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Clinical management of repeat breeding syndrome in bovines.

Introduction

Repeat breeders are animals cycling normally without any clinical abnormalities, but fail to conceive even after atleast two successive inseminations. They have clinically normal reproductive tract estrous cycles and estrous periods (Roberts, 1971). The incidence of repeat breeding has been reported from 5.5-33.3% in cows and 6.0-30.6% in buffaloes (Gupta et al., 2005). Many factors contribute to this problem and the condition is generally termed as repeat breeder syndrome. Uterine infections are the major cause leading to reduced reproductive efficiency, increase in inter calving period and reduce in calf crop. Sagartz and Hardenbrook (1971) reported endometritis in 77% infertile cows. In another study by Hartigan et al. (1972), it was observed that 50% of genital tract obtained from an abattoir showed histological evidence of endometritis, though only 12.5% showed gross lesions. So, subclinical endometritis is a major contributor to the repeat breeder syndrome of bovines (Noakes et al., 2001) and it is a major source of economic loss in dairy herds causing infertility in cattle and buffaloes.

Uterine infusion with a variety of antiseptic and successful antibiotic solutions have been tried and proven to treat the repeat breeder cows suspected to have an infectious etiology (Oxender and Seguin, 1976). The present study was carried to evaluate the efficacy of Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole intrauterine infusion to treat the repeat breeder bovines.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted in a cluster of five villages namely Aianthu, Sarpata, Shahpur, Bali and Kanpuriyan situated around Pratapgarh, Uttar Pradesh, India during 2008-09. Total thirty six bovines (27 buffalo and 9 cow) with 2-5 parturitions were included in the study. These animals were classified as repeat breeders based on cycling normally without any clinical abnormalities and returned to heat after three or more consecutive services. All the animals were managed by the farmers individually with almost similar managemental conditions. The animals had history of normal estrus cycles with turbid and thick vaginal discharge at the time of estrus. Per rectal examination was done to detect any ovarian cyst and to check for enlarged uterus and presence of fluid in the uterus. Owners were adviced to consult at estrus.

Vaginal discharge in buffaloes was examined and in case, if it was absent, then transrectal uterine massage was done to stimulate the discharge. Vaginal discharge was assessed for its colour, consistency and pH before treatment and after treatment at subsequent estrus. Repeat breeding due to uterine infection was considered on observing thick and turbid vaginal discharge along with increased pH of the discharge. Repeat breeder bovines were treated with Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole combination (Cflox Tz IU (a)) @ 60 ml intrauterine at alternate day for three times. Before each intrauterine treatment external genetalia of bovines were washed with betadine solution with normal saline in 1:5 ratio. At estrus subsequent to treatment, the bovines were subjected to natural or artificial insemination as per the desire of the owners. Pregnancy was confirmed on non return basis at 2.5-3.0 months post insemination by trans-rectal palpation.

Results and Discussion

Vaginal discharge observed in all animals of present study were turbid, thick and mucopurulent which could be due to uterine and cervical infection (Saini et al., 1995 and Singla et al., 2004). Uterine and cervical infection suggests that during parturition, the physical barrier of the cervix, vagina and vulva are compromised, providing the opportunity for bacteria to ascend in the genital tract. Normally these infections are cured naturally by rapid involution of the uterus, discharge of the uterine contents and mobilization of the host defense including mucus, antibodies and phagocytes. Periparturient complication like retained placenta, dystokia, twins, dead foetus, milk fever etc. increases the risk of uterine infection because they delay the involution and reduces the bovines ability to control uterine infections. Rearing in unhygienic condition and insemination in non sterile condition also cause uterine infection. Increase of pH (7.5-8.0) of vaginal discharge was in agreement with previous studies in cattle with endometritis (Saini et al., 1995 and Singla et al., 2004). This could be due to bacterial contamination of uterine fluids and the increased pH is not suitable for survival of spermatozoa and embryo in the uterus (Roberts 1986, Sheldon et al., 2008). The uterine infection also appears to disrupt the endocrine function of the endometrium and luteolysis of the ovarian corpus luteum is often delayed. Luteolysis is induced by the release of PGF2[alpha] from the uterine endometriun, which passes to the ovary from the uterus via localized vascular pathways, to initiate the regression of the corpus luteum. However during infection, bacterial toxin binds directly to uterine epithelial and stromal cell to stimulate the release of prostaglandin [E.sub.2] which is luteotropic and may prevent luteolysis (Bogan et al., 2008).

After treatment with Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole combination, vaginal discharge was observed clear and transparent at next estrus. pH of discharge was also observed within normal range (7.0-7.2), similar finding was also reported by Singh et al. (2009). Per-rectal examination after 2.5-3.0 months revealed that out of 36 animals, 26 have conceived (72.22%). Among the bovines, higher conception rate was observed in cows (77.78%) than buffaloes (70.37%). Conception rate was also higher in naturally bred animals (72.22%) than artificial inseminated (66.67%) (Table-1). These results are in close agreement with the observations of Dash et al., 2004 and Pandve et al., 2005 as they have reported 80 percent and 82.19% conception rate with Ciprofloxacin respectively.

