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Chemistry paper Abstracts.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF BITTER GOURD (Mormodica charantia) AND TURMERIC (Curcuma longa) USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC). Sunde M. Jones, Nagarajan Vasumathi, Nixon Mwebi, Mijitaba Hamissou.Department of Chemistry and Biology, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265.

The bitter gourd (Mormodica charantia) or melon is a plant that has many properties and uses in the medical field. It is part of the family cucurbitaceae. This plant is native to Southeast Asia, China, Africa, and the Caribbean countries. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) or Curcuma longa is also a plant that has similar medicinal properties. Turmeric is a rhizome type herb that is a perennial plant of the ginger family. The main ingredient present in the turmeric is curcumin, found to be an antioxidant. It is mostly produced in India. It is used as a spice and called the Indian saffron. In this research experiment, the bitter gourd properties were tested and compared to turmeric to see how they were related. We prepared three different extracts of bitter gourd fruit using water for one, methanol and hexane for the other two. For turmeric, a solution of turmeric powder was prepared using methanol. The aqueous solution of bitter gourd and its residue were extracted and separated into different fractions using different solvents. Each fraction was analyzed by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography)

and compared with that of the turmeric solution. The HPLC analysis confirmed (hat there is no curcumin present in bitter gourd. The preliminary results suggest that both the bitter gourd fruit and turmeric seem to contain a similar protein or a lipoprotein. To conclude, the bitter gourd fruit and turmeric are indeed different, but both have an unidentified protein. Future research will be conducted to see these differences and discover the type of protein seen in these two types of plants.

COMPRISON OF ALUMINUM AND ITS FORMS IN THE ASH, ASH-SOIL AND SOILS OF MONTSERRAT, WEST INDIES. Kamala N.Bhat, Chemistry Section, Department of Natural & Physical Sciences, Alabama A&M University, Normal Al 35762. Robert W.Taylor, Thilini D.Ranatunga and Z.Senwo, Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, Alabama A& M University, Normal, AL 35762.

Soufriere Hills volcano is an active volcano that lies in the south-central part of the volcanic island, Montserrat West Indies. Our preliminary studies indicated that ash emitted from the Soufriere Hills volcano is highly acidic and rich in aluminum (Al). The high Al content in ash may have potential impacts on the soil and plant environment of Montserrat. The acidity and the total Al content of the ash varied with the year of deposition. The pH and total Al in the ash samples were in the range of 3.77 to 4.06, and 1093mg/kg for ash deposited during the years 1995 to 1997, collected in 2003 to 1593 mg/kg for unexposed ash from 1995-1997, respectively The ash collected the day after an eruption in Summer 2005 had Al in the amount of 2093mg/kg, while the sample collected in 2007 had Al in the amount ranging between 223 to 422mg/kg. Thus, a preliminary investigation was carried out to identify different Al forms in ash and volcanic ash derived soil from areas severely and minimally affected by volcanic activity. Aluminum forms were extracted using extractant such as 1M potassium chloride (pH 5.5), 1M ammonium acetate (pH 4.8), 1M hydrochloric acid, and 0.5M sodium hydroxide to identify and quantify exchangeable Al, organically bound Al, and amorphous Al, respectively. In ash and ash/soil mixtures from the severely affected areas, highest amount of Al was detected as HCl extractable Al. Aluminum forms extracted from the minimally affected areas indicate that high percentage of Al exists as amorphous aluminum followed by organically bound Al, and exchangeable Al. Key words: Soufriere Hills, Aluminum forms, Montserrat

EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON THE FLUORESCENCE PROPERTY OF BENZENE AND ITS DERIVATIVES. Nagarajan Vasumathi, Caterina Lazzaroni and Ajibola Dawodu, Dept.of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State Univ., Jacksonville, AL 36265.

