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Cirrhilabrus squirei, a new wrasse perciformes; labridae from the great barrier reef and coral sea, australia.

Abstract

Cirrhilahrus squirei, a new species of labrid fish from the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea, Australia is described from four specimens, 36.2-56.3 mm SL. The new species is one of only four Cirrhilabrus known to possess a lunate caudal fin and of these C squirei has the largest caudal concavity. The new species most closely resembles C. john-soni from the Marshall Islands, but males of the new species are larger and possess a shorter snout. Cirrhilabrus squirei also has different fin colouration, with terminal males lacking the bright red dorsal, caudal and anal fins of C. johnsoni and instead possessing yellow fins with distinct black and lavender-black central bands.

Zusammenfassung

Cirrhilabrus squirei wird als neue Art der Lippfische vom Grogen Barrierriff und vom Korallenmeer, Australien, auf der Grundlage von vier Exemplaren mit 36,2-56,3 mm SL beschrieben. Diese neue Art gehort zu den einzigen vier bekannten Cirrhilabrus-Arten, die eine mondsichelformige Schwanzflosse besitzen, und unter ihnen hat C. squirei die am staricsten konkav gebogene Schwanzflosse. Am starksten ahnelt die neue Art C. johnsoni von den Marschallinseln, doch sind die Mannchen der neuen Art groger und besitzen eine kiirzere Schnauze. Augerdem zeigt Cirrhilabrus squirei eine andere Flossenfarbung: bei den von entwickelten Mannchen fehlt das leuchtende Rot an Riicken-, Schwanz-und Afterflosse, das sich bei C. johnsoni finder, hingegen hat C squirei gelbe Flossen mit deutlich abgesetzten schwarzen und lavendelfarben-schwarzen zentralen Bandern.

Resume

Cirrhalbrus squirei, une nouvelle espece de Labride de la Grande Barriere de Corail et de la mer de Corail, Australie, est decrit sur base de quatre specimens, 36,2 - 56,3 mm de LS. La nouvelle espece est une des quatre especes connues de Cirrhilabrus a posseder une caudale en forme de lune et, parmi celles-ci, C. squirei a la plus grande concavite cau-dale. La nouvelle espece ressemble le plus au C. johnsoni des Iles Marshall, mais les males de la nouvelle espece sont plus grands et ont un rostre plus court. Cirrhilabrus squirel a egalement uric coloration differente des nageoires, avec des males adultes sans les dorsale, caudale et anale rouge clair de C. johnsoni et possedant des nageoires jaunes avec de nettes bandes centrales noires et noir lavande.

Sommario

Cirrhilabrus squirei, una nuova specie di labridi provenience dalla Grande Barriera Corallina australiana e dal Mar dei CoraIli, e descrirta sulla base di quattro esemplari di 36.2-56.3 mm SL. La nuova specie 6 uno delle sole quattro specie di Cirrhilabrus note per possedere una pinna caudale semilunare e di questi C. squirei ha la concavita caudale maggiore. La nuova specie somiglia piu. strettamente a C johnsoni delle Isole Marshall, ma i maschi della nuova specie sono pal grandi e in possesso di un muso pih corto. Cirrhi-labrus squirei ha anche una diversa colorazione delle pinne dorsale, anale c caudale, che nei maschi terminali non sono di colore rosso vivo come in C johnsoni, ma gialle con evi-denti bande centrali di colore nero e lavanda-nero.

