Citizenship of normal and hearing-impaired elementary female students in Saudi Arabia: "comparative study".
Saudi society enjoys security, safety and national unity as it is distinguished from other societies, for it is the place of the Islamic message, but despite that, it remains as other societies in terms of its influence on what the world has witnessed of rapid changes (Al-Mershed, 2009). Late years of the 20th century witnessed successive events and rapid developments, which made the change process unavoidable in most world countries. Some societies experienced some sort of anxiety from this rapid change characterized by differing values, behavior roles, growing violence, relations' dissolvent, and interwoven interests. Therefore, citizenship education has increased in modern societies and has started to dominate the interests of scholars and workers in the educational field (Al-Rashdan & Al-Qauood, 2011).
Saudi Arabia was one of these societies undergoing rapid changes in all economic, social and cultural life aspects that affected society's cohesiveness and stability, resulting in the rise of attitudes, values and thinking patterns that are inconsistent with the nature of Saudi society (Al-Habib, 2005). Therefore, under these changes and developments in citizenship and national loyalty play a great role in preserving the identity of the society in which an individual lives (Al-Rashdan & Al-Qauood, 2011, Al-Mo'ammani, 2010).
Citizenship, in general, refers to the rights and duties an individual has to his or her society. It is both the state's responsibility towards an individual and vice versa (Hill & Tisdall, 1997). A citizen can enjoy his rights only if he upholds his duties (Al-Mijadi, 1999). Citizenship cannot be achieved unless a state and society are established. A citizen must have his or her duties and rights determined, which, in turn, creates a deeper relationship and attachment to his state (Al-Ka'by, 2001).
Researchers emphasize that citizenship for children is one of the important topics in this critical stage of Arabic history. There are many challenges for this form of citizenship, especially those related to identity and belonging to a state in the age of globalization. One must also ensure that a child's citizenship still allows him or her to be independent and aware of his or her duties as a citizen (Khalifah, 2011; Hlaeill, 2011). Arieh & Boyer (2005).They look closely at Arab society, especially Saudi Arabia.
Children with hearing impairments must also be taught the concept of citizenship, just like the children without these impairments. Citizenship is not only limited to the rights and duties in civic, social and political areas. It also includes the cultural, symbolic and social practices in societies. Children with these disabilities should also be regarded as representing a cultural and linguistic minority, rather than being individuals who suffer from a medical disability (Emery, 2007).
Although schools in general (and in Saudi Arabia in particular) do inculcate many values and concepts related to citizenship as well as foster nationalism, there can still be improvement in fostering citizenship ideals during the elementary school ages. These values can aid in the development of certain characteristics (Lester, 2008). Children are future citizens and comprise about 60% of the total Arab population (Arabic Human Development Report, 2009). There is a lack of Arabic literature addressing the concept of children citizenship. There is an even greater lack of Saudi Arabian studies addressing citizenship among the hearing impaired. The current study tried to investigate if the citizenship level among female students differ from those who have a hearing impairment and those who do not have this impairment.
A citizen is a subject of a nation or commonwealth who maintains his or her rights and duties to the country one belongs to (Abdelrahman, 2008). This study is limited to a citizen's duties toward his country. Citizenship can be defined as the total score earned by a child on the citizenship scale utilized in this study.
Hallahan & Kaufman (2003) pointed out that a hearing impairment is a broad concept that includes both deaf and hearing-impaired persons. A deaf person can be defined as one whose hearing disability stops him from successfully processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without hearing aids.
The Special Education and Psychological Rehabilitation Encyclopedia defines a deaf person as one who loses more than 710 DB, and therefore cannot use his hearing sense to understand speech, even with the use of compensatory devices; he becomes dependent on vision in understanding lips movements and visual cues (Sisalem, 2002).
Significance of the Study
The most important topic reflected in this study is to create children who can efficiently function in society and add to it as a citizen. The results will try to determine the citizenship status among elementary school girls in Saudi Arabian society. These results will also attempt to deepen this study and relate it to the maintenance and stability of one's identity and belong to a particular society.
Moreover; the study focuses on children of young ages in elementary school. This stage is where the child's personality is formed. School systems can prepare children to acquire citizenship skills and values and teach them in a positive way. In addition, this study could assist those in charge of preparing study curricula in developing citizenship education, specifically for both elementary school children with and without hearing disabilities.
