Checklist of benthic marine macrophytes and macrofauna from Uran coast, Navi Mumbai, off the Arabian Sea.
The species composition of benthic macrophytes and macrofauna was studied in three localities (Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek) along Uran coastline, off Arabian Sea. Uran is located along the eastern shore of Mumbai harbor opposite to Coloba and is included in the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP). The intertidal and shallow subtidal region of the study sites were surveyed during spring low tides for diversity of macrobenthos monthly from June 2013 to May 2015. The study recorded a total of 170 species of macrobenthos belonging to 119 genera, 83 families, 44 orders and 17 classes. Of the 10 macrobenthic taxa recorded, phylum mollusca exhibited highest contribution with 90 species (60 gastropods, 26 bivalves and 4 cephalopods). Phylum arthropoda appeared as the second most dominant group contributed with 33 species of brachyuran and anomuran crabs. 16 species of sponges, 5 species of polychaetes, 19 species of seaweeds were also reported. Other reported taxa include flat worms (4 species), soft corals (2 species) and tunicates (1 species). Results of the study showed that intertidal region of Uran coast is fertile and provides a suitable habitat for diverse and wide range of organisms. The comprehensive checklist of macrobenthos provided can be used as the baseline for future research and to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.
KEYWORDS: Checklist, Macrobenthos, Intertidal region, Jawaharlal Nehru Port, Uran, Species composition
Checklists are comprehensive lists covering all species of a certain group known to occur in a specific area. They provide an overall view of an area's diversity, its species composition and biological history, and functions as a living document. The list is the foundation document of a particular region and includes all background information . The comprehensive evaluations and inventories serve as the basis for local practices of conservation. A checklist of regional marine species provides base line information and important data for comparative studies on biodiversity, and plays an important role in the estimation of resource availability .
Coastal marine systems are among the most ecologically and socio-economically vital on the planet. Marine habitats from the intertidal zone out to the continental shelf break provides ecosystem goods (e.g. food and raw materials) and services (e.g. disturbance regulation and nutrient cycling) . The provision of protein for human consumption and the ecosystems that sustain fisheries are the products and functions of marine ecosystems that benefit humankind . Coastal-zone habitat includes highly productive estuaries and bays, which are essential nursery grounds for a number of commercial and recreational fish species and home to a number of invertebrates .
Benthos refers to the community of organisms that live on, or in, the bottom of a water body and are generally classified according to size. Macrobenthos are the benthic communities with greater than 0.5 mm in size and play an important role in transitional ecosystems . Macrobenthos acts as an ecosystem engineers which substantially modify the physical structure of the abiotic or biotic materials forming the habitat, and thus directly or indirectly change the availability of resources to other species .
Macrobenthos play various ecological roles in transitional ecosystems like, food source for larger organisms [24, 41], linking primary production with higher trophic levels [26, 43], structure and oxygenate the bottom by reworking sediments [37, 56], break down organic material before bacterial remineralization [1, 13], food for human e. g. clams, gastropods, cephalopods etc , bait for recreational purposes as fishing e. g. worms , biological indicators of ecological health and coastal pollution [3, 6, 21, 55], indicator species for the detection of types and levels of stress , improving and preserving water quality through mineralization and recycling of organic matters , bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in aquatic system [12, 20], provide shelter and profitable foraging sites for invertebrate feeders , and is useful to assess the fishery production of a particular area .
Marine resources are major source of food for local inhabitants and of major economic value in terms of commercial exploitation . Sridhar and Bhaskaran  reported that recovery and dredging; industrial effluents, sewage, and oil pollution are the main anthropogenic effects crucial for biodiversity. Seitz et al.,  noted that coastal habitats are threatened by coastal development, habitat degradation, rising temperature and sea levels, nutrient and sediment run-off, overfishing, dredging, commercial fishing, sand mining, and habitat loss [4, 8].
Literature review suggests that baring few reports [5, 23, 27, 28, 49], meager information is available on the checklist of marine benthic macrophytes and macrofauna. Considering the incomplete knowledge of the species diversity associated to the intertidal and shallow subtidal marine ecosystems, the main objective of this study was to produce a comprehensive checklist of marine macrobenthos inhabiting three localities of Uran coast (Sheva creek, Peerwadi coast and Dharamtar creek).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Uran (18[degrees] 50'5'' to 18[degrees]50'20'' N, 72[degrees]57'5'' to 72[degrees]57'15'' E) with the population of 28,620 is located along the eastern shore of Mumbai harbor opposite to Coloba. Uran is bounded by Mumbai harbor to the northwest, Thane creek to the north, Dharamtar creek and Karanja creek to the south, and the Arabian Sea to the west. Uran is included in the planned metropolis of Navi Mumbai and its port, the Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNPT) (Fig. 1).
