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Classroom Practices of Mentees and Mentoring Challenges in the Execution of Continuous Professional Development Framework.

Byline: Farrukh Munir and Muhammad Amin

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to evaluate classroom practices of Primary School Teachers (PSTs) to examine the influence of mentoring under Continuous Professional Development (CPD) framework of Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). The study was also aimed to explore the challenges faced by mentors (District Teacher Educators - DTEs) working under the same framework. The mixed methods approach was adopted to conduct the study. The population for the quantitative part comprises of 2044 PSTs and data were collected from the sample of 137 PSTs through a self-developed classroom observation rating scale to evaluate classroom practices. The population for the qualitative part comprises of 96 DTEs and data was generated from 17 DTEs through semi-structured interview protocol to explore the challenges faced by them during mentoring. Mean and the standard deviation were used to analyze the quantitative data, whereas qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis.

The major findings from quantitative data point out that out of a total of seven aspects of PSTs' classroom practices, there is not a single aspect that falls under the categories of 'most frequent practice' and 'frequent practice'. Four themes including planning skills, teaching skills, communication skills, and classroom management are being practised infrequently; and other three themes including the use of AV aids, assessment of student, and homework are being practised rarely by the PSTs. The main findings from the qualitative data highlight that DTEs are facing many challenges such as lack of teachers' interest, multi-grade teaching, and overcrowded classrooms.

Keywords: CPD framework, classroom practices, mentoring, DTEs challenges.

Introduction

A number of in-service teacher's training programs have been implemented previously in Pakistani school context but they failed to achieve the desired objective of quality education (Mahmood and Iqbal, 2010). In Punjab Province of Pakistan, Lahore based DSD is responsible for the capacity building of in-service school teachers to achieve the goal of high quality education (DSD, 2009). DSD was restructured in 2004 with a vision to develop a network for the professional development of school teachers across the province. Basically it was a paradigm shift from the traditional teacher training programs to the strategy of CPD of teachers, head teachers and educational managers of Primary, Elementary, Secondary and Higher Secondary Schools. DSD implemented teachers mentoring program in 2006 under the CPD framework to meet the professional development needs of primary school teachers through a network of district teacher educators (DSD, 2009; Akhlaq, M., Iqbal, M. Z., and Jumani, N. 2015).

First DSD defined its priorities and focused on skill development of primary school teachers through CPD framework; then DSD tried to establish a network of officials to execute CPD of over 197000 primary school teachers and remained successful. Initially almost 69000 primary school teachers were identified as Least Qualified Teachers (LQTs) and were selected for the CPD program. These LQTs were put under CPD program through a network of Cluster Training and Support Centers (CTSCs) established all over Punjab. The basic focus of CPD program activities is to improve the classroom practices of primary school teachers by identifying the training needs of primary school teachers. The primary school teachers have been and are being professionally groomed through face to face mentoring, follow-ups, and provision of on-job pedagogical support with the help of DTEs under CPD program.

Initially this program was started in 12 districts of Punjab, later on DSD established its network of CPD program all over the Punjab province and all the primary school teachers were taken in this program (DSD, 2006, 2007a, and 2009). The desired change in the quality of teaching/learning process and performance of the students are based on the competence of district teacher educators because they are responsible for the professional development of primary school teachers through mentoring (Mahmood and Iqbal, 2010). The major areas of mentoring which are being addressed by district teacher educators under CPD framework include Academic Calendar based on contents (Planner), Lesson Planning, Preparation and use of Support Material (A.V. Aids), Activity Based Teaching, Classroom Management, Interaction with Students (Communication), Assigning and Checking Homework, Teacher's Diary, and Students' Assessment (DSD, 2007a).

As mentioned above district teacher educators are the principal characters in the overall process of CPD program of DSD because they are responsible for the professional development of primary school teachers both in the school and at CTSCs. 25 to 30 schools within the radius of about 15 kilometres are attached with each CTSC. As a mentor overall focus of the district teacher educator is to improve the teaching/learning process through providing on-job training and regular professional assistance to the primary school teachers. District teacher educators have to perform three main roles of mentor, trainer and coordinator (DSD, 2007b). In the role of coordinator district teacher educators act as a bond between primary school teachers and school authorities, and under the role of mentor/trainer they enhance the professional skills and competency of primary school teachers through providing them up-to-date subject knowledge and advanced skills of teaching (Saeed and Akhtar, 2017).