Finally, the current study might help families with hearing impaired children to understand citizenship concepts that might be developed in their children and how to embed them into their lifestyle.
Theoretical Background and Previous Studies
Citizenship is a human, cultural, social, moral and national trait. In children in particular, it is a part of how they see themselves and form their own identities (Al-Ka'by, 2011). It links a certain group of individuals who live in a specific space at a specific time (Al-Habib, 2005). The International Encyclopedia defined citizenship as, "a construct referring to nation or country belonging" (1996: 311). George (2000) sees it as understanding their roles as citizens regardless of local identity and culture as well as national and global culture. He also emphasized that it is a conscious decision by an individual to gain his rights while upholding his duties. All citizens should enjoy equal rights once they commit to doing their duties.
Citizenship, from an Islamic perspective, departs from the rules and basics on which Islamic shari'a is based. It sees that citizenship as an expression of the relationship between a Muslim individual and the members of a nation. It also explains the relationship between Islamic territories and those who live in these territories, whether they are Muslims or not (Al-Hajiri, 2007). Heleil (2011) defined citizenship as a feeling of belonging to a country and recognizing the responsibility and loyalty one must have to a nation.
The above analysis shows that citizenship is comprised of two basic aspects: a citizen's right to be a part of the country and his duties towards the state. A child should recognize these responsibilities related to social participation, respecting laws and regulations, and accepting others' opinions. Children should also be tolerant of those who are different from them and learn to preserve the environment, reflecting their love, loyalty and sense belonging to the country.
Family's Role in Developing Citizenship
Family is primarily responsible for formulating and forming a child's personality as well as building his attitudes toward his country. These feelings must be strong enough to create in a child an awareness of his or her citizenship (Clark & Akock, 1993; Erosy, 2012; Al-Ka'bi, 2011; Ismael, 2006).
A study was conducted by Erosy in 2012 to find out how mothers with young children perceive citizenship and what they pass on to their offspring. This study was limited to lower class and middle-class mothers. It analyzed how they developed a national awareness in their children and identified major problems they face during this process. The study revealed that the majority of mothers conceive citizenship as it relates to society. They see it as a set of specific values and ethics that create a good citizen. To sum up, by raising children with strong values, one can respect public interest.
School's Role in Developing Citizenship
The early years of a child's life are the most formative times. Therefore, it is important to concentrate on developing the concept of citizenship and what it means to be a good citizen early on and in accordance with a child's mental growth and maturation (Al-Rashdan&Al-Qauood, 2011). There is a general agreement among specialists that achieving good citizenship represents a major educational goal in all countries. This desire led to an increase interest in citizenship education, with varying degrees of import for various countries (Al-Mijadi, 1999; Mahafzah, 2001; Newton, 2002; Omoosh, 2011).
To sum up; school is an exemplary place for teaching for citizenship; a child learns to be a member of a group, comprehends his rights and those of others, and understands that he is a citizen of a specific country. His awareness will rise and he will begin to reject discrimination in his daily life.
Significant Previous Studies
Citizenship was addressed in several studies that focused on various aspects and different age groups. Some were interested in finding out the factors influencing citizenship. Others addressed citizenship by comparing between different age groups. One such study, conducted by Hassanein (1989), aimed at preparing programs for the development of positive attitudes toward one's country in 30 seven year-old Egyptian children. Results showed the possibility of developing positive attitudes toward one's country, including a feeling of loyalty.
Taylor, Smith, & Gollop (2008) tried to find out how 66 children, ages 8-9 and 14-15, perceived and understood citizenship issues. Children reported their rights and responsibilities in their daily life at home, school, and in their society. These included following appropriate conduct and rules, being honest, avoiding harm to self and others, and participating in family and social activities.
Zahran (2012) conducted a study to find out some variables affecting loyalty towards a country among 45 5-6 year old children and 30 adolescents ages 16-18. There was a negative effect when children travelled during early childhood and a positive effect when the individual had much contact with his society.
Al-Zgaer (2012) conducted a study to find out the citizenship values and the obstacles in developing these within a child. These results showed a set of values, including trust, self-efficacy, knowledge, love, acceptance of others, belonging, patriotism, environmentalism, religious commitment, respect for public properties, social responsibility, and independence.
