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Citizenship of normal and hearing-impaired elementary female students in Saudi Arabia: "comparative study".

Introduction

Saudi society enjoys security, safety and national unity as it is distinguished from other societies, for it is the place of the Islamic message, but despite that, it remains as other societies in terms of its influence on what the world has witnessed of rapid changes (Al-Mershed, 2009). Late years of the 20th century witnessed successive events and rapid developments, which made the change process unavoidable in most world countries. Some societies experienced some sort of anxiety from this rapid change characterized by differing values, behavior roles, growing violence, relations' dissolvent, and interwoven interests. Therefore, citizenship education has increased in modern societies and has started to dominate the interests of scholars and workers in the educational field (Al-Rashdan & Al-Qauood, 2011).

Saudi Arabia was one of these societies undergoing rapid changes in all economic, social and cultural life aspects that affected society's cohesiveness and stability, resulting in the rise of attitudes, values and thinking patterns that are inconsistent with the nature of Saudi society (Al-Habib, 2005). Therefore, under these changes and developments in citizenship and national loyalty play a great role in preserving the identity of the society in which an individual lives (Al-Rashdan & Al-Qauood, 2011, Al-Mo'ammani, 2010).

Citizenship, in general, refers to the rights and duties an individual has to his or her society. It is both the state's responsibility towards an individual and vice versa (Hill & Tisdall, 1997). A citizen can enjoy his rights only if he upholds his duties (Al-Mijadi, 1999). Citizenship cannot be achieved unless a state and society are established. A citizen must have his or her duties and rights determined, which, in turn, creates a deeper relationship and attachment to his state (Al-Ka'by, 2001).

Researchers emphasize that citizenship for children is one of the important topics in this critical stage of Arabic history. There are many challenges for this form of citizenship, especially those related to identity and belonging to a state in the age of globalization. One must also ensure that a child's citizenship still allows him or her to be independent and aware of his or her duties as a citizen (Khalifah, 2011; Hlaeill, 2011). Arieh & Boyer (2005).They look closely at Arab society, especially Saudi Arabia.

Children with hearing impairments must also be taught the concept of citizenship, just like the children without these impairments. Citizenship is not only limited to the rights and duties in civic, social and political areas. It also includes the cultural, symbolic and social practices in societies. Children with these disabilities should also be regarded as representing a cultural and linguistic minority, rather than being individuals who suffer from a medical disability (Emery, 2007).

Problem Statement

Although schools in general (and in Saudi Arabia in particular) do inculcate many values and concepts related to citizenship as well as foster nationalism, there can still be improvement in fostering citizenship ideals during the elementary school ages. These values can aid in the development of certain characteristics (Lester, 2008). Children are future citizens and comprise about 60% of the total Arab population (Arabic Human Development Report, 2009). There is a lack of Arabic literature addressing the concept of children citizenship. There is an even greater lack of Saudi Arabian studies addressing citizenship among the hearing impaired. The current study tried to investigate if the citizenship level among female students differ from those who have a hearing impairment and those who do not have this impairment.

Procedural Terms

Citizenship

A citizen is a subject of a nation or commonwealth who maintains his or her rights and duties to the country one belongs to (Abdelrahman, 2008). This study is limited to a citizen's duties toward his country. Citizenship can be defined as the total score earned by a child on the citizenship scale utilized in this study.

Hearing-Impairment

Hallahan & Kaufman (2003) pointed out that a hearing impairment is a broad concept that includes both deaf and hearing-impaired persons. A deaf person can be defined as one whose hearing disability stops him from successfully processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without hearing aids.

The Special Education and Psychological Rehabilitation Encyclopedia defines a deaf person as one who loses more than 710 DB, and therefore cannot use his hearing sense to understand speech, even with the use of compensatory devices; he becomes dependent on vision in understanding lips movements and visual cues (Sisalem, 2002).

Significance of the Study

The most important topic reflected in this study is to create children who can efficiently function in society and add to it as a citizen. The results will try to determine the citizenship status among elementary school girls in Saudi Arabian society. These results will also attempt to deepen this study and relate it to the maintenance and stability of one's identity and belong to a particular society.

Moreover; the study focuses on children of young ages in elementary school. This stage is where the child's personality is formed. School systems can prepare children to acquire citizenship skills and values and teach them in a positive way. In addition, this study could assist those in charge of preparing study curricula in developing citizenship education, specifically for both elementary school children with and without hearing disabilities.