INTRODUCTION

The labrid genus Cirrhilabrus Temminck & Schlegel, 1845 contains small, colorful and sexually dimorphic coral reef fishes that range across the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific region. It is one of the largest genera in the family, with 49 species currently recognized (Eschmeyer 2014). Prior to 1974 only the following species were known; C. cyanopleura (Bleeker 1851), C. tem-minckii Bleeker 1853, C. jordani Snyder 1904, C. exquisitus Smith 1957, C solorensis Bleeker 1853, and C. ryukyensis Ishikawa, 1904, the latter two only recently revalidated (see Allen & Kuiter 1999, and Parenti & Randall 2000, for the earlier, and Allen & Erdmann 2012, for the latter) Recent discoveries of Cirrhilabrus have come from three broad categories: firstly, from remote locations where recreational and scientific divers have not dived regularly in the past; secondly, from closer examination of what was previously thought to be regional variations of a species; and lastly, from deep water collecting due to the improvement in SCUBA equipment, particularly rebreathers and mixed gas technology. The current paper describes a recently discovered species belonging to the last category It was first collected in 2008 by an aquarium fish collector using rebreather equipment on the Great Barrier Reef, who observed a school of Cirrhilabrus con-dei at 60 m and noticed an unusually-looking labrid swimming with them. This fish was noticeably different on the basis of its filamentous caudal-fin lobes and after collection was eventually identified as a new species of Cirrhilabrus. It is described herein as a new species, the 50th member of the genus.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Lengths given for specimens are standard length (SL), the straight-line distance from the median anterior point of the upper lip to the base of the caudal fin (posterior end of the hypural plate). Head length is measured from the median anterior point of the upper lip to the posterior end of the opercular membrane; snout length is from the same anterior point to the fleshy edge of the orbit. Body depth is the greatest depth measured to the base of the dorsal spines and body width is the greatest width just posterior to the opercular flap. Orbit diameter is the greatest fleshy diameter and the interorbital width is the least bony width. Caudal peduncle length is measured horizontally from the rear of the anal fin to the base of the caudal fin and caudal pedunde depth is the least depth. Caudal concavity is the distance horizontally between the verticals of the shortest and longest caudal rays. Predorsal, pre-anal and pre-pelvic lengths are taken from the upper lip to the anterior origin of the respective fin. Lengths of each fin spine, ray and dorsal fin height are taken from the base of each element.

Pectoral ray counts include the short rudimentary upper ray. The lateral line scale counts are given in two parts, the anterior count from the upper end of the opercular flap to below the soft portion of the dorsal fin. The second or posterior lateral line count is from the midlateral peduncular portion to the base of the caudal fin (a single large scale usually located posterior to the base of the caudal fin is included). Gill raker counts include rudiments and only a total count is given as it is difficult to determine which gill raker is at the angle. Type specimens are deposited at the Queensland Museum, Brisbane (QM) and Western Australian Museum (WAM).

Cirrhilabrus squirei, n. sp.

Squire's Wrasse (Figs 1-3; Table I)

Holotype: QM 1.39099, male, 53.4 mm SL, Holmes Reef, Queensland (16[degrees]26.26'S, 147[degrees]53.59'E), over rubble bottom, 65m, barrier-net, Tim Bennett June 2012.

Paratypes: WAM P.33844-001, male, 42.9 mm SL, Channel Reef, Queensland (16[degrees]56.40'S, 146[degrees]27.29'E), over gentle sloping rubble bottom, 60 m, barrier-net, Cadel Squire, May 2008. QM 1.38421, male, 56.3 mm SL, Harrier Reef, Queensland (15[degrees]08.13'S, 145[degrees]41.42'E), 28 m, barrier-net, Tyson Bennett, December 2009. WA/v1 P.33843001, female, 36.2 mm SL, Holmes Reef, Queensland (16[degrees]26.26'S, 147[degrees]53.59'E), over rubble bottom, 65 m, barrier-net, Tim Bennett, June 2012.

Diagnosis: Dorsal rays XI,9 (1 female paratype with XI1,9); anal rays 111,9; pectoral rays 15; lateral line scales 17+7; median predorsal scales 5; horizontal rows of scales on cheek 2; gill rakers 13-15; body depth 2.85-3.40 in SL; body width 1.95-2.15 in body depth; head length 2.75-2.90 in SL; snout length 4.1-4.4 in head length; pelvic fin short, not reaching the base of the anal fin, 4.15-4.65 in SL; caudal fin rounded to truncate in females and moderately to strongly lunate in males, caudal concavity as great as 0.8 in head; eye large, orbit diameter 3.55-3.90 in head length.

