Printer Friendly

Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

INTRODUCTION: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is an immune disorder of T-cells characterized by chronic infections with candida involving mucosa, skin and nails. [1] It does not represent a specific disease but rather a presentation of a spectrum of immunologic, endocrinologic and autoimmune diseases. Endocrine dysfunctions are the most common underlying disorder associated with CMC. [2] It is a rare disorder and may become apparent at any time in life but it typically presents before three years of age. [3] CMC is not associated with a high degree of mortality because disseminated invasive candidal infections are rare, however, significant morbidity is associated with persistent skin or mucosal infections, endocrinopathies and other associated autoimmune diseases. We report a case of CMC in a two month old child.

CASE REPORT: A two month old male child was brought to us with a history of persistent erosions and pustules in the perianal area, and over the trunk, oral ulcers and nail changes. Her parents revealed that, when the baby was three days old, he started with some small vesicular lesions and pustular lesions in perianal area which increased in size and turned into erosions within a period of two weeks and lesions were persistent. After one month, patient started developing oral ulcers and swelling of the nail folds of all the digits of both hands. The patient was born out of a non-consanguineous marriage, after full term, by vaginal route, and the birth weight being 3kgs. There is history of vaginal candidiasis to the mother in the ante natal period.

On examination, there were vesicles, micropustules and perleche periorally. Oral thrush were present. Retroauricular erythema and fissures were present. Seborrhea capitis was seen on the occiput. Perianal erythema, erosions and maceration was present. There was yellowish discolouration, sub ungual hyperkeratosis, paronychia and, onycholysis bilaterally in both finger and toe nails. There was no localized or generalized lymhadenopathy. The general physical and systemic examination was normal. Ophthalmological examination was also noncontributory. Complete blood counts, liver function tests and kidney function tests were normal. Chest radiography and ultrasonography of abdomen were normal. Thyroid profile, parathyroid hormones, serum calcium, phosphate, uric acid and serum cortisol level were all within normal range. Scrapings from skin lesions and nail plates were subjected to potassium hydroxide examination and culture on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium. Candida albicans was isolated from all the three sites. On the basis of history, clinical examination and investigations we made a diagnosis of isolated chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. The patient was treated with topical clotrimazole and oral flucanazole, the lesions cleared completely in four weeks except nail changes.

DISCUSSION: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) is a rare condition characterized by widespread and persistent infection of skin, mucosa, and nails caused by candida albicans. CMC is associated with defect in cell mediated immunity. Recent studies suggest that there is alteration in production of cytokines in response to candida antigens. These include decreased interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma levels (Th 1 cytokines) and increased interleukin-10 (Th2 cytokines). [4] CMC can be limited to skin and mucosa only or it may be associated with polyendocrinopathy, thymoma and KID (Keratitis, icthyosis, deafness) syndrome. [5] Hypoparathyroidisim and adrenal failure are the most common endocrine abnormalities associated with CMC. [6] Other infections like dermatophytosis, herpes simplex and disseminated mycobacterium avium infection are also reported to coexist with CMC. [7] Gastrointestinal and hematological dysfunctions are sometimes associated with CMC. [7] In our case only skin, mucosa and nails were affected and no systemic involvement was detected. There was no predisposing factor for oral candidiasis in our case. Current therapy for CMC mainly revolves around prolonged use of antifungal agents especially the azole group. [8] Depending upon the underlying immunologic nature of CMC, various treatments like bone marrow and thymus transplantation or transfusion with white blood cells and candida specific antigens have been attempted. [9,10] In our patient, the lesions cleared completely with topical clotrimazole and oral fluconazole 50mg in four weeks.

DOI: 10.14260/Jemds/2015/1668

REFERENCES:

[1.] Willium J, Berger D, Timothy G. Andrews diseases of skin; Clinical Dermatology. Saunders. Elsevier. 2006.

[2.] Coleman R, Hay RJ.: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis associated with hypothyroidism; a distinct syndrome.Br J Dermatol 1997; 136: 24-29.

[3.] Kirkpatrick C H.: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994; 31: 14-17.

[4.] Lilic D, Cant AJ, Abinum JE, Spickett GP.: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: Altered antigen stimulated IL2, IL-4, IL-6 and interferon gamma production. Clin Exp Immunol. 1996; 105: 205212.

[5.] Kirkpatrick C H.: Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis in Candidiasis: pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment; Raven Press Ltd. New York. 1993.

[6.] Blizzard R M, Gibbs J H.: Candidiasis: studies pertaining to its association with endocrinopathies and pernicious anaemia. Pediatrics 1968; 31: 231-237.

[7.] Chipps BE, Saulsburg FT, Hsu SH, Winkelstein JA.: Non-candidal infections in children with Chronic mucocutaneos candidiasis. Johnhopkin Med J. 1979; 144: 175-179.

[8.] Mobacken H, Moberg S.: Ketoconazole: treatment of 13 patients with chronic mucocutanious candidiasis: A prospective 3 year trial. Dermatologica. 1986; 173: 229236.

[9.] Aiuti F, Businco L, Gatti R.: Reconstitution of T-cell disorders following thymus transplantation. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1975; 11: 370-376.

[10.] Buckley RH, Lucos ZJ, Hattler BJ, Amos BD.: Defective cellular immunity associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis: immunological reconstitution by allogenic bone marrow. Clin Exp Immunol. 1968; 3.

C. Subhashini (1), S. Dhanyasree (2), V. Srilakshmi (3), C. Sravani Sudhakar (4), P. Anila Sunandhini (5)

AUTHORS:

(1.) C. Subhashini

(2.) S. Dhanyasree

(3.) V. Srilakshmi

(4.) C. Sravani Sudhakar

(5.) P. Anila Sunandhini

PARTICULARS OF CONTRIBUTORS:

(1.) Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Andhra Medical College.

(2.) Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Andhra Medical College.

(3.) Junior Resident, Department of Dermatology, Andhra Medical College.

FINANCIAL OR OTHER COMPETING INTERESTS: None

(4.) Junior Resident, Department of Dermatology, Andhra Medical College.

(5.) Associate Professor, Department of Dermatology, Andhra Medical College.

NAME ADDRESS EMAIL ID OF THE CORRESPONDING AUTHOR:

Dr. C. Subhashini, Assistant Professor, Department of Dermatology, Venereology & Leprosy, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam. E-mail: drsrilakshmi99@gmail.com

Date of Submission: 09/07/2015.

Date of Peer Review: 10/07/2015.

Date of Acceptance: 11/08/2015.

Date of Publishing: 17/08/2015.
COPYRIGHT 2015 Akshantala Enterprises Private Limited
No portion of this article can be reproduced without the express written permission from the copyright holder.
Copyright 2015 Gale, Cengage Learning. All rights reserved.

Article Details
Printer friendly Cite/link Email Feedback
Title Annotation:CASE REPORT
Author:Subhashini, C.; Dhanyasree, S.; Srilakshmi, V.; Sudhakar, C. Sravani; Sunandhini, P. Anila
Publication:Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
Article Type:Clinical report
Date:Aug 17, 2015
Words:1017
Previous Article:A cross sectional study of attitudes among Goan Doctors towards rural service.
Next Article:Role of adenosine deaminase as an immune marker in diabetes mellitus.
Topics:

Terms of use | Privacy policy | Copyright © 2021 Farlex, Inc. | Feedback | For webmasters |