Al-Amer (2005) conducted a study aimed at finding out the modern concept of citizenship and find out how aware the youth of Saudi Arabia are about citizenship. The study was conducted with a sample of 544 Saudi youth. Results revealed a noticed increase in a youth feelings and awareness of citizenship dimensions (Identity, belonging, plurality, openness, political freedom and participation, and citizenship as a whole).
Mobarak (2003) conducted a study focusing on the school's role at the development of citizenship (rights and duties) among secondary school students. Results displayed the school's role in the development of the following duties: respecting one's neighbor, maintaining traditions, following orders, and practicing obedience.
Cooper (2013) conducted a study on (26) deaf students at the university level to measure their opinions towards society service before and after participating in a volunteer work experience with different organizations. Results showed large changes in deaf students' opinions, and that experiences faced by hearing-impaired outside the university campus can help them become open towards new people and have new experiences that nurture their communication with others.
As for Arabic studies addressing citizenship among hearing-impaired (deaf, poor-hearing), Abdelrahman (2008) conducted a study aiming at identifying the effectiveness of using an introductory organizer in the social study in developing citizenship concepts and political awareness among 3rd preparatory grade students with hearing-disabilities in Egypt. Results showed statistically significant differences from pre- to post-test for citizenship concepts in favour of pre-test and in favour of the experimental group.
Al-Jeijawi & Al-Madhoon (2008) conducted a study entitled The Role of Palestinian Social Organization in Civic Education of Deaf Children. This study aimed at finding out the role of responsible organizing in the care of deaf children. The study was conducted on a sample of (78) workers at deaf education institutions. Results showed the need to double the institutions' efforts, particularly in implanting independence, freedom, citizenship values and making the students aware of their civic rights and helping them in integrating into their society.
Comments on Previous Studies
Studies varied in subjects they addressed and related to citizenship. Some of which were interested in finding out citizenship values, while others addressed the influence of school and family on the development of citizenship values among individuals and finding out the effect of different values on citizenship, but the research could not find studies addressing a comparison between normal and deaf persons in terms of citizenship.
Scarcity of studies addressing citizenship among hearing-impaired at different age stages in the Arabic society, in general, and saudi society, in particular.
Lack of Arabic studies aiming at finding out citizenship among elementary stage children, where most of them focused on citizenship among students in middle and secondary stages, as well as university students (Al-Subeih, 2005; Zahran, 2012).
The current study tried to develop o refuse the following hypotheses:
1. There will be statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) between the mean scores of hearing-impaired and normal students in citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family dimension, environmental, and value and moral dimension).
2. There will be no statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) between deaf and poor-hearing students in citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental, and value and ethical subdomain mean scores.
3. There will be no statistically significant differences at (a < 0.05) in elementary citizenship mean scores due to interaction difference between sample type (hearing-impaired), mothers' nationality (Saudi vs. non-Saudi).
Methodology descriptive (comparitive --causal) approach through comparing citizenship among hearing-impaired and normal counterparts at the elementary stage was used.
A sample study was randomly selected from normal students of public elementary schools in which hearing-impaired integration programs are applied to (686) normal students in addition to all hearing-impaired students (374), of whom (178) were deaf and (196) were poor-hearers. Table 1 displays the sample's distribution.
To achieve equivalence in age between normal and hearing-impaired students, T value was calculated and was (0.62) with (0.538) significant level suggesting differences between the mean age of hearing-impaired and normal students.
Citizenship Scale for Elementary Stage
In light of citizenship definitions and reviewing Arabic scales available in this concept as Bani Saeb's (2008) scale, and the scale of Arabic Center for Educational Research of Gulf States (2008) and Zamoosh's (2011) scale. The researcher also benefits from some previous studies on citizenship concepts including Saeed,Ayyory,& Ali (2005), Al-Ka'by (2001), and Al-Razzaz (2011). An initial version of citizenship value scale of (47) items, covering 5 main domains: national belonging, school behavior, family, environmental, and value and moral dimensions was prepared.
This version was presented to (15) judges specialized in psychology, special education, to have their opinions on scale's validity, the extent of their appropriateness to their specific domains, clarity of wording. Depending on the judge's notes ,some unappropriate items were eleminated and others were added. Based on these judgements, (4) items were excluded, so the final version of the scale comprised of (49) items covering five domains: national loyalty (15) items, school behavior (16), family (5), environmental (7), and value and moral (6). To check for internal consistency, the instrument was administered on an exploratory sample of normal and hearing-impaired students. It computed correlation coefficients between the scores of each dimension and the total score of the scale for both normal and hearing-impaired samples. Tables (2) and (3) display internal consistency results for a normal exploratory sample of citizenship scale.
