly or indirectly manifested stereotypical assumptions towards them. These assumptions may involve religious, political, and cultural distinctions and assumed differences between supervisor and student. Our program emphasizes that respect for diversity includes religious and spiritual diversity. Obviously, stereotyping an individual on the basis of their Christian belief system is just as inappropriate as on the basis of gender or ethnicity. It can also lead to unfounded concerns and extra scrutiny regarding boundaries and ethical practice.

An associated concern involves the student who may be the focus of stereotypical assumptions from an internship supervisor who is perceived as very powerful. Tensions may not be expressed along the lines of religious worldview. Instead, they may be framed in terms of fundamental questions of clinical practice. Such questions include, but are not limited to, is the practice of therapy value-laden or not? How much of a therapist's worldview should enter the treatment process? Is the client's religious worldview important to address? Can the clinician competently treat someone with morally divergent values, beliefs or behaviors? Can psychologists and other service providers be objective in their analyses? Is truth relative or absolute? There is ample opportunity for misunderstandings when a student may adopt a defensive posture regarding their faith and worldview. The internship year is stressful enough but tensions increase when an individual feels challenged to defend deeply held convictions. Further, there are dangers in a defensive posture when the context does not allow for non-defensive and in-depth dialogue regarding these convictions.

Integrative Dimensions of Clinical Training

In the Fall of 2009, the Psy.D. faculty embarked on a review of how integration is taught at the course-specific level with the eventual goal of curriculum mapping integration throughout the student's course of study. An example of this is included in Table 2, which provides the first semester of the doctoral curriculum in terms of integration competencies/objectives and related assessments/activities. A major way we establish both clinical and integration competencies is through our probe-based system of evaluation. Students must demonstrate mastery of course content through a standardized rating system (a probe) across various domains in order to successfully pass a course. Probes are specific and behaviorally anchored when appropriate. We also rely extensively on related assessments and other activities as outlined in Table 2. In addition to our focus on integration throughout the curriculum, students complete specific courses on Survey of Christianity, Applied and Clinical Integration, Spiritual Direction, Psychology of Religion, Hermeneutics, and an Integration Capstone.

We have also sought to infuse integration through the academic, research and supervised clinical training aspects of our program. Additionally, faculty research teams involve integration content. For instance, we have active faculty-student research teams examining personality and forgiveness, parental religious coping with chronically ill children, Christian trauma-focused coping, heart-healthy spirituality, and perceptions of the African-American church towards Clinical Psychology. Importantly, research teams allow for both formal and informal integration opportunities. Various research teams routinely share fellowship through annual barbeques or Christmas celebrations. We also have faculty-led institutes on Christian marital enhancement and sexual identity formation with their own lines of research. These institutes provide further opportunities for students to learn about integration, with research team involvement. Students' empirical knowledge of integration culminates in their dissertation, which has a required integrative component.

Integration is also achieved across the curriculum through faculty and student development activities. For instance, faculty meets weekly to discuss biblical and theological principles and the general interface between faith and learning. Psy.D. faculty are also involved in ongoing book discussions. Currently, all of the faculty in the School of Psychology and Counseling are reflecting on the integrative implications of the three fonts of the ancient Augustinian catechism, the Apostle's Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Christian appropriate of the Decalogue through the law of love (Packer & Parrett, 2010). We are using resource texts such as "I Believe: Exploring the Apostles Creed (McGrath, 1997) and The Lord and His Prayer (Wright, 1996) for this purpose. For students, there are monthly Multicultural Luncheons and Paridigm Shift Initiatives that include thought-provoking content on diverse topics ranging from the role of free will in the course of psychological dysfunction to differentiating psychosis from religious experience. Each year our monthly colloquia series brings a number of leading Christian scholars from psychology and related disciplines to the campus to further enrich the integrative training offered to the students. Both faculty and students are invited to attend a weekly university chapel service. Recently, students on campus have initiated an "Un-Chapel" devoted specifically to their faith needs. All of these activities provide a faith community of learning that values cross-fertilization of ideas and honest discourse.

Rewards, Challenges, and New Directions for Clinical Training

Rewards of clinical training include working with a faculty team that is vibrant and has integrity. Our shared Christian faith has allowed us to develop our program with excellence in mind and to solve many problems in a reasonable and fair way. Although our program is still young, our collegiality and enthusiasm have affected many cohorts of students. There is opportunity to participate in the work God is doing in students' lives as they develop and grow. Students frequently comment on their affection for faculty and many faculty maintain relationships with students long after their graduation. This relationship in Christ is likely the most rewarding aspect of the strong mentorship model associated with clinical training in the Psy.D. program at Regent.

Challenges include continued adaption to a rapidly changing world and learning environment. Clearly, the many options afforded by the Internet and increasing globalization provide both challenge and opportunity. The Regent Psy.D. Program relies heavily on a mentorship and apprenticeship model of clinical training that is full-time and requires extensive face-to-face involvement with students. This puts constraints on the number of students that can be trained and the type of student who is able to commit to this type of training.

