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Cladonia islandica (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota), una especie nueva descubierta en Espana, Alaska y Canada.

Cladonia islandica (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota) a species newly discovered in Spain, Alaska and Canada


Since the publication of the checklist of the lichenized fungi of the Iberian Peninsula (Llimona & Hladun 2001), the list has got additions every year, with new species and quotations for the area. In particular, the Cladoniaceae flora on the Iberian Peninsula has been widely studied (Burgaz & Ahti 1992, 1994, 1998, 2009; Burgaz et al. 1999; Burgaz & Martinez 2008). Nevertheless, new taxa continue to appear. These are, for instance, Cladonia acuminata (Ach.) Norrl. (Pino-Bodas et al. 2012) and C. verticillata (Hoffm.) Schaer. (Pino-Bodas et al. 2013). So far, 84 taxa of Cladonia have been found on the Iberian Peninsula. Cladonia nana Vain., C. norvegica Tonsberg & Holien and C. stereoclada Abbayes (Burgaz & Ahti 2009) are among the species still expected to be found in the area.

When the first author was reviewing the material of Cladonia scabriuscula in the MACB herbarium, she found a specimen that morphologically differed from the rest, and so this specimen was studied in full detail. It turned out to represent Cladonia islandica, a species recently described from Iceland. At the same time, the author Ahti had found new specimens in America, which represent considerable range extensions for this species. Recently, Ahti & Stenroos (2013) reported Cladonia islandica only from Iceland and Svalbard, with a brief note that it has recently been recorded from Canada and Alaska.


The specimens studied are mainly deposited in the herbaria CANL, H, MACB or WIS. The brief description is mainly based on the Spanish material in MACB. The specimens were studied under stereomicroscope LEICA S4E. Hand-cut sections of the podetia were made and measurements of the podetial wall thickness were observed at 400x. The secondary metabolites were studied by TLC, using the solvent A and B (White & James 1985). The photo was taken with a NIKON D800 camera.


Cladonia islandica Kristinsson & Ahti Biblioth. Lichenol. 99: 279, 2009.


Illustrations: Fig. 1 (see also Kristinsson & Ahti 2009: 281, Ahti & Stenroos 2013: 101).

Primary thallus persistent, squamules 2-5 mm long and 1-2.5 mm wide, divided up to half of their length, upper surface light green, lower surface grey to black at the base and white toward the tips. Podetia 20-30 mm x 0.7-2 mm, brownish to green, simple or irregularly branching above the basal part, generally subulate, with closed axils. Podetium surface covered by microsquamules, corticated at the base. Pycnidia black, terminal on the podetia, cylindrical, 350 x 200 [micron]m. Conidia not observed. Apothecia not observed.

Anatomy. Squamules of primary thallus 200-280 [micron]m thick, cortex 37-55 [micron]m thick, algal layer 25-37 [micron]m, medulla 150-200 [micron]m. Podetial wall 230-335 [micron]m, cortex 20-25 [micron]m thick, medulla 70-112 [micron]m, stereome 135-205 [micron]m.

Chemistry. Thallus Pd+ red, contains fumarprotocetraric and protocetraric acids.

Habitat. In Spain terricolous on mineral soil and rock outcrops facing north under Pinus sylvestris woods. In Alaska only found in boreal, hyperoceanic, very windy, treeless areas near sea level. The Canadian localities are also on cold, oceanic coasts near polar timberline.

According to its branching pattern it resembles C. subulata (Kristinsson & Ahti 2009), but C. islandica is not sorediate. Its phylogenetic relationships are unknown to date but it probably belongs to the "supergroup" Cladonia of Stenroos et al. (2002). A molecular analysis of Alaskan material in under study.

Cladonia islandica was originally reported only from Iceland (Kristinsson & Ahti 2009), but Ovstedal et al. (2009) found it in Svalbard and Ahti & Stenroos (2013) also from Canada and Alaska, suggesting that it must be more widespread on the North Atlantic coasts. The present Spanish record is the first for the European continent. There exist other species of Cladonia that show a disjunct distribution similar to that of C. islandica, i.e. found in the north and in the south of Europe (mainly along the Atlantic seaboard), such as C. angustiloba Ahti & Aproot, known from the Faroes and Azores, or C. galindezii Ovstedal, known from Greenland, northern Norway, northern Sweden and Andorra (Hansen & Ahti 2011, Ahti et al. 2013, Azuaga et al. 2001).

