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Clinical importance of scheduled deworming in buffalo calves.

Introduction

Calf management plays an important role in the development of dairy sector. The success of any dairy enterprise depends on the production of sufficient calves to act as replacement stock. Calf care is not only essential for sustainance of dairy industry but also for preserving and maintaining our good quality germ plasm. Important aspects in calf rearing are health and nutrition management (Tiwari et al., 2007). A large number of calves die during the first year of their life causing heavy drain on economics of livestock production. Calf mortality was associated with housing, feeding, managemental practices, weather conditions, external and internal parasitic infestation and bacterial infections especially those causing septicemia and enteritis (Blood et al., 1994). Poor management practices leads to economic losses to farmers in terms of higher calf mortality, poor growth rate, delayed maturity and poor productivity. Further, inadequate feeding of colostrum to new born calves reduces the immunity of calves and makes them susceptible to diseases (Khadda et al., 2010) increasing the cost of rearing on treatment and farmers faces economical loss due calf mortality. In view of significance of calf mortality to a farmer, the present study was undertaken at farmer's door step.

Materials and Methods

The study was conducted on buffalo herd of livestock owners of 7 adopted villages of Agra district in Uttar Pradesh, India where mortality ranged from 75-85 percent in buffalo calves from birth to one year age. Enquiry from herd owners revealed that cause of death in majority of calves was due to cold and pneumonia during winter. Some farmers also revealed that round worms and tape worms were seen in faeces of certain calves. To combat worm menace, the farmers were using the age old practice of giving butter milk and salt, but it was not found effective. Thus a training program was introduced for 2250 farmers to give them training on dairy calf's management and adoption of deworming with standard proven dewormers. In Front Line Demonstration (FLD) program 1289 demonstra-tions on protective deworming with Oxyclozanide and Levamisole Hcl suspension (Neozide Plus) and Fenbendazole and Praziquantel suspension/ tablets (Fentas Plus (a)) were given to 808 livestock owners of seven adopted villages in five blocks namely- Gadidolta (Bichpuri), Nooharika (Saiya), Bhavanpura (Saiya), Nagla Vishnu (Kheragarh), Aheerpura (Saiya), Nagla Heera Singh (Akola) and Aardaya (Achenera) during 2008-2015.

The deworming schedule followed in the FLD program consisted of deworming at four stages. The 1st dose at the age of 7-10 days followed by 2nd dose at 30-35 days. The 3rd dose was given at 80-85 days followed by 4th dose at 200-210 days, post birth.

Results and Discussion

The poor calf care at field condition is evident by the fact that the mortality rate in buffalo calves in these villages was 80 percent (Table 2). In fact these dairy owners keep on replacing the animals by buying new milch buffalo from Punjab and Haryana states of India which are the home tract and famous for breeding of good breeds of Murrah buffaloes and in these states the cattle and buffalo breeding is the main occupation and business of majority of the farmers. Similar findings have been reported by Tiwari et al. (2007), Ahmad et al. (2009), Khan et al. (2007) and Singh and Pachauri (2012).

Diseases of new-born calf and neonatal calf mortality are major causes of economic losses in livestock production. The most important role of scheduled deworming of calf rearing for reduction of calf mortality (Singh and Pachauri, 2012). The present study followed scheduled deworming technology on village buffalo calf under Front Line Demonstration (FLD) program. Result of the study revealed that calves were dewormed as per recommended schedule gained 22.50-27.30 kg. b. wt. higher from the calves maintained and dewormed as per prevalent farmers' practices (Table 2). The mortality rate was reduced to 15-21 percent in demonstrative calves whereas it was 75-85 percent in farmers' practice (FP). Encouraged by FLD trials farmers adopted scheduled deworming technology not only for their neonatal calves but also for milch buffaloes (Singh and Pachauri, 2012).

Protective dosing with anthelmintics was used in this study as a preventive program against clinical and sub-clinical worm infestation. Four doses of treatment were programmed and strategically carried out at 7-10 days, 30-35 days, 80-85 days and 200-210 days of age after birth. The efficacy of treatment was measured in terms of weight gain and reduction in mortality rate in tested group as compared to untreated calves maintained as per farmers' practice. For dissemination of this technology, field days were organized in each village after the completion of these trials. Farmers from non-adopted villages, extension functionaries of state government from the Departments of Animal Husbandry and Agriculture participated. Monitoring in support of dissemination and adoption of technology, showed that farmers adopted deworming technology not only to their calves but also to their milch buffaloes (Table 3).