Finally, the current study might help families with hearing impaired children to understand citizenship concepts that might be developed in their children and how to embed them into their lifestyle.

Theoretical Background and Previous Studies

Citizenship

Citizenship is a human, cultural, social, moral and national trait. In children in particular, it is a part of how they see themselves and form their own identities (Al-Ka'by, 2011). It links a certain group of individuals who live in a specific space at a specific time (Al-Habib, 2005). The International Encyclopedia defined citizenship as, "a construct referring to nation or country belonging" (1996: 311). George (2000) sees it as understanding their roles as citizens regardless of local identity and culture as well as national and global culture. He also emphasized that it is a conscious decision by an individual to gain his rights while upholding his duties. All citizens should enjoy equal rights once they commit to doing their duties.

Citizenship, from an Islamic perspective, departs from the rules and basics on which Islamic shari'a is based. It sees that citizenship as an expression of the relationship between a Muslim individual and the members of a nation. It also explains the relationship between Islamic territories and those who live in these territories, whether they are Muslims or not (Al-Hajiri, 2007). Heleil (2011) defined citizenship as a feeling of belonging to a country and recognizing the responsibility and loyalty one must have to a nation.

The above analysis shows that citizenship is comprised of two basic aspects: a citizen's right to be a part of the country and his duties towards the state. A child should recognize these responsibilities related to social participation, respecting laws and regulations, and accepting others' opinions. Children should also be tolerant of those who are different from them and learn to preserve the environment, reflecting their love, loyalty and sense belonging to the country.

Family's Role in Developing Citizenship

Family is primarily responsible for formulating and forming a child's personality as well as building his attitudes toward his country. These feelings must be strong enough to create in a child an awareness of his or her citizenship (Clark & Akock, 1993; Erosy, 2012; Al-Ka'bi, 2011; Ismael, 2006).

A study was conducted by Erosy in 2012 to find out how mothers with young children perceive citizenship and what they pass on to their offspring. This study was limited to lower class and middle-class mothers. It analyzed how they developed a national awareness in their children and identified major problems they face during this process. The study revealed that the majority of mothers conceive citizenship as it relates to society. They see it as a set of specific values and ethics that create a good citizen. To sum up, by raising children with strong values, one can respect public interest.

School's Role in Developing Citizenship

The early years of a child's life are the most formative times. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on developing the concept of citizenship and what it means to be a good citizen early on and in accordance with a child's mental growth and maturation (Al-Rashdan&Al-Qauood, 2011). There is a general agreement among specialists that achieving good citizenship represents a major educational goal in all countries. This desire led to an increase interest in citizenship education, with varying degrees of import for various countries (Al-Mijadi, 1999; Mahafzah, 2001; Newton, 2002; Omoosh, 2011).

To sum up; school is an exemplary place for teaching for citizenship; a child learns to be a member of a group, comprehends his rights and those of others, and understands that he is a citizen of a specific country. His awareness will rise and he will begin to reject discrimination in his daily life.

Significant Previous Studies

Citizenship was addressed in several studies that focused on various aspects and different age groups. Some were interested in finding out the factors influencing citizenship. Others addressed citizenship by comparing between different age groups. One such study, conducted by Hassanein (1989), aimed at preparing programs for the development of positive attitudes toward one's country in 30 seven year-old Egyptian children. Results showed the possibility of developing positive attitudes toward one's country, including a feeling of loyalty.

Taylor, Smith, & Gollop (2008) tried to find out how 66 children, ages 8-9 and 14-15, perceived and understood citizenship issues. Children reported their rights and responsibilities in their daily life at home, school, and in their society. These included following appropriate conduct and rules, being honest, avoiding harm to self and others, and participating in family and social activities.

Zahran (2012) conducted a study to find out some variables affecting loyalty towards a country among 45 5-6 year old children and 30 adolescents ages 16-18. There was a negative effect when children travelled during early childhood and a positive effect when the individual had much contact with his society.

Al-Zgaer (2012) conducted a study to find out the citizenship values and the obstacles in developing these within a child. These results showed a set of values, including trust, self-efficacy, knowledge, love, acceptance of others, belonging, patriotism, environmentalism, religious commitment, respect for public properties, social responsibility, and independence.

Al-Amer (2005) conducted a study aimed at finding out the modern concept of citizenship and find out how aware the youth of Saudi Arabia are about citizenship. The study was conducted with a sample of 544 Saudi youth. Results revealed a noticed increase in a youth feelings and awareness of citizenship dimensions (Identity, belonging, plurality, openness, political freedom and participation, and citizenship as a whole).