Colour in life of males: body yellow shading yellow white on abdomen; 5 irregular red orange bands; dorsal fin yellow, spinous portion, dusky spots on outer part, black on the first membrane, a central lavender band becoming black toward soft rays, soft portion with a black central band abruptly translucent posteriorly, anal fin yellow, soft portion with a broad lavender black central band becoming narrower on the spinous part. Caudal fin yellow with 7 dusky black tongue-shaped extensions on the innermost rays.

Colour in alcohol: males pale yellow, bands mentioned above on dorsal, anal and caudal fins dusky to black, paired fins translucent. Largest specimen 56.3 mm SL.

Description: Dorsal rays XI,9 (female paratype with XII,9); anal rays 111,9; first dorsal and anal soft rays unbranched, all others branched, the last to base; pectoral rays 15, the upper two un-branched; pelvic rays 1,5; principal caudal rays 13; median 11 unbranched; upper and lower procur-rent caudal rays 6, posteriormost segmented; lateral line interrupted; dorso-anterior series of pored scales 17+7 (17+6-8), scales above lateral line to base of dorsal fin 2; scales below lateral line to base of anal fin 6; median predorsal scales 5; median prepelvic scales 6; circumpeduncular scales 16; horizontal scale rows on cheek 2; gill rakers 13 (1314); branchiostegal rays 5; vertebrae 9 + 16.

Body depth 3:2 (2.85-3.40) in SL; body compressed, width 2.1 (1.95-2.15) in body depth; head length 2.9 (2.75-2.85) in SL; dorsal profile of head convex; snout short its length 4.35 (4.1-4.4) in head length; orbit large 3.65 (3.55-3.90) in head length; interorbital space convex, least bony width 4.05 (3.85-4.25) in head length; caudal peduncle depth 2.2 (2.10-2.25) in head length; caudal peduncle length 2.05 (2.05-2.55) in head.

Mouth terminal and oblique, forming angle of approximately 35[degrees] to horizontal axis of body and head; mouth small, maxilla extending just posterior to vertical through the anterior nostril, upper jaw length 4.05 (4.1-4.7) in head length; dentition typical of the genus, front and upper jaw with three pairs of canine teeth anteriorly at side of upper jaw, anterior pair forward projecting, next two pairs increasing in length and more recurved and laterally projecting; upper with closely set small conical teeth (15 in holotype posterior to the third canine); lower jaw with single pair of forward and laterally projecting canines and closely set small conical teeth, first seven largest and just posterior of canines (16 in holorype); tongue short and rounded. Gill rakers short, longest on first gill arch and less than one-half of longest gill filaments.

Table I. Proportional measurements of type specimens of
cirrhilabrus squirci as percentage of standard length.