Mentoring is relatively a new field in Pakistani school context, and comparatively less work has been done in this area. Akhalq and Iqbal (2016)contend that although the mentoring program has a positive impact on the efficacy and constructive attitudes of the teachers towards teaching, yet the current mentoring program of DSD remained unable to help the teachers to improve learning/teaching practices significantly. They further argue that this program also remained less helpful in developing support material compatible to the mental capabilities of the students, in defining smart objectives of learning, in identifying the behaviouralremedies for the behavioural issues of students, and bringing positive change in students' behaviourup to the desired level. The study of Anwar (2014) reveals that the mentoring practices caused a significant positive impact on the teachers' inter-personal skills, confidence, outcomes, motivation, and communication skills.

The study of Javed and Iqbal (2015)carried out in govt. primary school context of Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) concludes that implementation of the mentoring program might be beneficial for both senior (mentors) and juniors teachers (mentees) in developing their professional skills and improving content knowledge. However, they also identified the key issues of this program including inappropriate mentoring strategies and unplanned activities for the capacity building of teachers. Vazir and Meher (2010) evaluated the teachers' mentoring program launched by the Aga Khan University - Institute for Educational Development (AKU-IED) at primary schools of rural Sind and conclude that this program supported the participant teachers to shift from conventional to advanced methods of teaching. This was not only helpful in teachers' personal development but also beneficent for the improvement of the whole teaching/learning process of the school.

Akhtar, et al (2017) concluded that the major challenges encountered by the district teacher educators during their mentoring duty include lack of ownership of CPD activities by the primary school teachers and head teachers, deficient facilities and resources, and the students' assessment. These researchers suggested that district teacher educators should be spared enough to go through relevant published literature and other materials to aware themselves with advanced techniques of mentoring and teaching/learning. The CDP framework of DSD in under implementation since 2007, it is dire need to evaluate the impact of CPD framework on primary school teachers' classroom practices and to investigate the challenges faced by district teacher educators while mentoring. The study is carried out in public primary schools of district Faisalabad of Punjab province, Pakistan.

The findings of the study may be helpful for the stakeholders of public primary schools to improve the mentoring program for primary school teachers. Keeping in view the research gap and importance of the issues discussed above following research questions are advanced:

Q1. What is the current level of CPD frame work related classroom practices of primary school teachers?

Q2. What are the challenges faced by district teacher educators (mentors) while mentoring primary school teachers under CPD framework?

Methodology

The mixed methods approach was adopted to conduct the study, and accordingly study falls in pragmatism paradigm philosophically. More specifically the study adopted a sequential explanatory design, where qualitative data generation followed the quantitative data collection. The population for the quantitative part of the study comprises on 2044 (1092 female and 952 male) teachers of the 565 randomly selected primary schools of district Faisalabad. The quantitative data were collected from the randomly selected sample of 137 (114 female and 23 male) primary school teachers through a self-developed classroom observation rating scale to evaluate the PSTs' classroom practices - research question one. The population for the qualitative part comprises on 96 district teacher educators of the already selected 565 primary schools.

The qualitative data were generated from conveniently selected 17 male district teacher educators through a semi-structured interview protocol to explore the challenges faced by them during mentoring- research question two. Classroom observation rating scale consists of fifty two statements that measure seven aspects of primary school teachers' classroom practices. These aspects include planning skills (eight statements), teaching skills (twelve statements), communication skills (six statements), use of audio-visual aids (four statements), classroom management (six statements), assessment of students (eleven statements) and homework (five statements).The observer's key to rate the classroom practices was as follows:

5 great extent

4 some extent

3 little extent

2 very little extent

1 negligible extent

Mean and standard deviation (which are mere indicative) were used to analyze the quantitative data, whereas qualitative data were analyzed through content analysis. Expert opinion and pilot testing measures were taken to make both the tools valid. In order to make the study reliable, practical choices have been made during planning and execution stages of the study.

Data Presentation, Interpretation and Findings

Research question one is addressed quantitatively whereas research question two is addressed qualitatively. The data, its interpretation and findings are presented research question-wise.