Mobarak (2003) conducted a study focusing on the school's role at the development of citizenship (rights and duties) among secondary school students. Results displayed the school's role in the development of the following duties: respecting one's neighbor, maintaining traditions, following orders, and practicing obedience.

Cooper (2013) conducted a study on (26) deaf students at the university level to measure their opinions towards society service before and after participating in a volunteer work experience with different organizations. Results showed large changes in deaf students' opinions, and that experiences faced by hearing-impaired outside the university campus can help them become open towards new people and have new experiences that nurture their communication with others.

As for Arabic studies addressing citizenship among hearing-impaired (deaf, poor-hearing), Abdelrahman (2008) conducted a study aiming at identifying the effectiveness of using an introductory organizer in the social study in developing citizenship concepts and political awareness among 3rd preparatory grade students with hearing-disabilities in Egypt. Results showed statistically significant differences from pre- to post-test for citizenship concepts in favour of pre-test and in favour of the experimental group.

Al-Jeijawi & Al-Madhoon (2008) conducted a study entitled The Role of Palestinian Social Organization in Civic Education of Deaf Children. This study aimed at finding out the role of responsible organizing in the care of deaf children. The study was conducted on a sample of (78) workers at deaf education institutions. Results showed the need to double the institutions' efforts, particularly in implanting independence, freedom, citizenship values and making the students aware of their civic rights and helping them in integrating into their society.

Comments on Previous Studies

Studies varied in subjects they addressed and related to citizenship. Some of which were interested in finding out citizenship values, while others addressed the influence of school and family on the development of citizenship values among individuals and finding out the effect of different values on citizenship, but the research could not find studies addressing a comparison between normal and deaf persons in terms of citizenship.

Scarcity of studies addressing citizenship among hearing-impaired at different age stages in the Arabic society, in general, and saudi society, in particular.

Lack of Arabic studies aiming at finding out citizenship among elementary stage children, where most of them focused on citizenship among students in middle and secondary stages, as well as university students (Al-Subeih, 2005; Zahran, 2012).

Research Hypotheses

The current study tried to develop o refuse the following hypotheses:

1. There will be statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) between the mean scores of hearing-impaired and normal students in citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family dimension, environmental, and value and moral dimension).

2. There will be no statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) between deaf and poor-hearing students in citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental, and value and ethical subdomain mean scores.

3. There will be no statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) in elementary citizenship mean scores due to interaction difference between sample type (hearing-impaired), mothers' nationality (Saudi vs. non-Saudi).

Methodology

Methodology descriptive (comparitive --causal) approach through comparing citizenship among hearing-impaired and normal counterparts at the elementary stage was used.

A sample study was randomly selected from normal students of public elementary schools in which hearing-impaired integration programs are applied to (686) normal students in addition to all hearing-impaired students (374), of whom (178) were deaf and (196) were poor-hearers. Table 1 displays the sample's distribution.

To achieve equivalence in age between normal and hearing-impaired students, T value was calculated and was (0.62) with (0.538) significant level suggesting differences between the mean age of hearing-impaired and normal students.

Instruments

Citizenship Scale for Elementary Stage

In light of citizenship definitions and reviewing Arabic scales available in this concept as Bani Saeb's (2008) scale, and the scale of Arabic Center for Educational Research of Gulf States (2008) and Zamoosh's (2011) scale. The researcher also benefits from some previous studies on citizenship concepts including Saeed,Ayyory,& Ali (2005), Al-Ka'by (2001), and Al-Razzaz (2011). An initial version of citizenship value scale of (47) items, covering 5 main domains: national belonging, school behavior, family, environmental, and value and moral dimensions was prepared.

This version was presented to (15) judges specialized in psychology, special education, to have their opinions on scale's validity, the extent of their appropriateness to their specific domains, clarity of wording. Depending on the judge's notes ,some unappropriate items were eleminated and others were added. Based on these judgements, (4) items were excluded, so the final version of the scale comprised of (49) items covering five domains: national loyalty (15) items, school behavior (16), family (5), environmental (7), and value and moral (6). To check for internal consistency, the instrument was administered on an exploratory sample of normal and hearing-impaired students. It computed correlation coefficients between the scores of each dimension and the total score of the scale for both normal and hearing-impaired samples. Tables (2) and (3) display internal consistency results for a normal exploratory sample of citizenship scale.