                      Holotype               Paratypes

                        QM          WAM         QM          WAM
                      1.39099   P.33844-001   1.38242   P.33843-001

Sex                      male       male        male       female

Standard length (mm)     53.4       42.9        56.3         36.2

Body depth               31.5       29.6        35.2         33.1

Body width               15.0       15.2        16.5         16.0

Head length              34.3       35.0        36.2         35.1

Snout length              7.9        8.4         8.9          8.0

Orbit diameter            9.4        9.8         9.2          9.7

Interorbital width        8.4        8.4         8.5          9.1

Upper jaw length          8.4        7.5         8.9          7.5

Caudal-peduncle          15.5       15.4        16.7         16.6
depth

Caudal-peduncle          16.9       15.9        14.2         17.1
length

Predorsal length         33.7        319        34.8         34.3

Preanal length           60.5       60.6        61.8         63.8

Prepelvic length         37.5       37.3        38.4         39.5

Dorsal-fin base          59.2       58.7        60.9         60.2

First dorsal spine        7.9        7.5         7.3          8.3

Longest dorsal spine     17.0       17.0        16.0         16.9

Longest dorsal ray       18.5       20.0        16.7         19.1

Anal-fin base            27.7       27.5        27.5         26.5

First anal spine          7.9        8.4         7.8          7.7

Second anal spine         9.9        9.8         9.2          9.9

Third anal spine         12.0       12.1        11.4         13.5

Longest anal ray         16.3       15.6        14.4         16.6

Caudal-fin length        64.6       47.6        41.0         32.6

Caudal concavity         43.3       21.2        14.9            0

Pectoral-fin length      24.2       21.9        24.2         25.4

Pelvic-spine length      12.7       13.1        12.1         13.3

Pelvic-fin length        23.2       24.2        21.5         21.8


0 0 Posterior margin of preopercle with 31 (26-33) small serrae; edge of preopercle free from behind middle of eye to below anterior edge of pupil; lower and rounded margin of preopercle thin and membranous.

Posterior nostril subtriangular with short rim, located just below upper eye level and just forward to front edge of eye; anterior nostril very short membranous tube, slightly higher posteriorly and located an-terioventral to posterior nostril, its diameter about equal to sensory pores of cephalic lateralis system. Suborbital pores from middle of eye to below front edge of eye 12 (10-14); pores along free edge of pre-opercle 6 (5-6); pores on mandible to front of chin 4.

Scales cycloid; head scaled except interorbital space, snout and chin; opercle covered by seven large scales; cheek with two horizontal rows of scales below eye; naked lower flange of preopercle thin, greatest width at angle about 2 in orbit diameter in holotype; base of dorsal and anal fins with single row of large elongated scales, one per membrane; last pored scale on lateral line at base of caudal fin enlarged and pointed; terminal scale on midline just posterior to last pored scale very enlarged and pointed; no scales on paired fins; pelvic fins with median ventral process of two elongate scales about three-fourths the length of pelvic spine, thin axillary scale of each pelvic fin about three-fourths the length of pelvic spine.

Origin of dorsal fin above third lateral line scale; predorsal distance 3.0 (2.85-3.15) in SL; first dorsal spine shortest 4.35 (4.25-5.00) in head length; then progressively longer; last dorsal spine longest 2.0 (2.05-2.25) in head length; interspinous membranes of dorsal fin extending above spine tips in males supported by a slender rod originating from behind each spine; first or second soft dorsal ray longest 1.85 (1.75-2.15) in head length; origin of anal fin vertically below second last dorsal spine; preanal length 1.65 (1.55-1.65) in SL; first anal spine 4.35 (4.15-4.65) in head; second anal spine 3.45 (3.55-3.90) in head; third anal spine 2.85 (2.6-3.2) in head; sixth, seventh or eighth anal soft rays longest, 2.1 (2.1-2.5) in head; caudal fin strongly lunate in males, truncate to rounded in females, fin length 1.55 (2.10-3.05) in SL; caudal concavity largest in terminal males; caudal concavity in males 0.8 (1.65-2.45) in head; third pectoral ray longest 1.4 (1.4-1.6) in head; pelvic fin short extending just beyond anus, longer in males; second ray longest 1.5 (1.45-1.70) in head, 4.3 (4.154.65) in SL.

Colour of male holotype in alcohol: pale yellowish; a dusky band from the caudal fin extending anteriorly and slightly ventral just below the peduncular part of the lateral line to above the first anal ray, paler and narrower anteriorly; dusky on nape and extending to below first dorsal spine; spinous part of dorsal fin mostly translucent, first membrane black, translucent at outer margin and at base of spines, faint dusky irregular spots over remaining membranes, darker posteriorly, a dusky triangular area at the base of each spine, soft portion mostly black, forming a band centrally in the fin, narrowest at the first ray, posteriormost portion abruptly transparent from the outer margin of the fourth dorsal ray and curving posteriorly to about the center of the last ray, dusky at the fm base; anal fin translucent, an outer submarginal black band extending from the soft portion and becoming narrow at the spinous portion, a broad black band centrally from the third spine becoming broader anteriorly to the full length of the last ray; caudal fin translucent with a centroposterior hyaline zone with 16 small black bands, 1 on each branched ray, the inner 7 rays dusky at the base and extending posteriorly to form a black tongue on each membrane, paired fins translucent, pectoral dusky at base