Research Question 1: The data related to this research question is presented in table 1, followed by interpretation and findings. Brief commentary on the data patterns is based on the researchers' personal experience as students of teacher's training programme, school teachers, and teacher educator at university level. Mean Value (MV) and Standard Deviation (SD) of CORS data are computed to evaluate the classroom practices of primary school teachers. For the purpose of interpretation, the range of mean value is defined as follows:

4.6 - 5 most frequent practice

3.6 - 4.5 frequent practice

2.6 - 3.5 infrequent practice

1.6 - 2.5 rare practice

0.6 - 1.5 very rare practice

0.0 - 0.5 negligible practice

Table 1 Demonstration of Planning Skills

###Statement###MV###SD

1###prepared Teacher Diary according to Academic Calendar###3.7###0.9

2###mentioned Student Learning Outcomes(SLOs)in Teacher Diary###3.2###1.0

3###reflected Student Learning Outcomes(SLOs) in lesson plans###3.0###1.1

4###wrote lesson plans with clear sequential content###2.8###1.2

5###included teaching methods relevant to the objectives###2.7###1.8

6###mentioned relevant student activities in lesson plans###2.6###1.0

7###planned formative assessment of students###2.3###1.0

8###planned summative assessment of students###2.3###0.8

###Overall mean valve###2.8###0.7

The data highlight that preparing Teacher Diary according to Academic Calendar is the frequent practice of the primary school teachers. Majority of the practices such as mentioning SLOs in Teacher Diary, reflecting SLOs in lesson plans, writing lesson plans with clear sequential content, including teaching methods relevant to the objectives, and mentioning relevant student activities in lesson plans are the infrequent practice of primary school teachers. Whereas, planning of formative and summative assessments of students are rare practices of primary school teachers. The patterns of data in table 1 suggest that teachers have completed the tasks but there is evidence that they have not thought through the assessment aspects very well. This may be because they are unsure of exactly what is meant by 'formative' and/or they do not control the summative assessment procedures in their school. Overall planning skills are being practiced infrequently by the primary school teachers.

Table 2 Demonstration of Teaching Skills

###Statement###MV###SD

1###reviewed students' prior knowledge###3.3###0.9

2###explained the purpose of the topic or activity###3.2###0.9

3###executed the learning activities mentioned in the Lesson Plans###3.0###1.1

4###engaged the students in learning activities###3.0###1.2

5###used appropriate examples and illustrations###2.7###1.1

6###had sufficient content knowledge###2.5###1.1

7###checked understanding of students###2.6###1.0

8###maintained the interest of students###2.4###1.0

9###encouraged the students to express their ideas###2.4###1.0

10###used appropriate teaching methodologies###2.3###1.0

11###used probing techniques during learning activities###2.3###1.0

12###was aware of individual student learning needs###2.3###0.8

13###listened to questions of the students in the classroom carefully###2.3###1.1

14###provided appropriate answer of the questions###2.3###0.6

###Overall mean valve###2.6###1.0

The data point out that in this theme five practices are being exercised infrequently primary school teachers. These practices include reviewing students' prior knowledge, explaining the purpose of the topic or activity, executing the learning activities mentioned in the lesson plans, engaging the students in learning activities, and using appropriate examples and illustrations. Whereas remaining nine including having sufficient content knowledge, checking understanding of students, maintaining the interest of students, encouraging the students to express their ideas, using appropriate teaching methodologies, using probing techniques during learning activities, being aware of individual student learning needs, listening questions of the students in classroom carefully, and providing appropriate answer of the questions are being practiced rarely by primary school teachers.

Teachers are weak in these aspects, may be because of their less developed capacity in the execution aspects of teaching process. There might be various reasons of it but trainers' role also seems ineffective in this regard. Overall practice of the teaching skills is infrequent.

Table 3 Communication Skills

###Statement###MV###SD

1###spoke clearly###3.0###1.1

2###used a variety of verbal and nonverbal techniques free of humiliation###2.6###1.0

3###gave clear, explicit directions to students###2.6###1.1

4###used correct pronunciation during classroom instructions###2.4###1.0

5###used appropriate vocabulary during classroom instructions###2.4###1.0

6###interacted with the students politely###2.4###1.0

###Overall mean valve###2.6###1.0

The data state that under this theme three skills that include speaking clearly, using a variety of verbal and nonverbal techniques free of humiliation, and giving clear and explicit directions to students are being practised infrequently by primary school teachers. Remaining three practices are being exercised rarely by primary school teachers. These include the use of correct pronunciation during classroom instructions, use of appropriate vocabulary during classroom instructions, and interacting with students politely. Weak pronunciation and inappropriate vocabulary of the teachers highlight the flaws in educational system that prepared them. Overall primary school teachers are practising communication skills infrequently.