Tables (4) and (5) show that all correlation coefficients were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels.

Test reliability was established by computing cronbach alpha correlation coefficient on normal and hearing-impaired exploratory samples, where all reliability coefficients for the normal were 0.81, and it was 0.088 for hearing-impaired. Therefore, the researcher can argue that the scale enjoys high validity and reliability, and it can be used on the current study sample.

Statistical Analysis

Testing for the significance of the difference between independent samples, MANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients were employed to test research hypothesis and to check for validity and reliability of the instrument.

Results

To test the first research hypothesis, stating that there will be no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between hearing-impaired and normal students on citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental, and ethical values domain) mean scores.

A test to check the independent samples to find out differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores on citizenship and its domains was employed. Table (6) shows its results.

Table (6) showed that T values were significant at (a <0.05) in national belonging, school behaviour, and ethical values domains. Moreover, the scale as a whole indicates that there were significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores in these domains of citizenship scale. These differences were in favour of normal students. The table also showed that T values were not significant to family and environment domains, suggesting no statistically significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores on these domains.

To check the second research hypothesis, there were no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between deaf- and poor-hearing students' mean scores on citizenship and its national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental and ethical value dimensions.

A test for significant differences on independent groups was used to find the difference between deaf- and poor-hearing students in citizenship and its domains. Table (7) shows these results.

Table (7) showed that T values were significant at 0.01 level for all domains as well as for the total scale as a whole. That means there were statistically significant differences between deaf- and poor-hearing students' mean scores in these dimensions, and these differences were in favour of the deaf students.

To test the third research hypothesis, which states that there will be no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between elementary school students' citizenship scores due to the interaction of the sample type (hearing-impaired vs. normal and mothers' nationality, Saudi vs. non-Saudi), MANOVA test was employed to find out the significant differences between independent variables. Tables (8) and (9) displayed results of this analysis.

Tables (8) and (9) show the existence of significant interaction at 0.01 level between sample type (hearing-impaired vs. normal) and mothers' nationality (Saudi vs. non-Saudi). This suggests that the existence of significant differences between normal and hearing-impaired students' mean scores on citizenship score is due to the mother's nationality.

Discussion

The above review shows the existence of differences between normal and hearing-impaired students on the following domains: national belonging, school behaviour, moral values, as well as on the total citizenship scale score. These differences were in favour of normal students, whereas these differences were not found in family and environmental domains. This means that normal students were better than hearing-impaired on the citizenship scale despite the fact that when hearing-impaired students are taught with normal students, it helps them establish wider social relationships, and it also assists normal students in dealing with and accepting the hearing-impaired ones, which leads to an increased belonging and participation (Abdel Hameed, 2002). However, hearing-impaired students were less than normal in terms of national belonging, school behaviour, and ethical value domains despite the development achieved by the Saudi Kingdom in terms of educating hearing-impaired students from special institutes to total inclusion in normal schools (Al-Mousa, 2008). However, these results reflect a lack of services in schools, classrooms and external environment from where a child comes (Anita, Stinson, & Gaustad, 2002; Ali, 2013). This might be due to the way teacher treat these students and their attitudes towards their abilities, which could create problems in communicating with others (Stinson & Anita, 1999; Plat, 2003). Gaustad (1999) emphasized the importance of fulfilling poor-hearing students' needs, which are similar to those of the normal counterparts including forming friendships, active participation and belonging.

Despite the fact that Al-Mershed (2009) concluded from his study regarding the frequency of nation love and belonging in Saudi curricula. Furthermore, Blake Muttock (2004) pointed out the need to encourage special needs children's understanding of rights, duties and responsibilities, and how to participate actively in both school and society.

Therefore, the researcher suggests that hearing-impaired students' learning should not be limited to placing them in normal schools with their normal counterparts but appropriate arrangements are needed. Also, developing their citizenship and national belonging, implanting moral values in them to fulfil their citizenship through complete integration, and providing them with opportunities to contribute and participate in their society. Furthermore, looking at their abilities in a fair manner to produce and merit, which ensures they are taking part of their classroom and school community (Anitart, 2012 Rankin, 2009).