Conclusion

Based on the present study, it is concluded that Ciprofloxacin and Tinidazole combination is effective to control incidence of repeat breeding caused due to uterine infection. It can be used in field condition to treat repeat breeding cases, where antibiotic sensitivity test facility is not available.

References

Bogan, Randy L., Murphy, M. J., Stouffer, Richard L. and Hennebold, Jon D. (2008). Prostaglandin Synthesis, Metabolism, and Signaling Potential in the Rhesus Macaque Corpus Luteum throughout the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle. Endocrinology 149: 5861-71.

Das, K. K. (2004). A trial on the commonly available drug and C-Flox (I.U.) for the controlling of repeat breeding condition in cattle. Intas Polivet 5: 199-03.

Gupta, A.G. and Deopurkar, R.L. (2005). Microbial study of gyanecological infection in cattle. Indian J. Anim. Repord. 14:118-19.

Hartigan, P.J., Murphy, J.A., Nunn, W.R. and Griffin, J. F.T. (1972). An investigation into the causes of reproductive failure in dairy cows: Intrauterine infection and endometrial histopathology in clinically normal repeat breeder cow. Irish Vet. J. 26: 245-47.

Noakes, D.E., Parkinson, T.J. and England, G.C.W. (2001). Arthur's Veterinary Obstetrics^ Edition. W.B. Saunders. 420-426 & 461-464.

Oxender, W.D. and Seguin, B.E. (1976). Bovine intrauterine therapy. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 168: 217-19.

Pandve, E.R., Deore, U.B. and Ingole, R.S. (2005). Intrauterine use of Ciprofloxacin in the treatment of infectious repeat breeding crossed cows. A field study. Intas Polivet 6:59-60.

Roberts, S. J. (1986). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases, 3rd edn., S. J. Roberts-Woodstock, NY. pp. 359-381.

Roberts, S.J. (1971). Veterinary Obstetrics and Genital Diseases (Theriogenology). Published by the Author, Ithaca, New York, USA, pp: 496-506.

Sagartz, J.W., Hardenbook, H.J. (1971). A Clinical, bacteriologic and histologic survey of infertile cow. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 158: 619-22.

Saini, P. S., Grewal, A.S., Nanda, A.S. and Arora, A.K. (1995). Intra-uterine Immunotherapy with immuno-modulatery lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for bacterial endometritis associated with clinical cases of repeat breeders in dairy cattle (Bos Taurus x Bos Indicus) and buffaloes (Bubalis bubalis). Bull. Soc. France Japanese Sci. Vet. 6:128-34.

Sheldon, I. M., Lewis, G.S., Le Blanc, S. and Gilbert, R.O. (2006). Defining post-partum uterine disease in cattle. Theriogenology 65: 1516-30.

Singh, Jagir, Ghuman, S.P.S., Dadarwal, D., Honparkhe, M. and Singh, N. (2009). Evaluation of a systemic antibiotic treatment of chronic endometritis in buffaloes. Intas Polivet 10: 25-28.

Singh, A. K., Akthar, H., Singh, R.B., Singh, A. P., Rey, G. P. and Verma, S. B. (2001). Efficacy of treatment of endometritis with chemotherapeutic agents in cows and buffaloes. Indian J. Anim. Reprod. 22:57-59.

Singla, P., Singh, Jagir Sharma, N.S., Dhaliwal, G.S. and Kumar Ajeet (2004). Effect of post A.I. Immunotherapy on dynamics of uterine microflora and conception in subclical endometritis cows. Indian J. Animal Sci. 74: 706-70.

Rajesh Kumar (1), R.K. Singh (2), J.B. Singh (1), Sudhakar Singh (1)

Raja Dinesh Singh Krishi Vigyan Kendra

P.O. Lalabazar

Kalakankar

Pratapgarh--229408 (Uttar Pradesh)

(1.) Subject Matter Specialist, Veterinary Science

(2.) Programme Coordinator, KVK, Phek

(a)-Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad
Table 1: Conception after natural and artificial insemination.

                    Natural                       Artificial
                    Insemination                  Insemination

Type of   No. of    No. of    No. of    Percen-   No. of    No. of
animals   animals   animals   animals   tage      animals   animals

Buffalo   27        18        13        72.22     09        06
Cow       09        -         -         -         09        07

                    Artificial
                    Insemination
Type of   No. of    Percen-       Conce-
animals   animals   tage          ption
                                  rate

Buffalo   27        66.67         70.37
Cow       09        77.78         77.78
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Clinical Article
Author:Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, R.K.; Singh, J.B.; Singh, Sudhakar
Publication:Intas Polivet
Article Type:Report
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2012
Words:1510
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