The Uran coast is a tide-dominated and the tides are semidiuranal. The average tide amplitude is 2.28 m. The flood period lasts for about 6-7 h and the ebb period lasts for about 5 h. The average annual precipitation is about 3884 mm of which about 80% is received during July to September. The temperature range is 12-36[degrees]C, whereas the relative humidity remains between 61% and 86% and is highest in the month of August.
For the present study, three sampling sites, namely Sheva creek, site I (18[degrees] 50' 20'' N, 72[degrees] 57' 5'' E), Peerwadi coast, site II (18[degrees] 50' 10'' N, 72[degrees] 57' 1'' E) and Dharamtar creek, site III (18[degrees] 48' 3'' N, 72[degrees] 58' 31'' E) separated approximately by 10 km were selected. These sites were selected on the basis of their strategic locations for Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP, an International Port), industries, port related infrastructural facilities and different anthropogenic activities along the entire coastal area.
Sheva creek is characterized by extensive mud flats with sparse mangrove vegetation and less rocky stretches. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (JNP) and other port related establishments are located in the stretch of the creek. Gharapuri Island (Elephanta caves), a famous tourist spot is present on the north side of the creek. Intertidal region of Peerwadi coast has major portion of rocky substratum. Dharamtar creek is with rocky and coral substratum towards the Dronagiri Mountain whereas remaining part of the creek is dominated by the marshy areas and mud flats. Towards the Revas and Karanja side, the Dharamtar creek has mangrove associated habitats due to presence of dense and natural mangrove habitat. Sheva creek and Dharamtar creek are considered as high anthropogenic pressure zones.
Studies on the diversity of macrobenthos from the intertidal regions of these sites were carried for a period of two years, i.e., from June 2013 to May 2015. The entire intertidal belt of each sampling site was subdivided into upper, middle and lower littoral zones. The diversity and distribution of macrobenthos in the intertidal belt at each station were studied during the spring low tide.
The macrobenthos were collected by hand picking method from intertidal regions and shallow coastal waters. Sponges, bivalves and seaweeds attached to the boulders, jetties, rocks on the shores, stones, pebbles, fishing nets and pneumatophores of mangrove were collected by scrapping. Collected specimens were washed with seawater to remove the debris, and were transferred to the clean polythene bags; one sample per bag and were brought to the laboratory.
In the laboratory, morphological features of each specimen were recorded. The specimens were washed under tap water and then fixed in 10% formaldehyde-seawater solution and transferred into 90% ethanol. Empty shells were washed in water containing mild detergent and were rinsed in diluted hydrochloric acid to remove the hard outer coat and to reveal the natural colours.
[FIGURE 1 OMITTED]
Identification of macrobenthos:
All collected organisms were photographed with Cannon EOS1100D digital camera and were identified up to the lowest possible taxonomic level following Marine Species Identification Portal website (http://species-identification.org) and standard taxonomic keys of Dhargalkar & Kavlekar  and Bhavanath Jha et al.  for seaweeds, Picton  and Van Soest et al.,  for sponges, Subrahmanyam et al. [47, 48] and Apte  for gastropods, Subrahmanyam et al [45, 46] and Coan & Valentich-Scott  for bivalves, Chhapgar [10, 11] and Jeyabaskaran and Wafar  for crabs, Cantera  and Fischer et al.  for other invertebrates. Scientific names and classification of gastropods was adopted from World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) website (http://www.marinespecies.org).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A total of 170 species of macrobenthos belonging to 119 genera, 83 families, 44 orders and 17 classes were recorded (Table 1). Total 151 species of benthic macrofauna representing 103 genera, 63 families, 31 orders and 12 classes were collected. The benthic macrophytes were represented by 19 species, 16 genera, 15 families, 13 orders, 5 classes and 5 divisions (Table 1).
Of the 10 macrobenthic taxa recorded in present study, phylum mollusca exhibited highest contribution with 90 species (60 gastropods, 26 bivalves and 4 cephalopods). Phylum arthropoda appeared as the second most dominant group with 33 species of brachyuran and anomuran crabs. 16 species of sponges, 5 species of polychaetes, 19 species of seaweeds were also reported. Other reported taxa include flat worms (4 species), soft corals (2 species) and tunicates (1 species) (Fig. 2).
In the present study, diversity of benthic organisms were in the sequence of gastropods (35.29%) > crabs (19.41%) > pelecypods (15.29%) > seaweeds (11.18%) > sponges (9.41%) > polychaetes (2.94%) > flat worms and cephalopods (2.35%) > soft corals (1.18%) > tunicates (0.59%).
Fig. 2: Average % composition of macrobenthos recorded along Uran coast. % composition of macrobenthos species recorded along Uran coast, Navi Mumbai Gastropods 35% Crabs 20% Pelecypods 15% Sea weeds 11% Sponges 10% Polychactes 3% Flat worms 2% Cephalopods 2% Soft corals 1% Turnicates 1% Note: Table made from pie chart.