Results also showed the difference of citizenship level among hearing-impaired students according to hearing disability severity, where deaf students were distinguished from poor-hearers in subdomains' scores, as well as citizenship total score. The researcher sees that deaf students are taught in special classrooms in normal schools by specialized teachers who have a way to communicate with these students using sign language. Calyley (2010) emphasized that using sign language with deaf children is positively reflected on their citizenship. Calyley also emphasized the need for respecting the deaf society in its culture, identity and social language. Khalifah (2011) emphasized that vital education for citizenship in schools requires providing safe, stimulating for democracy practice environment, within school curricula and atmosphere, where students' participation and membership are based on partnerships between teachers and learners, which enables the students to participate in discussion and debate. Redha (1994) also emphasized citizenship being influenced by relationships with adults and their mutual respect. He referred to Piaget's theory who thinks that when the relationship between a child and an adult is based on the dominance of the adult over the child, the child will grow on submission and dependence. However, if the parents help moving their child from submission and from being a follower to an independent person, where the one-sided respect in the relationship is replaced by mutual respect creating freedom, equality, and equity in the relationship.

The research thinks that given the presence of poor-hearing students in a normal class room requires personal and scientific skills that might not be found in the teacher trained to teach a normal classroom. That makes training and qualifying necessary for the teacher to have a new mentality and use techniques and methodologies suitable to the presence of poor-hearing students in the normal classroom. Furthermore, poor-hearing students witness discrimination in the classroom between themselves and their normal peers, which might make them feel others' discrimination against them. Khalifah (2011) sees that inconsistency between what the child learns from curriculum and what he receives of treatment within the school environment reflects the discrimination and separation from others. This weakens the influences of national education programs and curricula, which, in turn, might inculcate separation and deteriorate nationality and belonging feelings.

Results also showed a significant interaction between the sample type (hearing impaired--normal) and mother's nationality (Saudi--non-Saudi), indicating significant differences between normal and hearing-impaired. Mean scores of citizenship according to mother's nationality, where this nationality plays a role in the presence of this difference, find high mean scores on citizenship for those whose mothers are Saudi as compared with those from non-Saudi mothers. This might be due to the fact that a Saudi mother would be more interested in citizenship concept development in her children, reinforcing their national blessing and complete loyalty from an individual to their country, where they enjoy all public and private rights in the state laws (Abdel Salam, 2012). This is in line with what Joanne & Jeffrey's (1995) study found. They found that there is a significant influence of ethnicity or racial origins on students of national belonging. The research emphasized the importance of mothers (Anderson, 2005; Abdelrahman, 2008; Griffith, 1995; Al-Rashdan & Al-Quaood, 2011). Therefore, it is possible to use and activate these techniques in citizenship development among hearing-impaired students, providing them with its concepts as well deepening citizenship behaviours and values in them.

Hearing-impaired low scores in school behaviour domain might be due to their behaviour being influenced by peers and teachers' behaviours and the way with which they interact with and accept them. Khader (2002) pointed out that a child's behaviour is influenced by his interaction with his peers and family, so he is influenced by them and their behaviours. When communication problems occur several times, they create negative school behaviour, especially during childhood and adolescence periods (Kirk, Gallager, & Analtasiow, 1993; Arroosan, 2000). Meanwhile, physical closeness between normal and hearing-impaired students does not lead to improving hearing-impaired students' school behaviour or enhancing their national belonging, nor does it increase their interaction with the other students. However, closeness under conditions and situations that reinforce familiarity and feeling of responsibility might lead to increased interaction that might be reflected on citizenship improved behaviour (Hundert & Houghton, 1992; Anita & Kreimeyer, 1996; Johnson & Johnson, 2001).

Khalifah (2011) pointed out that Arabic education depends on lecturing and suffers from educational techniques rigidity, which is reflected negatively on poor citizenship in the globalization era. She also pointed out that the major challenge facing the development of citizenship values among children is training the learner to self-learn and search for information, as well as helping him to capture his identity and belong to his nation.

Results do not reveal statistically significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students in family and environmental domains, which can be attributed to the family's care of their children whether they are normal or hearing-impaired. Therefore, a family's acceptance of its children and assigning them tasks that enhance their belonging to their family and outside society, as the family plays a critical role in the development of national awareness in children, reinforcing their belonging to others and development of positive behaviours towards their family and the surrounding environment. This is what Erosy's (2012) study found; mothers' perception of the concept of a good citizen as one who applies values and ethics specific to society, caring therefore for teaching ethical standards and values at home.