Tables (4) and (5) show that all correlation coefficients were significant at 0.01 and 0.05 levels.
Test reliability was established by computing cronbach alpha correlation coefficient on normal and hearing-impaired exploratory samples, where all reliability coefficients for the normal were 0.81, and it was 0.088 for hearing-impaired. Therefore, the researcher can argue that the scale enjoys high validity and reliability, and it can be used on the current study sample.
Testing for the significance of the difference between independent samples, MANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficients were employed to test research hypothesis and to check for validity and reliability of the instrument.
To test the first research hypothesis, stating that there will be no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between hearing-impaired and normal students on citizenship and its subdomains (national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental, and ethical values domain) mean scores.
A test to check the independent samples to find out differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores on citizenship and its domains was employed. Table (6) shows its results.
Table (6) showed that T values were significant at (a <0.05) in national belonging, school behaviour, and ethical values domains. Moreover, the scale as a whole indicates that there were significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores in these domains of citizenship scale. These differences were in favour of normal students. The table also showed that T values were not significant to family and environment domains, suggesting no statistically significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students' mean scores on these domains.
To check the second research hypothesis, there were no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between deaf- and poor-hearing students' mean scores on citizenship and its national belonging, school behaviour, family, environmental and ethical value dimensions.
A test for significant differences on independent groups was used to find the difference between deaf- and poor-hearing students in citizenship and its domains. Table (7) shows these results.
Table (7) showed that T values were significant at 0.01 level for all domains as well as for the total scale as a whole. That means there were statistically significant differences between deaf- and poor-hearing students' mean scores in these dimensions, and these differences were in favour of the deaf students.
To test the third research hypothesis, which states that there will be no statistically significant differences at ([alpha] < 0.05) level between elementary school students' citizenship scores due to the interaction of the sample type (hearing-impaired vs. normal and mothers' nationality, Saudi vs. non-Saudi), MANOVA test was employed to find out the significant differences between independent variables. Tables (8) and (9) displayed results of this analysis.
Tables (8) and (9) show the existence of significant interaction at 0.01 level between sample type (hearing-impaired vs. normal) and mothers' nationality (Saudi vs. non-Saudi). This suggests that the existence of significant differences between normal and hearing-impaired students' mean scores on citizenship score is due to the mother's nationality.
The above review shows the existence of differences between normal and hearing-impaired students on the following domains: national belonging, school behaviour, moral values, as well as on the total citizenship scale score. These differences were in favour of normal students, whereas these differences were not found in family and environmental domains. This means that normal students were better than hearing-impaired on the citizenship scale despite the fact that when hearing-impaired students are taught with normal students, it helps them establish wider social relationships, and it also assists normal students in dealing with and accepting the hearing-impaired ones, which leads to an increased belonging and participation (Abdel Hameed, 2002). However, hearing-impaired students were less than normal in terms of national belonging, school behaviour, and ethical value domains despite the development achieved by the Saudi Kingdom in terms of educating hearing-impaired students from special institutes to total inclusion in normal schools (Al-Mousa, 2008). However, these results reflect a lack of services in schools, classrooms and external environment from where a child comes (Anita, Stinson, & Gaustad, 2002; Ali, 2013). This might be due to the way teacher treat these students and their attitudes towards their abilities, which could create problems in communicating with others (Stinson & Anita, 1999; Plat, 2003). Gaustad (1999) emphasized the importance of fulfilling poor-hearing students' needs, which are similar to those of the normal counterparts including forming friendships, active participation and belonging.
Despite the fact that Al-Mershed (2009) concluded from his study regarding the frequency of nation love and belonging in Saudi curricula. Furthermore, Blake Muttock (2004) pointed out the need to encourage special needs children's understanding of rights, duties and responsibilities, and how to participate actively in both school and society.
Therefore, the researcher suggests that hearing-impaired students' learning should not be limited to placing them in normal schools with their normal counterparts but appropriate arrangements are needed. Also, developing their citizenship and national belonging, implanting moral values in them to fulfil their citizenship through complete integration, and providing them with opportunities to contribute and participate in their society. Furthermore, looking at their abilities in a fair manner to produce and merit, which ensures they are taking part of their classroom and school community (Anitart, 2012 Rankin, 2009).