Table 4 Use of Audio Visual Aids

###Statement###MV###SD

1###ensured the availability of Audio Visual Aids before the start of class###2.6###0.9

2###used Audio Visual Aids during Teaching effectively###2.3###1.0

3###used Audio Visual Aids, relevant to the lesson / activity###2.3###1.0

4###used easily accessible Instructional Material###2.2###1.1

###Overall mean valve###2.4###1.0

The data shows that primary school teachers ensure the availability of Audio Visual (AV) aids before the start of class infrequently. Other three aspects of this theme that include using AV aids during teaching effectively, using AV aids relevant to the lesson/activity, and using easily accessible instructional material are being practised rarely. Data highlight that teachers are less capable in using AV aids that is perhaps because of ineffective teachers' training. Overall use of AV aids is the rare practice of primary school teachers.

Table 5 Classroom Management

###Statement###MV###SD

1###made seating arrangement according to the learning activity###2.8###0.9

2###maintained the discipline in the classroom###2.8###0.9

3###adjusted disrupting students in the classroom, properly###2.7###0.9

4###provided a friendly environment for teaching###2.4###0.8

5###maintained classroom norms during teaching###2.3###0.8

6###focused on the moral development of the students during teaching###2.3###0.8

###Overall mean valve###2.6###0.9

The data highlight that the first three practices of this theme that involve making seating arrangement according to the learning activity, maintaining the discipline in the classroom, and adjustment of disrupting students in the classroom properly are being exercised infrequently. Last three aspects including the provision of the friendly environment during teaching, maintenance of classroom norms during teaching, and focus on the moral development of the students during teaching are being practised rarely. Data pattern point out that teachers are less capable to perform the role of mentor and to maintain classroom norms, however possibly these issues could be addressed if the school head is performing their role effectively. Overall primary school teachers are practising classroom management skills infrequently.

Table 6 Assessment of Students

###Statement###MV###SD

1###used relevant questions to assess the students' knowledge###3.3###0.9

2###provided sufficient time for students to answer the questions###3.2###0.9

3###monitored students' progress through formative assessment###3.0###0.9

4###gave correct solution of incorrect responses of students###2.8###1.0

5###monitored students' progress through summative assessment###2.3###0.9

6###prepared tests which reflect Student Learning Outcomes###2.3###0.8

7###gave written feedback of assessment to the students###1.4###0.6

8###appreciated the students on good performance###1.4###0.5

###Overall mean valve###2.5###0.8

The data point out that the first four practices are being exercised infrequently by primary school teachers. These practices include using relevant questions to assess the students' knowledge, providing sufficient time to students to answer the questions, monitoring students' progress through formative assessment, and giving a correct solution of incorrect responses of students. Last four practices that include monitoring students' progress through summative assessment, preparing tests which reflect SLOs, giving written feedback of assessment to the students, and appreciating the students on good performance are in rare use of primary school teachers. Data show that teachers do not have clear understanding what exactly formative and summative assessment mean, and less focus on assessment courses in teachers' training programmes is one reason of it. Overall assessment of students is rarely being practised by primary school teachers.

Table 7 Homework

###Statement###MV###SD

1###assigned appropriate homework to the students###2.9###1.1

2###assigned homework was relevant to the lesson###2.8###1.0

3###highlighted the mistakes during checking of homework###2.2###0.9

4###made corrections of mistakes during checking of homework###1.5###0.6

5###good homework was appreciated by the teacher###1.5###0.8

###Overall mean valve###2.2###0.9

The data show that assigning appropriate homework to the students, and assigning homework relevant to the lesson are infrequent practices of primary school teachers; and highlighted the mistakes during the checking of homework is a rare practice. Last two aspects that include making corrections of mistakes during checking of homework, and appreciating good homework are very rare practices of primary school teachers. Feedback on student's homework is perhaps most neglected aspect of the teaching process, and this is possibly because of lack of time as teachers have to teach more than one classes in primary schools and in some cases there is only one teacher in a school. Overall homework is a rare practice of primary school teachers.