Colour of the female paratype in alcohol : pale yellowish; a narrow dusky band just below the peduncular part of lateral line extending anteriorly and fainter to above base of sixth anal ray; a small dusky spot centrally on the dorsal fin membrane; an irregular dusky spot at the base of the caudal fin above the lateral line and extending dorsally to the base of the third principal caudal ray; all other fins translucent.

Colour of male holotype in life (Fig. 1 and 2): body yellow grading to yellow-white on the abdomen, a broad red-orange band at the base of the dorsal fin extending to the dorsal portion of the caudal peduncle, five irregular red-orange horizontal bands from the opecle opening, the upper most extending two third the body length and each progressively shorter, the ventral most to above the first anal spine; a single broad horizontal band from just below the peduncular part the lateral line to just posterior to the pectoral fin base, lavender at the caudal fin becoming red-orange and narrowing anteriorly; head yellow, three narrow blue bands above the eye from the upper lip to just below the first dorsal spine becoming slightly wavy posteriorly, each with a dark outer margin; 4 parallel broader bands on the ventral part of the snout, red-orange, slightly blue anteriorly and darker outer margins, the first from the upper jaw to the center of the eye, the lower three from below the lower jaw to the base of the pectoral fin, becoming wavy posteriorly; anal fin yellow, a broad lavender central band from the last ray becoming narrow and shading to red-orange on the spinous portion, a broad black outer band from the posterior soft portion narrowing to about the third and fourth anal ray, a narrow outer submarginal red band shading to black posteriorly, translucent outer margin; dorsal fin pale yellow, spinous portion with faint dusky spots on outer part, a lavender band from the second membrane broadening posteriorly on lower part, a small yellow triangle at the base of each spine, a black band centrally on the soft portion, broader and paler posteriorly, a translucent outer margin on the five posteriormost rays; caudal fin yellow with a broad central red-orange band on the scaled part, a centroposterior hyaline zone, 16 small red bands, 1 on each of the inner most branched rays, the inner 7 rays dusky at the base and extending posteriorly to form a black tongue on each membrane, 6 outer most principle rays with a small dusky bands close to the base, extending posteriorly, upper and lower distal fin ray extensions with a faint red outer margin; pelvic fin translucent yellow, first membrane pale red-orange; pectoral fin transparent, red-orange at the base.

Colour of Ifemale paratype in life (Fig. 3): body yellow, 6 red-orange bands below the dorsal fin, the upper 3 from the nape, the 3 lower from opercle and extending to the caudal peduncle, the 2 ventral most forming a single broad band posteriorly to scaled part of the caudal fin; head yellow with 5 red-orange bands 1 each above and below the eye, 3 from the jaw to the eye and extending to the opercle opening and approximatelly aligned with the bands on the body; dorsal and anal fin yellow, a single red spot with pale blue margin at each membrane base, paler and smaller on the soft portion, faint dusky spots over the remaining fin; caudal fin yellow with small red-orange spots close to the fin base, paired fins transparent, pectoral red-orange at the base.

Distribution and habitat: At present the new species is known only from scattered reefs on the Great Barrier Reef and Coral Sea off the Queensland coast of Australia, captured at depths between 28-65 m on outer reef slopes. See Remarks, for additional notes on the habitat of the species Etymology: This species is named in honour of Cadel Squire, who first discovered and collected the first specimen of the species in 2008. Cadel, along with his brother Lyle junior, father Lyle senior and mother Beverley have contributed greatly to the understanding of marine species in Queensland and throughout Australia over many years.