Factors influencing the fluorescence property of benzene and its derivatives are explored. In our previous study using cyclohexane as solvent, fluorescence spectrum of benzene solutions to toluene, bromobenzene, and aniline were studied. In this study, the spectra of these solutions in ethanol were analyzed and compared with previous results to determine which one of these solutions would best serve as labeled marker in fluorescence microscopy. The spectra were run using the Hitachi F-2500 spectrophotometer. Fluorescence is an electronic phenomenon and is primarily concerned with the light of wavelengths in the region of 200 to 800 [micro]m. Molecules of compounds that absorb light in this wavelength region become excited and reach the higher energy excited state. The molecule returns to the ground state emitting some of the absorbed energy as fluorescence. The emission spectrum appears in the longer wavelength region than the absorption spectrum allowing us to study the differences in their properties. Both the excitation and emission spectrum were collected for each solution at two different speeds. The fluorescence spectra of these solutions were examined using two different concentrations. Electron donating groups on the benzene ring increase the electron density and the delocalization on the ring and the compounds fluoresce more. Whereas electron withdrawing groups decreases the electron density and localizes on the substituent and the compounds do not fluoresce.

RECOLLECTIONS OF A HYDROGEN CYANIDE CHEMIST. Richard C. Sheridan, Tennessee Valley Authority (Retired), Muscle Shoals, AL 35661.

This paper reviews the experiences of a shift chemist in a hydrogen cyanide and acrylonitrile chemical plant in the 1950s. Then it discusses research done at Muscle Shoals, Alabama, in the 1960s on the synthesis of oxamide, a potential slow-release nitrogen fertilizer, from hydrogen cyanide (HCN). HCN was oxidized to cyanogen which was hydrolzed to oxamide in con- centrated hydrochloric acid. The oxidizing agents, nitrogen dioxide and cupric oxide, were regenerated for recycle. After studying the individual steps, including the synthesis of HCN from methane and ammonia or formamide, the four-step procedure was combined and operated in the laboratory. The use of a plasma torch to make HCN and the formation of oxamide from HCN and hydrogen peroxide were also investigated. No economical method was found for the production of oxamide as a fertilizer and the project was discontinued.

ROTATORY POWER OF ISOBORNEOL AND (S)-(-)-ENDO BORNEOL AT DIFFERENT WAVELENGTH REGIONS. Nagarajan Vasumathi, Kristin Shirey, and Sani Brah, Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265.

The specific rotation of Isoborneol and (S)-(-)-endo borneol was studied under six different wavelengths: 365nm, 405nm, 436nm, 546nm, 589nm, and 633nm. The concentrations used were 0.1M and 0.01M, and solvent used was 95% ethanol. Measurements were made using the Rudolph Automatic Autopol IV Polarimeter. At room temperature, the specific rotation of 0.1M isoborneol was different at different wavelength regions. At lower wavelengths it started out positive and dropped to negative at higher wavelengths. But, for 0.01 M solution, specific rotation remained almost the same. For (S)-endo-bomeol, solutions of both concentrations showed different specific rotations at different wavelengths starting with higher negative values (~ -115 to - 100) at lower wavelength (365 nm) and with lower negative values (~ -30 to - 25) at higher wavelength side (633 nm). This variation is possibly due to the fact that at different wavelengths different amount of energy is being absorbed by the sample solution leading to conformational and/or configuration changes. At -5[degrees]C, the specific rotation varied within a narrow range for isoborneol at both concentrations and also at 10 minutes intervals for an hour of experiment. However, the 0.01 M solution of (S)-endo-borneol showed large differences in specific rotation at different wavelengths at different time intervals for the same one hour experimental time period. The specific rotation became unexpectedly high positive changing from 185 at 365 nm to 269 at 633 nm.

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TEMPERATURE-RESPONISVE POLYETHYLENE GLYCOL DENDRIMERS. Amanda Lynn Hofacker and Michelle Gabriel, Dept. of Chemistry and Industrial Hygiene, Univ. of North Alabama, Florence, AL 35632.