The above discussion shows that major factors causing differences between hearing-impaired and normal students in citizenship might be due to this disability and their mothers' nationalities. Therefore, the researcher believes that citizenship cannot be developed among hearing-impaired students without the close collaboration between family, school and society. This collaboration requires integration and coordination with various institutions within the society. Finally, in light of the results of the current study, the researcher recommended other researchers to conduct deepened studies on citizenship among hearing-impaired students with larger samples in different areas of Saudi Arabia, as well as of different educational stages.

Acknowledgments

This is a research project that was supported by a grant from the Research Center for the Humanities, Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University, 2015.

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Maryam Hafez Turkestani, Assistant Professor in Special Education Special Education Department-College of Education-King Saud University-Saudi Arabia
Table 1 Distribution of Sample's Members According to their
Demographic Variables

                                          Hearing
                                         impaired           Normals
                      Sample type
Variables            Classification     N     Percent     N     Percent

Grade level          First            73      19.5      116     16.9
                     Second           63      16.8      116     16.9
                     Third            61      16.3      112     17.6
                     Fourth           62      16.6      108     15.7
                     Fifth            57      15.2      105     15.3
                     Sixth            58      15.5      120     17.5
Age                  M                9.50              9.57
                     Sd               1.88                      1.90
Mother nationality   Saudi            292     78.1      557     81.2
                     Non-Saudi        82      21.9      129     18.8

Total                                 374     100.0     686     100.0

                                           Total
                      Sample type
Variables            Classification     N     Precent

Grade level          First            189     17.8
                     Second           179     16.9
                     Third            182     17.2
                     Fourth           170     16.0
                     Fifth            162     15.3
                     Sixth            178     16.8
Age                  M                9.55
                     Sd               1.89
Mother nationality   Saudi            849     80.1
                     Non-Saudi        211     19.9

Total                                 106.0   100.0

Table 2 Correlation Coefficients between Citizenship Scale Items and
Total Score of their Assigned Domain (N = 172)

                 Correlation        Correlation        Correlation
Dimension   M    coefficent    M    coefficent    M    coefficent

National    1     ** 0.3165    17    ** 0.4045    28    ** 0.5934
belonging   6     ** 0.2162    19    ** 0.3446    34    ** 0.6456
            8     ** 0.3633    20    ** 0.5334    35    ** 0.4386
            10     * 0.1895    21    ** 0.6066    41    ** 0.5558
            15    ** 0.4333    27    ** 0.6270    48    ** 0.5586
School      2     ** 0.5596    14    ** 0.2334    40    ** 0.4674
behaviour   3     ** 0.7089    22    ** 0.4113    42    ** 0.4610
            5     ** 0.3061    24    ** 0.6370    45    ** 0.5759
            9     ** 0.6109    25    ** 0.5225    47    ** 0.4246
            11    ** 0.2583    26    ** 0.2836
            13    ** 0.4005    29    ** 0.7635
Family      12    ** 0.5841    31    ** 0.7087    49    ** 0.4641
            23    ** 0.4027    32    ** 0.7581    46    ** 0.6437
Environ-    7     ** 0.4782    36    ** 0.5677
mental      16    ** 0.5147    37    ** 0.6107
            18    ** 0.3481    39    ** 0.5868
            4                  33    ** 0.7772    43    ** 0.6985
            30                 38    ** 0.6634    44    ** 0.7836

Table 3 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale with Total
Scale Score

Dimension            Correlation Coefficient

National Belonging          ** 0.8655
School Behaviour            ** 0.9183
Family                      ** 0.6106
Environmental               ** 0.7437
Value and Moral             ** 0.6163

** Significant at 0.01

Table 4 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale Items with
Total Score of their Domains (Hearing-Impaired N = 94)

                 Correlation        Correlation        Correlation
Dimension   M    coefficent    M    coefficent    M    coefficent

National    1     ** 0.4856    17    ** 0.3814    28    ** 0.7706
belonging   6     ** 0.3698    19    ** 0.4545    34    ** 0.4126
            8     ** 0.5107    20    ** 0.2331    35     0.1061
            10    ** 0.7501    21    ** 0.6731    41    ** 0.2687
            15    ** 0.7557    27    ** 0.4495    48    ** 0.4392
School      2     ** 0.3676    14    ** 0.6422    40    ** 0.3118
behaviour   3     ** 0.5317    22    ** 0.6942    42    * 0.2614
            5      0.0568      24    ** 0.6183    45    * 0.2302
            9     * 0.2333     25    ** 0.5285    47    ** 0.2719
            11    ** 0.2747    26    ** 0.5686
            13    ** 0.4576    29    ** 0.7158
Family      12    ** 0.6702    31    ** 0.6680    49    ** 0.5250
            23    ** 0.2818    32    ** 0.5387
Environ-    7     ** 0.5939    36    ** 0.6605    46    ** 0.5083
mental      16    ** 0.6017    37    ** 0.3197
            18    ** 0.5567    39    ** 0.4466
            4     ** 0.3601    33    ** 0.3636    43    ** 0.6377
            30    ** 0.6928    38    ** 0.6902    44    ** 0.4020