In contrast, alternative career paths continue to develop that emphasize accessibility, convenience and distance education, and that draw international students from the entire world. These alternatives may draw potential psychologists away from the field and into other careers. The viability of traditional programs, such as Regent's, within this global context relies upon the valuation from a student's perspective of an experience that is in-person, mentoring-focused and sequential.

Because the APA has a clear preference for in-person training of doctoral students the field has not been involved in the changing learning environments. Psychology is not the only field facing these issues. Two other programs on Regent campus are also purely residential: law and divinity. As various fields of training make their choices in terms of styles of training, the end-result is unknown. This could result in all traditional APA-style doctoral training programs "swimming against the stream" of society as more students consider seeking graduate-level training that would involve accessibility, convenience and distance education. However, in-person, intensive graduate school experience (in contrast to the online environment) is a choice that is valued by current students and is worth the time, energy and resources.

For a Christian University there are opportunities and challenges. Despite the costs of private education, students continue to seek out a Christian higher education experience, which has allowed for several similar Christian-integrative programs to remain healthy programs. Religion and spirituality has been a growing area of interest in the field of psychology, with Division 36, the Psychology of Religion division of APA being the only older division to grow in size in recent years with healthy subscription to the new Psychology of Religion and Spirituality journal. There are challenges as changing values and belief systems influence the field of psychology causing points of tension in the practice of psychology with traditional Christian philosophy, beliefs and values. The existence of "footnote 4" which protects distinctively-religious programs in the accreditation process has recently been discussed with public comments from members including many in the field who have concerns regarding the existence of APA-accredited programs in religious institutions.

Finally, increasingly diverse models of training challenge the program and require adaptability on a local level. For instance, several states have dispensed with the post-doctoral residency year and this trend has implications for clinical training programs. Practica experiences will become increasingly important in preparation for internship, since internship will likely be the final supervisory experience prior to autonomous practice. Partly in response to this trend, regulatory and advisory bodies such as the American Association of State Boards and Provincial Psychology Boards (2009) continue to strengthen their recommendations regarding acceptable practica experiences. Accordingly, one challenge confronting clinical training concerns continued systematic and concerted efforts directed towards ensuring that practica experiences are consistent with such recommendations.

Conclusion

Regent University's Doctoral program in Clinical Psychology is committed to training our graduates to be practitioners who are psychologists within a scholar-practitioner model, meaning that they see themselves by discipline as psychological scientists who apply the skills and knowledge base of that discipline to clinical practice. We view this as distinct from a Boulder model emphasis in that our particular goal is to cultivate a practice career in which scientific-research skills result in clinical products--well supported, evidence based evaluations/evidence based practice rather than primarily as formal producers of published research. Integratively, our program intentionally, implicitly and explicitly integrates Christianity with our training, but in professionally appropriate ways, providing specific teaching in integrative interventions, modeling, and critical thinking skills to evaluate ethical and effective interventions. From a training perspective, our program was among the early adopters of a competence-based approach to clinical training. To this end, we have a carefully structured, sequential clinical training sequence designed to bring folks from novice status to beginning to foster self-awareness as future clinical leaders/practice builders. Taken together, these distinctive have provided our students with a solid foundation of clinical and integrative skills that have resulted in careers working within a wide variety of settings including private practice, federal and military facilities, explicitly Christian practices, and hospitals.

References

Association of State and Provincial Psychology Boards (ASPPB) Task Force on Practicum Guidelines for Licensure (2009). ASPPB Guidelines on Practicum Experience for Licensure. Retrieved from http://www.asppb.net/i4a/pages/index.cfm?pageid=3473.

Korman, M. (Ed.) (1976). Levels and patterns of professional training psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

McGrath, A. (1997). I believe: Exploring the Apostles' Creed. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

Packer, J. I. & Parrett, G. A. (2010). Grounded in the gospel: Building believers the old-fashioned way. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books.

Peterson, R. L. (2010). Threats to quality in professional education and training: The politics of models, obfuscation of the clinical, and corporatization. In M. B. Kenkel & R. L. Peterson (Eds.), Competency based education for professional psychology (pp. 55-65). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Raimy, V. (Ed.) (1950). Training in clinical psychology. New York: Prentice Hall.

Wright, N. T. (1996). The Lord and His prayer. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

Lynn Olson

Judith L. Johnson

Jennifer Ripley

William Hathaway

Regent University

Authors

Lynn Olson, Ph.D., ABPP is currently Associate Professor and Director of Clinical Training in the Psychology Department at Regent University. She is board certified by the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP) in Clinical Health Psychology. Specialization and research interests include pediatric consultation and liaison services, behavioral interventions in pediatric health psychology, and infant and toddler assessment.

Judith Johnson has her Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from Loyola University, Chicago. Her interests are psychological assessment, program development & evaluation, military psychology, and the interface between personality and religious/spiritual constructs.

Jennifer S. Ripley (Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology, Virginia Commonwealth University) is Professor of Psychology at Regent University and Program Director for the Psy.D. program. Dr. Ripley's interests include the integration of Psychology and Christianity, and marriage therapy outcomes.

William L. Hathaway (Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology, Bowling Green State University) is Professor of Psychology and Dean of the School of Psychology & Counseling at Regent University. His interests are in the integration of psychology and Christianity, the psychology of religion and in professional training issues.