Specimen examined: SPAIN: Salamanca: Candelario, Parque Nac. Sierra de Candelario, subida a El Travieso, 30TTK668704, 1390 m, acid soil, Pinus sylvestris forest, 1-VII-2007, A. R. Burgaz, MACB 95828. CANADA: Manitoba: Hudson Bay Coast, between Fort Churchill and Cape Merry, 58[grados]46'N, 94[grados]08'W, 1956, H. A. Crum & W B. Schofield 6632 (CANL 8349). Quebec: Great Whale River, Sandy Point, 55[grados]17'N, 1947, J. Kucyniak 755 (CANL 8328). 77[grados]45'W. ICELAND: Nor[??]ur-?ingeyjars?sla, Laxardalur, Helluvad, 65[grados]35'18>>N, 17[grados]08'67>>W, on moss in lava, 13-VIII-1998, S. Baldursdottir, H; Kristinsson & Ahti (2009) cited 13 different localities, with a dot map. NORWAY: Svalbard: A few specimens from Spitsbergen reported by Ovstedal et al. (2009). U.S.A.: ALASKA: Alaska Peninsula: Cold Bay, 1.6 km N of Cold Bay village, on rotting log at base of cliffs, 1971, N. McCartney (WIS). Aleutian Islands: Amlia Island, W side of Sviechnikof Harbor, 52[grados]03.082'N, 177[grados]24.113'W, 3 m, on driftwood log in Leymus mollis-Angelica lucida beach meadow, 17-V-2000, S. S. Talbot 041 (WIS), 355 (WIS), North-Central Amlia Island, 52.08657[grados]N, 173[grados]35597[grados]W, 18-VIII-2010, S. S. Talbot AML008-X-13A (BG, H, UBC), AML008-X-13Ab (C, H). Kiska Island, 51[grados]58'N, 177[grados]32'W, 120 m, log in coastal meadow, 2001, S. S. Talbot, KIS119 (H). Unalga Island, 51[grados]34'W, 179[grados]02'W, 3 m, coastal boulder, 2003, S.S. Talbot UNA001X-02 (H, WIS).

Recibido: 11 abril 2014. Aceptado: 5 mayo 2014.


We are especially grateful to Dr, Stephen S. Talbot (Anchorage) for his Alaskan specimens collected in poorly accessible Aleutian Islands. Help of Dr. Irwin M. Brodo during T. Ahti's visits in Ottawa (CANL) is also appreciated.


AHTI, T. & STENROOS, S. 2013. Cladoniaceae. In: T. Ahti, S. Stenroos & R. Moberg, Nordic Lichen Flora 5. Museum of Evolution, Uppsala.

AZUAGA, T.; BARBERO, M. & GOMEZ-BOLEA, A. 2001. Additions to the knowledge of the genus Cladonia (Cladoniaceae, lichenized Ascomycota) in the alpine belt of the Pyrenees in Andorra. Mycotaxon 79: 433-446.

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KRISTINSSON & AHTI, T. 2009. Two new species of Cladonia from Iceland. Biblioth. Lichenol. 99: 279-284.

LLIMONA, X. & HLADUN, N. 2001. Checklist of the lichens and lichenicolous fungi of the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Bocconea 14: 5-58.

OVSTEDAL, D. O., TONSBERG, T. & ELVEBAKK, A. 2009. The lichen flora of Svalbard. Sommerfeltia 33: 1-393.

PINO-BODAS, R.; BURGAZ, A. R.; MARTIN, M. P. & LUMBSCH, H. T. 2012. Species delimitations in the Cladonia cariosa group (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota). Lichenologist 44: 121-135.

PINO-BODAS, R.; MARTIN, M. P.; STENROOS, S. & BURGAZ, A. R. 2013. Cladonia verticillata (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycota), new record to Iberian Peninsula. Bot. Complut. 37: 21-25.

STENROOS, S.; HYVONEN, J.; MYLLYS, L.; THELL, A. & AHTI, T. 2002. Phylogeny of the genus Cladonia s. lat. (Cladoniaceae, Ascomycetes) inferred from molecular, morphology and chemical data. Cladistics 18:237-278.

WHITE, F. J. & JAMES, P. W. 1985. A new guide to microchemical techniques for the identification of lichen substances. Bull. Brit. Lichen Soc. 75 (suppl): 1-41.

Raquel Pino-Bodas (1), Teuvo Ahti (1) and Ana Rosa Burgaz (2)

(1) Botanical Museum, Finnish Museum of Natural History, P.O. Box 7, FI-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland,,

(2) Departamento de Biologia Vegetal I, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain,
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Author:Pino-Bodas, Raquel; Ahti, Teuvo; Burgaz, Ana Rosa
Publication:Botanica Complutensis
Date:Jan 1, 2014
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