References

Ahmad, S., Yaqoob, M., Hashmi, N., Zaman, M.A. and Amjad, M.S. (2009). Farmers attitude towards interventions regarding buffalo calf health care and management practices under field conditions. Pakistan Vet. J. 29: 125-28.

Blood, D.C., O.M. Radostits, C.C. Gay, J.H. Arundel, B.O. Ikede and B.C. Mekenzie, (1994). Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed. ELBS, London.

Khadda, B.S., Lata, K., Jadav, J.K., Kalash, P., Kumar, R. (2010). Study on calves management practices in tribal and non- tribal areas of Panchmahals district of Gujarat. J. Progressive Agricul. 1: 84-86.

Khan, Z. U., S. Khan, N. Ahmad and A. Raziq, (2007). Investigation of mortality incidence and managemental practices in buffalo calves at commercial dairy farms in Peshawar city. J. Agri. Biol. Sci. 2: 16-22.

Tiwari, R, Sharma, M.C. and Singh, B.P. (2007). Buffalo calf health care in commercial dairy farms: a field study in Uttar Pradesh (India). Livestock Research for Rural Development, 19.

Singh, Satyendra Pal and Pachauri, S.P. (2012). Deworming and its clinical importance in calf health mamagement. Intas Polivet 13: 15-16.

Satyendra Pal Singh (1), Indu Sharma (2) and Fareeda (3)

Rajmata Vijayaraje Scindia Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya

Krishi Vigyan Kendra

P.O.--Joura Khurd

A.B. Road

Morena--476001 (Madhya Pradesh)

(1.) Senior Scientist & Head and Corresponding author. E-mail: singhsatendra57@gmail.com

(2.) Principal, R.V.S. International School, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh

(3.) Veterinary Officer, Artificial Insemination, Head Quarter, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Table 1: Deworming schedule followed for buffalo calves

                Age of calf    Wormicide/ dewormers advocated
Dose             (in days)

First dose         07-10       Oxyclozanide and Levamisole suspension
                               (Neozide plus)

Second dose        30-35       Fenbendazole and Praziquantel
                               suspension/ tablets (Fentas plus)

Third dose         80-85       Oxyclozanide and Levamisole suspension
                               (Neozide plus)

Fourth dose       200-210      Fenbendazole and Praziquantel
                               suspension/ tablets (Fentas plus)

Table 2: Performance of scheduled deworming of buffalo calves

Year            Village (Block)             Farmers   No. of Demo.
                                                        (calves)

2008-09         Gadidolta (Bichpuri)          65          100
2009-10         Nooharika (Saiya)             67          128
2010-11         Bhavanpura (Saiya)            66          145
2011-12         Nagla Vishnun (Kheragarh)     162         200
2012-13         Aheerpura (Saiya)             135         200
2013-14         Nagla Heera Singh (Akola)     151         266
2014-15         Aardaya (Achenera)            162         250
Total/Average                                 808         1289

Year            No. of died      Performance     Increase in
                  calves        (b.wt. at one      b.wt. %
                                year age) kg.

                                 FP      Demo

2008-09             21           73       88        23.76
2009-10             20           74       90        23.40
2010-11             29           72       85        23.80
2011-12             32           73       91        24.57
2012-13             30           72       90        25.20
2013-14             42           70       91        27.30
2014-15             44           75       90        22.50
Total/Average       218        72.71     89.30      24.32

Year              Mortality (%)    Change in
                                   mortality

                   FP      Demo       (%)

2008-09            80       21        79
2009-10            80       16        84
2010-11            75       20        80
2011-12            80       16        84
2012-13            80       15        85
2013-14            85       16        84
2014-15            80       18        82
Total/Average    80.00     17.50      82

(a) --Brand of Intas Animal Health, Ahmedabad

Table 3: Dissemination of technology among farmers

Year      Name of village             No. of      No. of      No. of
                                      farmers     calves      Animals
                                                deworming    deworming
                                                dose given

2009-10   Gadidolta (Bichpuri)          45          62          38
2010-11   Nooharika (Saiya)             52          88          56
2011-12   Bhavanpura (Saiya)            54          92          61
2012-13   Nagla Vishnu (Kheragarh)      88         142          84
2013-14   Aheerpura (Saiya)             75         108          68
2014-15   Nagla Heera Singh (Akola)     82         128          80
2015-16   Aardaya (Achenera)            86         134          78
          Total                         482        754          465
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Article Details
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Title Annotation:Research Article
Author:Singh, Satyendra Pal; Sharma, Indu; Fareeda
Publication:Intas Polivet
Geographic Code:9INDI
Date:Jan 1, 2016
Words:1357
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