First generation dendritic wedges consisting of pyridine 2,6-dicarboxylate and pyridine 2,6-dicarboxaminde repeating units were synthesized. These dendritic structures were functionalized with tetra(ethylene)glycol terminal groups to impart water-solubility. The amphiphilic nature of these compounds contributes to an entropic solubility in aqueous media, where the compounds are soluble at lower temperatures in aqueous solution. This lower critical solution temperature was analyzed via UV spectroscopy. Due to their amphiphilic nature, entropic solubility, and dendritic architecture these products could lead to interesting advances in drug delivery systems. These dendritic structures are precursors to dendrimers; hyperbranched radial polymers, consisting of a single core, branching repeating units, and multiple terminal groups. Monodispersed dendrimers can be synthesized with relative ease and are highly attractive molecules because the multitude of terminal groups allows for many places of functionality to a single structure. The dendritic architecture can also contain inner pockets capable of holding small molecules. In addition, building a temperature-responsive dendrimer could dramatically increase its potential for highly controlled drug delivery.

Chemistry Poster Abstracts

CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF FRAXINUS SPECIES IN NORTHERN ALABAMA. William N. Setzer, Behnard Vogler and Twaskia S. Johnson, Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Huntsville, AL 35899.

The Fraxinus species of North America is a native to most locations, which includes river bottoms, mountainous regions, and drained upland sites. The scientific name for these two species of trees is Fraxinus americana and Fraxinus Pennsylvania also known commonly as white ash and green ash. The two species of tree is in the olive family (Oleaceae). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine the difference in chemical components over a five month period to see if there are any significant changes in the crude extract samples. A comparison of chemical components between male and female species was also conducted. Bioassays were conducted to measure the polyphenolic content, free radical scavenging capabilities, and the inhibition of cruzain in each type of species of Fraxinus. The criteria for study for these trees were not taken from remote areas, but at one time was used by native american Indians for medicinal purposes. Tropical plants would have more ecological pressures than the Fraxinus species selected from "North Alabama. The pure compounds of the Fraxinus species were isolated using HPLC and identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

DEVELOPING OF NMR SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS TO PROBE THE BINDING OF SMALL MOLECULES TOWARDS ALBUMIN PAPAIN, AND CRUZAIN. Can Tan, Bernhard Vogler. Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL, 35899.

During the binding of small molecules towards large proteins characteristic NMR parameters, like T1, T2, and diffusion constants, undergo a change. Various methods probing the aforementioned parameters and their changes are employed and evaluated under the constraint that smallest amount of protein shall be used.

EFFECT OF BUFFERS ON AGGREGATE STRUCTURE FORMATION IN TPPS SOLUTION. Anjelica Rivers, Donald Higgins and Kamala N. Bhat. Department of Natural and Physical Sciences, Alabama A & M University, Normal, AL 35762.

The compound TPPS (tetraphenyl sulfonate porphyrin) occurs widely in nature, the most well known form is the heme molecule, and chlorophyll. The molecules of TPPS when deposited on films develop J and H-aggregates, which are characterized by having linear and non-linear optical properties due to uneven charge distribution. A mixture of TPPS and PDDA Poly (diallyldimethylammoniumchloride) in different mole proportions gives a variety of colors ranging from auburn to green, due to the presence of monomers and dimers in solution. This is a result of the stacking of TPPS and PDDA molecules causing aggregation. The morphology and internal arrangement of nano rod shaped aggregates was investigated by ultra-violet spectroscopy, micro fluidic depositions, fluorescence microscopy, and atomic force microscopy for solutions of TPPS and PDDA in HCl and phosphate buffer. UV-Vis spectra shows a blue shift in HCl 620nm- 780nm a sign of aggregation. A red shift occurs at 440nm - 490 nm but no aggregation was observed in the phosphate buffer solution. Fluorescence images for both samples showed no alignment. AFM results clearly differentiate the tubular nano structures present in the HCI samples as compared to the TPPS in phosphate buffer. Key words: TPPS. pophyrin, aggregate structure.

