Classification of factors contributing to roof leaking focusing on clay tile roof and asbestos roof on Malaysia heritage buildings.
According to Kamal and Harun, it is believed that there are more than 37,000 historic buildings built between 1800 and 1948 throughout Malaysia which are worthy of preservation and conservation . Marshall et al. mentioned that proper and timely maintenance will help to extend the life of the buildings . Notwithstanding the fact that all materials will fail at some point, and require repair and replacement, early failure may occur for various reasons including poor maintenance, poor design, poor specification, poor construction, poor maintenance and inappropriate use. According to Rashid and Ahmad, the conservation of heritage or historical buildings is a method on preserving structures which are historically and culturally important to the nation . Addleson suggested that when dealing with the rectification works of the heritage buildings, the architects should understand the discipline that the combined use of the materials, especially in the recent modern multi-layer construction systems with modern construction materials and imposes them in design detail solutions or creatively use the discipline as a motivation in design .
Talib and Sulieman stated that roof system is very important as it provides shelter for the interior spaces of the buildings . For convenience, the readers can do the cross reference on all the selected Malaysia building leakage cases detail at http://usm.academia.edu/RoslanTalib tabling information like failure causes as well as possible best solution suggestion.
All the Malaysian cases data are based on the collection of real rectification works on selected building leakage projects as well as from author and research assistant personal observations. The reparative tasks were done by the local waterproofing specialist contractor implemented mostly at the cities located within the western part of Malaysia's Malay peninsula; cities like Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Jaya, Jasin, City of Melaka, Taiping and Penang. With qualitative reserch approach, a total of 64 real project case studies as well as from personal observation has been identified and selected, accumulated since 1994. In the process accumulating the data, a series of unstructured interviews were made with the building owners, building maintenance representatives and of course the reparative contractors. It is quite interesting to note that all the Malaysian cases are the real maintenance rectification works and has been given 10 years warranty or even up to 15 years depending on the type of material used for the said work. Thus the standard of work must be in performed within the highest quality and using the best product standard for each job.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
(i) Roof leakage rectifications procedures for clay or slate roof tile and asbestos roofing:
Table 1 shows 9 defects which list indicating the rectification frameworks to overcome the defects pertaining to the clay or slate roof tiles on the said heritage buildings of the research paper study. The above table indicating on the best possible rectification works that can be done for each identified leakage problem pertaining to the concrete flat roof as well the suggested waterproofing material or product can be used for each cases. Each of the 9 defective cases has been identified with the detail rectification works to overcome the tile or even slate roof seepage together with suggested waterproofing material together with the product brand to be used which are derived from the actual rectification works done. The list below helps the maintenance crew to identify each of the possible leakage scenario on the heritage buildings and also indicating on the step by step rectification works and it can become as a guideline framework for the crew. It is the intention of this paper to list up the possible rectification works to ease-up the maintenance management team in doing the maintenance works for the heritage building. It can become as an initial guidelines to be used for the leakage work pertaining to the clay tile roof.
Table 2 schedule out 9 typical problems dealing with the water seepage normally happened in regards to the use of asbestos as a covering material of roof structure. The list also come with the best possible rectification tasks in order to solve the leakage problem together with the suggested waterproofing material or product brand can be used to rectify the defects. The analysis found out that the nine typical scenarios always occurred in regards to the water seepage in relation to the asbestos roof of the selected old structures be able to the maintenance crew to schedule their maintenance tasks in order to ensure avoid future roof leak. The rectification works below are based on the real experience in handling the seepage problem on actual tasks of the old buildings. With the conservation works to ensure the original state of the physical appearance being conserve together with the 10 years warranty to be given to the building owner; the correct steps and procedure must be done properly to avoid double cost in case the job need to redo if first attempt failed. However, due to proven health risk, do not maintain and use asbestos roof. Total replacement need to be done if required and use asbestos free roof type available on market.
Having an initial guidelines or initial frameworks dedicated to specific roofing or covering material for the heritage or old buildings for this case are a good thing to benefit building maintenance team. The paper focusing on the suggested best possible rectification works for the asbestos roof and for the clay or slate tile roofing. The rectification works must be done in proper steps and to use the correct method and choosing the right material in order not to repeat the same process hence become not economical in term of business aspect of the waterproofing company. Normally the rectification works come along with at least 10 years warranty period thus all the step and procedure must be right to avoid repeating reparative works. It is important to ensure that all the rectification works done maintaining the physical appearance of the historical building; the look as what it should have been before been maintain. Thus, the choice of the right waterproofing system together with the correct material is very important and has been considered when the tasks has been undertaken.
While the finding determined that even though asbestos roof surprisingly the most numbers of the old building undertaken in this research, flat concrete roof as well as the metal roof are the two types of roof that mostly being as roof covering structure of the analysis. As a conclusion, by determining and identifying the factors always leading to the clay tile roof and asbestos decking's water leakage, the predicted defects can be obtained and some money can be saved by having periodical maintenance check-up. After all, it is the objective of the research at least to put some savings on the maintenance aspect hence be able the Government to spend more money on other useful matter.
The author would like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia (through RUI grant account no: 1001/PPBGN/816247) which enable the research to goes on smoothly.
 Kamal, K.S. and S.N. Harun, 2002. 'Proceedings: International Symposium Building Research and sustainability of Built Environment in the Tropics', Jakarta, Indonesia.