Correspondence regarding this article should be addressed to Lynn Olson, Ph.D., Director of Clinical Training, Regent University, 1000 Regent University Drive, CRB 161, Virginia Beach, VA 23464; lolson@regent.edu.
Table 1
Milepost and Roadblock Chart for Two Competencies

                   Outcome
Specific           Indicator               Milepost for passing
Competency         Category                performance

Professional       * Clinical Supervisor   * Passing practicum section
Character/Ethics   Ratings                 with no substandard
                                           performance in area by
                   * Course Performance    end of placement

                                           * Grade of [greater than or
                                           equal to] B in Ethics

                   * Advisor Rating        * Advisor rating [greater
                                           than or equal to] 4 out of
                                           5 on Request to Apply for
                                           Internship form items 3a,
                                           3d submitted to DCT

Interpersonal/     * Clinical              * Passing pre-practicum
Interviewing       Supervisor Ratings      section with no
                                           substandard performance in
                   * Course Performance    area by end of placement

                   * Clinical              * Grade of [greater
                   Interviewing Probe      than or equal to] B
                                           in Clinical Interviewing
                                           & Supervision
                   * Pre-Practicum         & Consultation
                   Activity Log

                   Roadblock for           * Instructor sign-off
Specific           non-passing
Competency         performance

Professional       * Practicum instructor receives
Character/Ethics   failing evaluation from site
                   supervisor. Student fails & must
                   repeat practicum and/or other
                   remediate as indicated by the DCT.
                   * Course must be repeated before
                   doctoral comprehensive exams
                   can be taken or third year of
                   practicum is begun.
                   * DCT does not grant student
                   permission to go on internship
                   until area of concern is remediated.

Interpersonal/     * Student fails to complete
Interviewing       required pre-practicum clinical
                   observations is not allowed to
                   enter intensive practicum
                   sequence during the second
                   year.

                   * Practicum instructor receives
                   failing evaluation from site
                   supervisor. Student fails & must
                   repeat pre-practicum and/or
                   other remediate as indicated by
                   the DCT.

                   * Student demonstrates failing
                   performance in class & must
                   repeat class (failing probe after
                   re-administration will result in
                   failing course). Failure of 621
                   would prevent student from
                   starting second year practicum
                   sequence. Failure of 763 would
                   prevent student from going on
                   internship.

Table 2
Regent Psy.D Integration Matrix for First Semester of the Program

                  Integration
Course            Competencies/objectives

Clinical          1. Gaining an overview of existing
Psychology        approaches to integration.

                  2. Critically reflecting on the diverse
                  assumptive frameworks (worldviews)
                  underlying psychology.

                  3. Articulating a reflective model of
                  integration and the practice of
                  professional psychology.

Clinical          1. Learning clinical skills in discussing
Interviewing      spiritual issues competently.

                  2. Gaining an overview of basic issues
                  relevant to religiously accommodative
                  psychotherapy as diversity awareness.

                  3. Students developing the spiritual calling
                  of being a therapist.

Intelligence      1. Develop general intellectual assessment
Testing &         skills that are informed by a Christian
Psychometrics     understanding of the world.

                  2. Become aware of the relation of cultural
                  and other areas of diversity to intellectual
                  assessment.

                  3. Promote appreciation of the client's
                  spirituality in the assessment process.

                  4. Enhance self-awareness of the role of
                  one's own spirituality in the
                  assessment/evaluative process.

Psychopathology   1. Competent evaluation of the etiologies
                  of multiple pathological conditions from
                  a biblical Christian worldview in relation
                  to dominant scientific theory.

                  2. Define the ethical dilemmas associated
                  with providing certain forms of treatment
                  with specific types of pathological
                  conditions and personality types.

                  3. Articulate processes common to both
                  successful psychotherapeutic technique
                  and spiritual intervention in the
                  resolution of pathological states.

Course            Related Assessments/activities

Clinical          1. Student volunteer devotionals.
Psychology
                  2. Term paper with integrative component.

                  3. Journals with integrative content.

                  4. Integrated readings, devoted lectures
                  with quizzes/examinations.

Clinical          1. Clinical probe includes a spiritual diversity
Interviewing      component with video review.

                  2. A lecture focused specifically on religiously
                  accommodative psychotherapy issues.

                  3. Initial class focused on spiritually discerning
                  their calling as a therapist.

                  4. Weekly devotionals focused on spiritual
                  foundations needed for novice therapists.

Intelligence      1. Classroom lectures, devotions, and
Testing &         discussions.
Psychometrics
                  2. Group project and presentation applying
                  principles of test standardization, design, and
                  psychometrics to "spiritual intelligence"
                  (application of psychometrics to a spiritual
                  dimension.

Psychopathology   1. Assigned readings that address integration and
                  psychopathology.

                  2. Quiz items on readings and lecture material.

                  3. Small group case studies on integration.

                  4. Essay exam questions on integration.
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Author:Olson, Lynn; Johnson, Judith L.; Ripley, Jennifer; Hathaway, William
Publication:Journal of Psychology and Christianity
Date:Jun 22, 2011
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