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Clinical management of uterine torsion in a goat by Schaffer's method.


Uterine torsion signifies rotation of gravid uterus on its transverse axis, similar to an intestinal volvulus (Roberts, 1971). Uterine torsion as a cause of dystocia is frequently observed in large ruminants and occasionally in ewes and does. Compared to bovines, incidence of uterine torsion is reported to be lower in goats due to frequent bicornual pregnancy (Roberts, 1971; Arthur, 1989). Most torsion occurs during second stage of labor or latter part of first stage (Roberts, 1971; Morrow, 1986). Schaffer's method of treating uterine torsion though attempted in cows, its application in goats is rarely reported. This paper describes successful correction of uterine torsion in a doe by Schaffer's method.

History and Clinical Examination

A six year old, full term pregnant Jamnapari goat was presented with history of intermittent straining since eight hours and failure to deliver fetus. All signs of imminent parturition were evident and animal appeared dull. The rectal temperature was recorded to be 102.4[degrees]F. Per vaginal examination revealed complete obstruction of vagina and twisting of vaginal folds towards right side. External os of cervix and fetal parts were not palpable on vaginal examination. Transabdominal ultrasound revealed viable fetus as indicated by fetal heart beat.

Diagnosis and Treatment

The condition was diagnosed as right sided post cervical torsion of uterus. Animal was casted on right side and both fore and hind limbs were held separately. Detorsion was done by Schaffer's method using a small wooden plank measuring about 1m length and 15 cm wide, placed on upper abdomen with the other end still on ground. A constant pressure was applied on centre of plank (Fig. 1). The goat was slowly pulled back to opposite side of torsion. With single rotation, partial detorsion was achieved and procedure was once again repeated. Following second rotation, complete detorsion was accomplished, as evinced by palpation of a fully relaxed cervix and fetal parts. Fetus was in anterior longitudinal presentation, dorso-sacral posture and with extended fore limbs. Traction was applied to supplement maternal efforts and a live female kid was delivered weighed 3.5 kg. Following this, one mummified fetus (Fig. 2) was also delivered by simple traction (Fig. 3). Supportive treatments with fluids, 10 units of Oxytocin and Enrofloxacin@5 mg/kg b. wt were provided.


Torsion of uterus is a complication of late first stage or early second stage of labor due to instability of uterus which results from greater curvature of organ being dorsal and uterus being disposed anteriorly to its subilial suspension by broad ligaments. A similar anatomical presentation of reproductive tract as in bovines may be a potent cause for this condition in does (Arthur et al., 1989). Earlier workers have reported a very low incidence of uterine torsion in sheep and goat owing to bicomual pregnancy commonly seen in these species (Dhaliwal et al., 1986; Sood et al., 2002). Torsion may also occur due to running of animal, loss of fetal fluids and movement of animal up and down the hill (Roberts, 1971). In the current case, gestation period of doe was complete and imbalance of uterus from a live fetus and a mummified one might have resulted in imbalance of uterus predisposing to torsion. The treatment regimens for uterine torsion in goats include rolling of dam while stabilizing vagina, rolling of dam while giving pressure on flank and caesarean section (Dhaliwal et al., 1986; Bansod and srivastava, 1991). The direction of post cervical torsion was confirmed as clockwise and viability of fetus was present as determined by ultrasonography, schaffer's method of rolling was attempted to correct torsion. Successful detorsion and vaginal delivery of a live and mummified fetus following detorsion is in agreement with reports by Sathiamoorthy et al. (2005).0n the contrary, Shukla et al, (2007) resorted to caesarean section as a treatment for uterine torsion. The favorable outcome of dam and fetus in this case authenticate application of schaffer's method as a correction method for torsion of uterus in caprines.


Arthur, G.H., Noaekes, D.E. and Pearson, H. (1989). Veterinary Reproduction and Obstetrics. 7th Edn., W B Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Bansod, R.S. and Srivastava, A.K. (1991). Uterine torsion in a Goat. Indian. J. Anim. Repro.12:106-07.

Dhaliwal, G.S., Vasishta, N.K. and Sharma, R.D. (1986). Uterine torsion in a Goat--A case Report. Indian J. Anim Repro. 7: 90-91.

Morrow, D.A. (1986). Current Therapy in Theriogenology. 1st Edn., W.B. Sounders Company, p. 864-65.

Roberts, S.J. (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases. 2nd Edn., CBC Publishers, New Delhi.

Sathiamoorthy, T and Kathircheivan, M. (2005). Uterine torsion in a goat. Indian Vet. J. 82: 984.

Shukla, M.K., Siddiquee, G.M. and Nair, R. (2007). Clinical management of uterine torsion in a Goat. Indian J.Vet. Res. 16:29-31.

Sood Pankaj., Madhumeet Singh. And vasishta, N.K. (2002). Uterine torsion in goat. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 23: 203.

K.S. Shwetha (1), C. Jayakumar (2) and V. Chandrashekara Murthy (3)

Department of Veterinary Gynecology and Obstetrics Veterinary College Karnataka Veterinary, Animal and Fisheries Sciences University (KVAFSU) Hebbal Bengaluru--560024 (Karnataka)

(1.) Ph.D. Scholar and Corresponding author. E-mail:

(2.) Ph.D. Scholar

(3.) Associate Professor
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Title Annotation:Short Communication
Author:Shwetha, K.S.; Jayakumar, C.; Murthy, V. Chandrashekara
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jul 1, 2014
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