INVESTIGATING THE PRESENCE OF MERCURY IN THE SEA BOTTOM SEDIMENT SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM THE CONTINENTAL SHELF OF EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO. George Kiplagat, David Steffy, and Al Nichols. Department of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State University, Jacksonville, AL 36265.

ABSTRACT An investigation is being conducted on the occurrence of mercury in sea bottom sediment collected from the continental shelf in the eastern Gulf of Mexico. Samples were collected during a cruise of the NOAA R/V Gordon Gunther during the Fall 2009 from eight sites chosen along a transect from Pascagoula to the Tortoga Islands. Six samples are gray, calcareous medium-grained sand and two samples were gravelly sand, both with varying amounts of biogenic material. In addition, pore water quality was measured immediately upon retrieval of the sample. The sediment was visually described, photographed, and grain-size analysis was conducted. Triplicate sediment samples of each site were then processed for mercury content using a cold vapor mercury analyzer. Mercury concentrations range in this eastern portion of the gulf from 0.007 [+ or -] 0.004 [micro]g/g to 0.054 [+ or -]0.023 [micro]g/g and averages 0.029 [+ or -] 0.013 [micro]/g.

MERCURY LEVELS IN ROUGH SCAD, TRACHURUS LATHAMI, COLLECTED IN THE EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO. Meriem Zettili, Alfred Nichols and David Steffy, Dept. of Physical and Earth Sciences, Jacksonville State Univ., Jacksonville, AL 36265.

Scad mackerel, Trachurus lathami, were collected from the eastern Gulf of Mexico during the third leg of the NOAA Small Pelagics Survey in November, 2009. Fish were frozen and transported to laboratory facilities at Jacksonville State University for mercury (Hg) analysis. Freeze-dried fish tissue samples were analyzed for total Hg using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Mercury levels in fish varied with collection sites, with statistically significant differences in Hg levels observed between fish from high Hg level sites and fish from low level sites.

SYNTHESIS AND UTILITY OF 4-ALKOXY-DITHIONAPHTHOIC ACIDS. Anna C. Worth, Catherine E. Needham, Katherine E. King, and Andrew J. Lampkins, Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Samford University, Birmingham, AL 35229.

This poster will present our syntheses of amino acid derived thionaphthylates as CNS-permeable scaffolds for drug discovery applications. We will highlight robust, scalable methodology to construct 4-alkoxy-dithionaphthoic acids as key synthons toward these targets. This work has shown dithioacids to be ideal intermediates for subsequent functionalization as they are efficiently synthesized and purified, stable to storage, and easily derivatized to facilitate thioacylation chemistry. Specifically, we demonstrate how these derivatives undergo aminolysis under mild conditions with both protected and unprotected amino acids, giving rise to stable thioamide species. This poster will also discuss the highlights (and pitfalls) of alternative synthetic approaches attempted in our laboratories. Finally, we will discuss how this molecular scaffold can be customized to exhibit biological activity against beta-secretase, a key enzyme involved in Alzheimer's disease.

THEORETICAL STUDIES OF THE PROPERTIES OF HIGH ENERGY DENSITY MOLECULES. Mary Hayes, Andrea Tolbert, Jong Hwa Kim, and Jamiu A. Odutola, Department Natural and physical Sciences/Chemistry, Alabama A. & M. University, Normal AL 35762.

Several isomers of poly-nitrogen molecules ranging from N26 through N60 were constructed and calculations carried out. The computational approach involves a quantum mechanical method to determine their stability and properties. The most stable conformation for each of the poly-nitrogen clusters is determined by geometry optimization and confirmed by frequency calculations using a DFT method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. 6-311+G(3df,3pd) is used to calculate the single point energy for each optimized structure.
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Publication:Journal of the Alabama Academy of Science
Article Type:Author abstract
Geographic Code:1USA
Date:Apr 1, 2010
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