Results also showed the difference of citizenship level among hearing-impaired students according to hearing disability severity, where deaf students were distinguished from poor-hearers in subdomains' scores, as well as citizenship total score. The researcher sees that deaf students are taught in special classrooms in normal schools by specialized teachers who have a way to communicate with these students using sign language. Calyley (2010) emphasized that using sign language with deaf children is positively reflected on their citizenship. Calyley also emphasized the need for respecting the deaf society in its culture, identity and social language. Khalifah (2011) emphasized that vital education for citizenship in schools requires providing safe, stimulating for democracy practice environment, within school curricula and atmosphere, where students' participation and membership are based on partnerships between teachers and learners, which enables the students to participate in discussion and debate. Redha (1994) also emphasized citizenship being influenced by relationships with adults and their mutual respect. He referred to Piaget's theory who thinks that when the relationship between a child and an adult is based on the dominance of the adult over the child, the child will grow on submission and dependence. However, if the parents help moving their child from submission and from being a follower to an independent person, where the one-sided respect in the relationship is replaced by mutual respect creating freedom, equality, and equity in the relationship.
The research thinks that given the presence of poor-hearing students in a normal class room requires personal and scientific skills that might not be found in the teacher trained to teach a normal classroom. That makes training and qualifying necessary for the teacher to have a new mentality and use techniques and methodologies suitable to the presence of poor-hearing students in the normal classroom. Furthermore, poor-hearing students witness discrimination in the classroom between themselves and their normal peers, which might make them feel others' discrimination against them. Khalifah (2011) sees that inconsistency between what the child learns from curriculum and what he receives of treatment within the school environment reflects the discrimination and separation from others. This weakens the influences of national education programs and curricula, which, in turn, might inculcate separation and deteriorate nationality and belonging feelings.
Results also showed a significant interaction between the sample type (hearing impaired--normal) and mother's nationality (Saudi--non-Saudi), indicating significant differences between normal and hearing-impaired. Mean scores of citizenship according to mother's nationality, where this nationality plays a role in the presence of this difference, find high mean scores on citizenship for those whose mothers are Saudi as compared with those from non-Saudi mothers. This might be due to the fact that a Saudi mother would be more interested in citizenship concept development in her children, reinforcing their national blessing and complete loyalty from an individual to their country, where they enjoy all public and private rights in the state laws (Abdel Salam, 2012). This is in line with what Joanne & Jeffrey's (1995) study found. They found that there is a significant influence of ethnicity or racial origins on students of national belonging. The research emphasized the importance of mothers (Anderson, 2005; Abdelrahman, 2008; Griffith, 1995; Al-Rashdan & Al-Quaood, 2011). Therefore, it is possible to use and activate these techniques in citizenship development among hearing-impaired students, providing them with its concepts as well deepening citizenship behaviours and values in them.
Hearing-impaired low scores in school behaviour domain might be due to their behaviour being influenced by peers and teachers' behaviours and the way with which they interact with and accept them. Khader (2002) pointed out that a child's behaviour is influenced by his interaction with his peers and family, so he is influenced by them and their behaviours. When communication problems occur several times, they create negative school behaviour, especially during childhood and adolescence periods (Kirk, Gallager, & Analtasiow, 1993; Arroosan, 2000). Meanwhile, physical closeness between normal and hearing-impaired students does not lead to improving hearing-impaired students' school behaviour or enhancing their national belonging, nor does it increase their interaction with the other students. However, closeness under conditions and situations that reinforce familiarity and feeling of responsibility might lead to increased interaction that might be reflected on citizenship improved behaviour (Hundert & Houghton, 1992; Anita & Kreimeyer, 1996; Johnson & Johnson, 2001).
Khalifah (2011) pointed out that Arabic education depends on lecturing and suffers from educational techniques rigidity, which is reflected negatively on poor citizenship in the globalization era. She also pointed out that the major challenge facing the development of citizenship values among children is training the learner to self-learn and search for information, as well as helping him to capture his identity and belong to his nation.