* Significant at 0.05 level

** Significant at 0.01 level

Table 5 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale Domains with
Total Scale Score (Hearing-Impaired Exploratory Sample (N = 94)

Dimension            Correlation Coefficient

National Belonging          ** 0.8465
School Behaviour            ** 0.8618
Family                      ** 0.6771
Environmental               ** 0.7718
Value and Moral             ** 0.5711

** Significant at 0.01

Table 6 T test for Differences between the Study Sample's Mean Score
on Citizenship Domains Scale by Sample Type

Dimensions      Sample type          N     Mean     SD     T value

National        Hearing-impaired    374    82.73   17.66    10.62
affiliation

School          Hearing-impaired    374    89.97   130.6    3.91
behaviour

Family          Hearing-impaired    374    9.80    14.05    1.77

                                   11.72   95.31    686

Environmental   Hearing-impaired    374    89.11   15.65    0.33

                                    686    88.79   15.31

Moral and       Hearing-impaired    374    94.61   13.08    2.08
Values
                                    686    96.38   1352

Total score     Hearing-impaired    374    88.60   12.34    6.19

                Significance
Dimensions         Level              Notes

National           0.000       Significant at 0.01
affiliation

School              0.00       Significant at 0.00
behaviour

Family             0.077         Not significant

Environmental      0.741         Not significant

Moral and          0.038       Significant at 0.05
Values

Total score         0.00       Significant at 0.01

Table 7 Results of the Test for Significant Differences between
Sample's Mean Scores on Citizenship Scale According to Sample's Type.

Dimensions             Sample type     N    Mean     SD     T value

National affiliation   Deaf           178   85.75   15.44    3.22
                       Poor-hearing   196   79.99   19.09
School behaviour       Deaf           178   93.79   10.30    5.68
                       Poor-hearing   196   86.51   14.30
Family                 Deaf           178   97.19   6.97     4.73
                       Poor-hearing   196   90.71   17.70
Environmental          Deaf           178   93.26   13.60    5.08
                       Poor-hearing   196   85.35   16.46
Moral and Values       Deaf           178   98.60   4.97     6.11
                       Poor-hearing   196   90.99   16.65
Total score            Deaf           178   92.21   8.78     5.75
                       Poor-hearing   196   85.33   14.09

                       Significance
Dimensions                Level              Notes

National affiliation      0.001       Significant at 0.01
School behaviour          0.000       Significant at 0.01
Family                    0.000       Significant at 0.01
Environmental             0.000       Significant at 0.01
Moral and Values          0.000       Significant at 0.01
Total score               0.000       Significant at 0.01

Table 8 Means and Standard Deviations of Citizenship
Scale According to Sample Type and Mothers' Nationality

Sample Type        Mother's nationality    N      M      SD

Hearing-impaired   Saudi                  292   89.16   12.15
                   Non-Saudi              82    86.63   12.89

                   Total                  374   88.60   12.34

Normal             Saudi                  577   96.52   4.09
                   Non-Saudi              129   92.34   10.00

                   Total                  686   93.13   9.32

Table 9 MANOVA Analysis for Significant Differences between a
Sample's Mean Scores and Citizenship by Sample Type and Mothers'
Nationality

Source                 Sum squares   D.f.   Mean Squares     F

Sample type              6785.56      1       6785.56      62.80
Mothers' nationality     109.34       1        109.34       1.01
Sample nationality       1785.02      1       1785.02      16.52
Error                   114099.89    1056      108.05
Adjusted total          121286.72    1059

Source                  Sig           Notes

Sample type            0.000   Significant at 0.01
Mothers' nationality   0.315   Significant at 0.01
Sample nationality     0.000   Significant at 0.01
Error
Adjusted total
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Author:Turkestani, Maryam Hafez
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Geographic Code:7SAUD
Date:Mar 22, 2016
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