 Marshall, D., D. Worthing, R. Heath and N. Dann, 2014. 'Understanding Housing Defects', Routledge, London & New York.
 Rashid, R.A. and A.G. Ahmad, 2008. 'The implementation of maintenance works for historical buildings --a review on the current scenario' ICBEDC, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
 Addleson, L., 1992. 'Building Failures: A Guide to Diagnosis, Remedy and Prevention', Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford.
 Talib, R., M.Z. Sulieman, 2011. "Choosing the right Waterproofing system: Case study of the EPF building, Malaysia.", Proceeding for 5th Int. Conf. on Built Env. in Dev. Countries (ICBEDC 2011). Vistana, Penang.
Roslan Talib, A Ghafar Ahmad and Mohd Zailan Sulieman
School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Received 12 October 2014
Received in revised form 26 December 2014
Accepted 1 January 2015
Available online 17 February 2015
Corresponding Author: Roslan Talib, School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia E-mail: email@example.com,
Table 1: List of rectification frameworks to overcome the defects pertaining to the clay or slate roof tiles. Clay/slate roof tile Product sample Cracked clay roof Monier clay roof tile type or similar. Flashing between Sealant silicone wall and roof failed brand BOSTIK or equivalent. Roof ridge and hip Monier clay roof moves allow gaps tile. Sealant silicone brand BOSTIK or equivalent. Timber roof truss Setia Wood deteriorate products/UAC steel truss Moss accumulate Use Wagner moisture deter water flow & damp meter detector or similar. Strong wind allow Plant tropical leave tiles move less Christmas or pine tree type nursery Human intervention Use Wagner moisture & damp meter detector or similar. Roof tile gap due to GeoProfound earthquake, building Engineering provide piling effect or micro piles soil movement. services. RWDP size not Bina Plastic uPVC sufficient products or similar. Ensure with SIRIM label. Rectification Rectification Ensure to replace Cracked may result with closer original from premature resemblance. If tile/shingles. repairable, apply Ensure quality sealant epoxy along selection of cracked line. shingles. Expired sealant to Ensure metal replace with new flashing properly one. Ensure metal glued with epoxy flashing overlay in sealant seal into 2 layers. the wall. Possible to lay Defects require to sealant epoxy make good i.e. between joints to rearrange manually. avoid leakage. Also due to poor laying of tiles at first place. Deteriorate truss Option to replace need to be replaced timber truss with manually. If use maintenance free timber, ensure use metal one. termite free type. Ensure roof design Moss need to be min.12.5 degree low removed pitch. periodically. Prefer design Typical problem is orientation with wind uplift. To maximum wind arrange tiles resistant. manually. Monitor human Installing new movement on roof structures on roof location. Regular top must be in maintenance waterproof inspection required. condition. Must use micro Ensure building piling/less vibrate having mechanically type of piling for vibrate proof design building next to feature. Monitor on site. soil movement near site. Replace new RWDP and roof joint sufficient size RWDP piece must be sealed with new one. Prefer properly to ensure to use uPVC type. leak free. Table 2: List of 9 typical problems dealing with the water seepage for asbestos roof. * Asbestos roof Product sample Rectification Rectification Strong wind Plant tropical To rearrange Plant more create gap leaf-less tiles trees to between roof Christmas or manually. protect sheet pine tree type Prefer design building from nursery orientation strong wind. with maximum Be selective wind on tree resistant. species. Crack roof Sealant If sheet at Cracked may sheet silicone brand repairable cause from BOSTIK or condition, use defective equivalent. sealant epoxy sheet/lines. along crack Quality line. selection or product required. Roof flashing Sealant Expired Long term: To to wall not silicone brand sealant to be install function BOSTIK or replaced with expansion equivalent. new one. joint with Ensure metal sealant at flashing metal properly glued flashing/wall with epoxy joint. sealant into the wall. Timber roof Setia Wood Option to Ensure use truss products/UAC replace timber treated deteriorate steel truss truss with (termite free) maintenance timber for free metal roof truss. one. Inject termite chemical inside site soil. Roof sheet have GeoProfound Must use micro To make good gap due to Engineering piling/less insufficient building provides micro vibrate type depth and movement i.e. pile services. of piling for width of earthquake, building next foundation. piling, soil to site. Ensure movement building having mechanically vibrate proof design feature. Metal nail/ Lysaght metal Replace old Double screw/sealant screw/Sealant sealant with protection: not function silicone brand new one ASAP. put sealant BOSTIK(c) or Replace epoxy on top equivalent. missing screw of screw/nail. or nail with new one. Installation must be in orderly manner. Human Use Wagner Any Monitor human intervention moisture & installation movement on damp meter of new roof location. detector or structure on Workers must similar. roof must be be fully leak free with supervised. waterproof detail. RWDP size not Bina Plastic Replace new RWDP and roof sufficient uPVC products sufficient joint piece or similar. size RWDP with must be sealed Ensure with new one. properly to SIRIM label. Prefer to use ensure leak uPVC type. free. Moss accumulate Use Wagner Ensure roof Moss need to deter water moisture & design min. be removed flow damp meter 10.0 or 12.5 periodically. detector or degree low similar. pitch. * due to health risk, do not maintain and use asbestos roof. Total replacement if required. Use asbestos free roof type.
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|Author:||Talib, Roslan; Ahmad, A.Ghafar; Sulieman, Zailan|
|Publication:||Advances in Environmental Biology|
|Date:||Apr 1, 2015|
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