Results do not reveal statistically significant differences between hearing-impaired and normal students in family and environmental domains, which can be attributed to the family's care of their children whether they are normal or hearing-impaired. Therefore, a family's acceptance of its children and assigning them tasks that enhance their belonging to their family and outside society, as the family plays a critical role in the development of national awareness in children, reinforcing their belonging to others and development of positive behaviours towards their family and the surrounding environment. This is what Erosy's (2012) study found; mothers' perception of the concept of a good citizen as one who applies values and ethics specific to society, caring therefore for teaching ethical standards and values at home.
The above discussion shows that major factors causing differences between hearing-impaired and normal students in citizenship might be due to this disability and their mothers' nationalities. Therefore, the researcher believes that citizenship cannot be developed among hearing-impaired students without the close collaboration between family, school and society. This collaboration requires integration and coordination with various institutions within the society. Finally, in light of the results of the current study, the researcher recommended other researchers to conduct deepened studies on citizenship among hearing-impaired students with larger samples in different areas of Saudi Arabia, as well as of different educational stages.
This is a research project that was supported by a grant from the Research Center for the Humanities, Deanship of Scientific Research at King Saud University, 2015.
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Maryam Hafez Turkestani, Assistant Professor in Special Education Special Education Department-College of Education-King Saud University-Saudi Arabia
Table 1 Distribution of Sample's Members According to their Demographic Variables Hearing impaired Normals Sample type Variables Classification N Percent N Percent Grade level First 73 19.5 116 16.9 Second 63 16.8 116 16.9 Third 61 16.3 112 17.6 Fourth 62 16.6 108 15.7 Fifth 57 15.2 105 15.3 Sixth 58 15.5 120 17.5 Age M 9.50 9.57 Sd 1.88 1.90 Mother nationality Saudi 292 78.1 557 81.2 Non-Saudi 82 21.9 129 18.8 Total 374 100.0 686 100.0 Total Sample type Variables Classification N Precent Grade level First 189 17.8 Second 179 16.9 Third 182 17.2 Fourth 170 16.0 Fifth 162 15.3 Sixth 178 16.8 Age M 9.55 Sd 1.89 Mother nationality Saudi 849 80.1 Non-Saudi 211 19.9 Total 106.0 100.0 Table 2 Correlation Coefficients between Citizenship Scale Items and Total Score of their Assigned Domain (N = 172) Correlation Correlation Correlation Dimension M coefficent M coefficent M coefficent National 1 ** 0.3165 17 ** 0.4045 28 ** 0.5934 belonging 6 ** 0.2162 19 ** 0.3446 34 ** 0.6456 8 ** 0.3633 20 ** 0.5334 35 ** 0.4386 10 * 0.1895 21 ** 0.6066 41 ** 0.5558 15 ** 0.4333 27 ** 0.6270 48 ** 0.5586 School 2 ** 0.5596 14 ** 0.2334 40 ** 0.4674 behaviour 3 ** 0.7089 22 ** 0.4113 42 ** 0.4610 5 ** 0.3061 24 ** 0.6370 45 ** 0.5759 9 ** 0.6109 25 ** 0.5225 47 ** 0.4246 11 ** 0.2583 26 ** 0.2836 13 ** 0.4005 29 ** 0.7635 Family 12 ** 0.5841 31 ** 0.7087 49 ** 0.4641 23 ** 0.4027 32 ** 0.7581 46 ** 0.6437 Environ- 7 ** 0.4782 36 ** 0.5677 mental 16 ** 0.5147 37 ** 0.6107 18 ** 0.3481 39 ** 0.5868 4 33 ** 0.7772 43 ** 0.6985 30 38 ** 0.6634 44 ** 0.7836 Table 3 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale with Total Scale Score Dimension Correlation Coefficient National Belonging ** 0.8655 School Behaviour ** 0.9183 Family ** 0.6106 Environmental ** 0.7437 Value and Moral ** 0.6163 ** Significant at 0.01 Table 4 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale Items with Total Score of their Domains (Hearing-Impaired N = 94) Correlation Correlation