When keeping all the 51 practices categorized under seven themes in view, there is not a single practice that falls under the category of most frequent practice; and only one practice of primary school teachers i.e. preparing teacher diary according to academic calendar falls under the category of frequent practice. Moreover, 23 practices of the primary school teachers are infrequent, and 23 practices fall under the category of rare. Furthermore, four practices are being exercised by the primary school teachers very rare. When considering all seven themes overall there is not a single theme that falls under the categories of most frequent and frequent practices.

Four themes including planning skills, teaching skills, communication skills, and classroom management are being practised infrequently; and other three themes including the use of AV aids, assessment of student, and homework are being practised rarely by primary school teachers. Overall, it can be concluded that the CPD framework related classroom practices of the primary school teachers are either infrequent or rare.

Research Question 2: The qualitative data generated from 17district teacher educators through semi-structured interview protocol is used to explore the challenges faced by them during mentoring. The data highlight a number of challenges faced by district teacher educators. Almost all (16 out of 17) district teacher educators were of the view that the lack of teachers' interest is one of the major challenges faced by them to perform the duty of mentoring as is evidenced from the below response of a participant:

One of the basic challenges of mentoring is that the teachers do not have accepted this approach [CPD Framework] for their capacity building. Teachers think it[is] a wastage of time and they don't want to leave the traditional methods of teaching (Respondent (R),3).

Almost all (15) district teacher educators highlight that multi-grade teaching is another major challenge in doing their job of teachers' development under CPD framework as one of the respondents said:

Due to multi-grade teaching, teachers cannot follow the instructions of the DTEs, hence mentoring suffers badly (R, 5).

Overcrowded classrooms were pointed out another major challenge by the majority (12) DTEs, one of them stated that:

Because of the overcrowded classrooms, it is difficult to perform the duties of mentoring effectively (R, 3).

Majority (14) district teacher educators also showed their concern regarding the lack of resources and ownership of CPD framework. A participant stated that:

Non availability of the vehicle for DTEs and lack of ownership of the mentoring program at grass root level are the major challenges faced by him (R 12).

And another commented:

Lack of financial and logistic resources for the arrangement of equipment like AV aids etc. required for the implementation of CPD framework strategies are also major challenges faced by me in the implementation of mentoring practices for teachers' development (R, 17).

More than half (12) district teacher educators were of the view that poverty hinders the mentoring practices. One respondent said that:

Most of the students belong to poor families, their parents don't bear the expenses of note books and other stationery items. Resultantly, they don't make practices [of] what teachers teach them. In these [sic] way efforts of the teachers and DTEs go fruitless as the final beneficiary [of the mentoring] are students who come in the battlefield without weapons (R, 16).

Around half (8) district teacher educators were of the view that they are overburdened by assessment of students. One of them remarked:

Due to the unnecessary assessment of the students...they are unable to give proper time for mentoring of PSTs (R, 14).

All the district teacher educators (17) responded that a lot of file work is a big challenge which mentors have to face during mentoring:

Preparation of students' results of the whole cluster [and] preparation of MVF [Mentoring Visit Form] files and their submission to CTSC, DTSC [District Training and Support Center] and DSD is a challenge for mentors (R11). DTEs have to make [sic] ranking of teachers and have to prepare files of professional development day activities, [so] a lot of file work hamper[s] mentoring practices (R3).

Some (5) district teacher educators pointed out a long commute as a major challenge for them:

My nontransferable cluster based posting is the major problem faced by me to perform my duties because I have to travel a long from home to job-place and it wastes my time and energies (R, 8).

The qualitative data show that district teacher educators are facing various serious challenges while performing the duty of mentoring under CPD framework. These challenges include lack of teachers' interest, multi-grade teaching, overcrowded classrooms, lack of resources such as conveyance, finance and logistic of AV equipment, ownership of CPD framework, poverty, the overburden of district teacher educators because of students' assessment, a lot of file work of district teacher educators, and a long commute.

Discussion

The discussion is based on the previous studies from national and international context on CPD. All the local studies referred in this section are carried out on the CPD framework of DSD, which is the focus of this study. The findings of the quantitative part of this study highlight that out of a total of seven aspects of primary school teachers' classroom practices, there is not a single aspect that falls under the categories of most frequent and frequent practices. Four themes including planning skills, teaching skills, communication skills, and classroom management are being practised infrequently; and other three themes including the use of AV aids, assessment of student, and homework are being practiced rarely by the primary school teachers. Therefore, it can be concluded that the practices of the primary school teachers are either infrequent or rare.