Remarks: The new species described herein appears to be closely related to Cirrhilabrus johnsoni Randall (1988) from Micronesia, including the Marshall Islands (Fig. 4) and Cirrhilabrus lunatics Randall and Masuda (1991) from Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, and Indonesia (Fig. 5). The three species share certain morphological features such as general body coloration, approximate maximum size and meristic data (e.g. fin rays and scale counts) typical of the genus. They also occur in the same habitat, outer reef slopes exposed to wave and strong currents, generally deeper rubble slopes greater than 30 m. The three species typically feed on plankton, occurring in small schools and swimming 2-5 m above the rubble bottom. Cirrhilabrus squirei has been observed mixing with other species of Cirrhilabrus in feeding aggregations which is typical for smaller members in the genus. Cirrhi-labrus squirei has a more lunate caudal fin in terminal males compared to C. lunatus and C. johnsoni, however it is smaller than C. lunatus but larger than C. johnsoni. The new species has dorsal and anal fins which are mostly yellow, compared to dark blue to black for C. lunatus and bright red for C johnsoni In addition, C squirei also possesses a slightly shorter snout (7.9-8.9% in SL) compared to C. johnsoni (8.9-10.8% in SL) (Randall 1988) and C. lunatus (8.6-9.3% in SL) (Randall 8c Masu-da 1991).

Of the 50 known Cirrhilabrus species, only four possess lunate caudal fins, C squirei, C lunatus, C johnsoni and C. brunneus. The terminal males of C. squirei have the largest caudal concavity (43.3% in SL) when compared to the holotypes (all of which are terminal males) of C lunatus (23.1% in SL) (Randall 8c Masuda 1991), C johnsoni (18.2% in SL) (Randall 1988) and C. brunneus (14.2% in SL) (Allen 2006).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am especially grateful to Cadel Squire, Lyle Squire, Tim Bennett and Tyson Bennett who supplied the type specimens of C squirei and provided detailed information on their habitat and occurrence. I also appreciate the help of Julian Baggio and Rob Lanceley from Cairns Marine for collection data and general assistance. I would also thank Dr. John Randall for graciously offering his considerable knowledge about this genus and help with supplying information of similar species and Dr. Gerald R. Allen for his help in reviewing the manuscript. Finally, I thank Jeff Johnson of the Queensland Museum and Sue Morrison of the Western Australian Museum for their assistance in providing museum numbers and x-rays.

PO Box 389 Kuranda, Queensland 4881, Australia. E-mail: fentonwalshOt hotmail.com

Received: 03 February 2014--Accepted: 06 July 2014

REFERENCES

ALLEN, G. R. 2006. Cirrhilabrus brunneus, a new wrasse (Pisces: Llbridae:) from north-eastern Kalimantan, In-

donesia. aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 11(1): 1-4.

ALLEN, G. R. 8C ERDMANN, M. V. 2012. Reef Fishes of the East Indies. Volumes 1-III. Tropical Reef Research, Perth Australia.

ALLEN, G. R. & KUITER, R. H. 1999. Descriptions of two new wrasses of the genus Cirrhilabrus (Labridae) from Indonesia. aqua, Journal of Ichthyology and Aquatic Biology 3 (4): 133-140.

ESCHMEYER, W. N. (ed). 2014 Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References (http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp)

Electronic version accessed 4 January 2014.

PARENT!, P. 8c RANDALL, J. E. 2000. An annotated checklist of the species of the Labroid fish families Labridae and Scaridae. IL.B.Smith Institute of Ichthyology Ichthyological Bulletin 68: 1-97.

RANDALL, J. E. 1988. Five new wrasse of the genera Cirrhi-labrus and Paracheilinus (Perciformes: Labridae) from the Marshall Islands. Micronesica 21: 199-226.

RANDALL, J. E. & H. MASUDA. 1991. Two new labrid fishes of the genus Cirrhilabrus from Japan. Revue. fran-caise dAquariologie. 18 (2): 53-60.
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Publication:aqua: International Journal of Ichthyology
Date:Jul 29, 2014
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