Correlation Dimension M coefficent M coefficent M coefficent National 1 ** 0.4856 17 ** 0.3814 28 ** 0.7706 belonging 6 ** 0.3698 19 ** 0.4545 34 ** 0.4126 8 ** 0.5107 20 ** 0.2331 35 0.1061 10 ** 0.7501 21 ** 0.6731 41 ** 0.2687 15 ** 0.7557 27 ** 0.4495 48 ** 0.4392 School 2 ** 0.3676 14 ** 0.6422 40 ** 0.3118 behaviour 3 ** 0.5317 22 ** 0.6942 42 * 0.2614 5 0.0568 24 ** 0.6183 45 * 0.2302 9 * 0.2333 25 ** 0.5285 47 ** 0.2719 11 ** 0.2747 26 ** 0.5686 13 ** 0.4576 29 ** 0.7158 Family 12 ** 0.6702 31 ** 0.6680 49 ** 0.5250 23 ** 0.2818 32 ** 0.5387 Environ- 7 ** 0.5939 36 ** 0.6605 46 ** 0.5083 mental 16 ** 0.6017 37 ** 0.3197 18 ** 0.5567 39 ** 0.4466 4 ** 0.3601 33 ** 0.3636 43 ** 0.6377 30 ** 0.6928 38 ** 0.6902 44 ** 0.4020 * Significant at 0.05 level ** Significant at 0.01 level Table 5 Correlation Coefficients of Citizenship Scale Domains with Total Scale Score (Hearing-Impaired Exploratory Sample (N = 94) Dimension Correlation Coefficient National Belonging ** 0.8465 School Behaviour ** 0.8618 Family ** 0.6771 Environmental ** 0.7718 Value and Moral ** 0.5711 ** Significant at 0.01 Table 6 T test for Differences between the Study Sample's Mean Score on Citizenship Domains Scale by Sample Type Dimensions Sample type N Mean SD T value National Hearing-impaired 374 82.73 17.66 10.62 affiliation School Hearing-impaired 374 89.97 130.6 3.91 behaviour Family Hearing-impaired 374 9.80 14.05 1.77 11.72 95.31 686 Environmental Hearing-impaired 374 89.11 15.65 0.33 686 88.79 15.31 Moral and Hearing-impaired 374 94.61 13.08 2.08 Values 686 96.38 1352 Total score Hearing-impaired 374 88.60 12.34 6.19 Significance Dimensions Level Notes National 0.000 Significant at 0.01 affiliation School 0.00 Significant at 0.00 behaviour Family 0.077 Not significant Environmental 0.741 Not significant Moral and 0.038 Significant at 0.05 Values Total score 0.00 Significant at 0.01 Table 7 Results of the Test for Significant Differences between Sample's Mean Scores on Citizenship Scale According to Sample's Type. Dimensions Sample type N Mean SD T value National affiliation Deaf 178 85.75 15.44 3.22 Poor-hearing 196 79.99 19.09 School behaviour Deaf 178 93.79 10.30 5.68 Poor-hearing 196 86.51 14.30 Family Deaf 178 97.19 6.97 4.73 Poor-hearing 196 90.71 17.70 Environmental Deaf 178 93.26 13.60 5.08 Poor-hearing 196 85.35 16.46 Moral and Values Deaf 178 98.60 4.97 6.11 Poor-hearing 196 90.99 16.65 Total score Deaf 178 92.21 8.78 5.75 Poor-hearing 196 85.33 14.09 Significance Dimensions Level Notes National affiliation 0.001 Significant at 0.01 School behaviour 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Family 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Environmental 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Moral and Values 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Total score 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Table 8 Means and Standard Deviations of Citizenship Scale According to Sample Type and Mothers' Nationality Sample Type Mother's nationality N M SD Hearing-impaired Saudi 292 89.16 12.15 Non-Saudi 82 86.63 12.89 Total 374 88.60 12.34 Normal Saudi 577 96.52 4.09 Non-Saudi 129 92.34 10.00 Total 686 93.13 9.32 Table 9 MANOVA Analysis for Significant Differences between a Sample's Mean Scores and Citizenship by Sample Type and Mothers' Nationality Source Sum squares D.f. Mean Squares F Sample type 6785.56 1 6785.56 62.80 Mothers' nationality 109.34 1 109.34 1.01 Sample nationality 1785.02 1 1785.02 16.52 Error 114099.89 1056 108.05 Adjusted total 121286.72 1059 Source Sig Notes Sample type 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Mothers' nationality 0.315 Significant at 0.01 Sample nationality 0.000 Significant at 0.01 Error Adjusted total
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|Author:||Turkestani, Maryam Hafez|
|Date:||Mar 22, 2016|
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