These findings are supported by Mahmood and Iqbal (2010) who explored the effect of CPD frame work on classroom practices in the same context as is the case of the present study and found that negligible level of improvement has occurred in the classroom practices of primary school teachers. Akhalq and Iqbal (2016) argue that the current mentoring program of DSD remained unable to help the teachers to improve learning/teaching practices significantly, which also support the findings of this study. Moreover, the results of the current study are also in agreement with that of Khan and Ahmed's (2015) study findings. They strived to determine the impact of CPD framework on teachers' development with reference to classroom practices in district Faisalabad, Okara, Sargodha, and Sheikhupura of the same context as is the case of the present research.

The findings of their study indicate that CPD have a positive impact on different classroom practices of primary school teachers, but this impact is weak and lowest in the case of district Faisalabad that is the district of the study of current research. The findings of the studies of Vazir and Meher (2010) in the primary school context of Sindh province and Anwer (2014) are contrary to the present study findings. The findings of the qualitative part of this study highlight that district teacher educators are facing many challenges including lack of teachers' interest, multi-grade teaching, overcrowded classrooms, lack of resources such as conveyance, finance and logistics of AV equipment, ownership of CPD framework, poverty, overburden of district teacher educators because of students' assessment, lot of file work of district teacher educators, and long commute while performing the duty of mentoring under CPD framework. These findings are supported by the results of the study of Akhtar, et al (2017).

These researchers investigated the challenges faced by district teacher educators while mentoring under CPD framework of DSD and found that lack of ownership of the mentoring program for primary school teachers and head-teachers, deficient resources, and assessment of the student through monthly tests which makes the district teacher educators overburdened as major challenges, which support the current study findings. Moreover, district teacher educators face shortage of time because of engagement in laborious activities such as providing reports of the visits/assessments in DSD, CTSC and DTSC and this, in turn, hampers the mentoring of primary school teachers (Akhtar, et al, 2017), this again supports the current study findings. Furthermore, the present research findings are also supported by the results of Saeed and Akhtar's study conducted in 20017.

These researchers found that non cooperative attitude of head teachers and primary school teachers, deficient facilities, poor time management, weak infrastructure, overburdening of district teacher educators, weak management, and lack of strategies for the motivation of DTEs/PSTs/Heads are major issues in the effective implementation of CPD framework in primary schools of Punjab, which are in agreement of the current study findings. Roodes and Beneicke's (2003) research regarding the practices and challenges of CPD framework point out that deficient infrastructure and non-availability of appropriate resources are the major challenges in the effective implementation of any CPD framework. These results also support the findings of the present study.

Conclusion

Almost all the classroom practices of the primary school teachers are being exercised either infrequently or rarely, and none of the practices falls under the category of most frequent practise. It can be concluded that classroom practises of the primary school teachers as result of the mentoring program under the CPD framework of DSD have not been improved significantly. The ineffective implementation of the CPD framework may be one of the reasons of the poor performance of govt. primary schools in Punjab. This pathetic situation is not un-understandable. This study explored various issues/challenges, presented in previous sections, faced by DTEs during the implementation of mentoring program under the CPD framework of DSD.

If these issues are addressed properly by the competent authority, district teacher educators would be in a position to execute the mentoring program more effectively. This might add to make the classroom practices of primary school teachers more effective that in turn may add in the performance improvement of govt. primary schools.

Recommendations

In the light of the above mentioned findings, discussion and conclusion the following recommendations are made to improve all the seven aspects of classroom practices. DSD should specifically focus the teacher' classroom practices with reference to understanding and practise of formative and summative assessment, feedback on homework, use of AV aids, teachers' language, execution part of teaching methods, and teachers' role as mentor to improve the teaching/learning process. Concerned authorities may take necessary measures for the capacity building of mentors regarding the methods of improving classroom practices of the teachers in given situation. District teacher educators should be specialist in the respective subjects with a higher level of content knowledge so that they could improve the same in primary school teachers.

The policy of giving rewards/incentives to good mentees/high performing teachers need to be initiated to motivate primary school teachers for better participation in CPD activities and improved performance. All problems/challenges encountered by district teacher educators, highlighted in this study and beyond, must be addressed so that they can perform in a meaningful way. The government should encourage future researchers through providing research grants to conduct the longitudinal studies on different aspects of CPD to evaluate this programme across the Punjab province and to take research based corrective measures for its improvement. This study may provide baseline information for future research in this area.

References

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