A total of 19 species of seaweeds representing 16 genera, 15 families and 13 orders were recorded. Of these, 7 species belongs each to Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, 2 each to Cyanobacteria and Ochrophyta and 1 to Charophyta. Varied diversity of seaweeds belonging to Charophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanobacteria, Ochrophyta and Rhodophyta is recorded from three sites. Of the recorded species, 36.84% belongs each to Chlorophyta and Rhodophyta, 10.53% each to Cyanobacteria and Ochrophyta, and 5.26% to Charophyta.
16 species of sponges representing 12 genera, 10 families and 8 orders were recorded. Of the recorded species, 13 species belongs to class Demospongiae, 2 to Calcarea and 1 to Hexactinellida. The percentage distribution (by order) of sponges showed that the Order Halichondrida had the highest species composition (31.25%), followed by Leucosolenida, Axinellida, Hadromerida, and Poecilosclerida each with 12.5%. Orders Haplosclerida, Homosclerophorida and Hexactinosida had a composition of 6.25% species in each.
Total 60 species of gastropods belonging to 38 genera, 25 families and 8 orders were recorded. In present study, gastropods belonging to order Archaeogastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Chitonida, Cycloneritimorpha, Littorinimorpha, Neogastropoda, Nudibranchia and Patellogastropoda were recorded. Number of species of gastropods distributed in each family reveals that 10 species belongs to family Muricidae, 9 species to Neritidae, 6 species to Trochidae and 4 species to Bursidae. Families Cypraeidae and Lottiidae were represented by 3 species each. 2 species each were reported from families Turbinidae, Cerithidae, Potamididae, Naticidae, Conidae and Volemidae whereas 1 species each is contributed by remaining 13 families.
26 species of bivalves belonging to 18 genera, 8 families and 4 orders were recorded. In present study, bivalves belonging to families Arcidae, Ostreidae, Pectinidae, Placunidae, Corbiculidae, Psammobiidae, Trapezidae and Veneridae were recorded. Number of species of bivalves distributed in each family reveals that 12 species belongs to family Veneridae, 5 species to Arcidae, 3 species to Ostreidae and 2 species to Pectinidae. One species each were reported from families Placunidae, Corbiculidae, Psammobiidae and Trapezidae.
Total 33 species of crabs belonging to 21 genera and 12 families under the order Decapoda in the class Malacostraca were recorded. Brachyuran crabs belonging to family Grapsidae, Leucosiidae, Matutidae, Menippidae, Ocypodidae, Oziidae, Polybiidae, Porcellanidae, Portunidae, Sesarmidae and Xanthidae were recorded. Family Portunidae contribute 9 species while 5 species were belonging each to families Grapsidae and Xanthidae. 2 species were belonging each to families Leucosiidae, Ocypodidae, Oziidae and Sesarmidae where as rest of the families including Matutidae, Menippidae, Polybiidae and Porcellanidae contributed only one species each. 2 species of anomuran crabs belonging to family Diogenidae were also recorded.
* Other macrobenthos:
5 species of polychaetes, 4 species of flat worms, 2 species of soft corals and 1 species of tunicates were also recorded.
Measuring species richness and diversity in various habitats is a useful tool for conservation and action planning of the marine and coastal biodiversity [6, 24, 30]. Ganesh and Raman  stated that several factors, e.g. locality, depth, distance from the shore, river proximity and local oceanographic features appeared important for determining benthos distribution patterns.
Results of the present study are in agreement with the work of Varadharajan et al.,  along the south east coast of India, Lozano-Cortes et al.,  from Malaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, Susan et al.,  in Minicoy Island, Lakshadweep, India, Behera and Nayak  of Bahuda estuary, Odisha, east coast of India, Geetha and Bijoy  in Cochin Estuary, India, Mahapatro et al.,  of the Chilika Lake, east coast of India and Balachandar et al.,  from Puducherry coast, southeast coast of India.
The Uran coast acts as a sink receiving large daily volume of domestic and industrial wastes and effluents from Asia's largest industrialized zone namely Thane Belapur industrial area, Navi Mumbai Municipal Corporation and effluents from Jawaharlal Nehru Port . Maritime activities of JNP and local dredging activities have promoted the changes in physico-chemical parameters, and inorganic nutrients in the seawater surrounding the Jawaharlal Nehru Port . Anthropogenic impact of these activities has affected the water quality and diversity of macrobenthos from coastline of Uran [33, 34, 35].
The present study provides a comprehensive checklist of benthic macrophytes and macrofauna from coastline of Uran. Results of the study can be used as the baseline for future research. It will further helpful to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.
Results of the present study showed that intertidal region of Uran coast is fertile and provides a suitable habitat for diverse and wide range of organisms. Findings of the study also reflect the biological characteristics of the macrobenthos in the intertidal and shallow subtidal region. Gastropods, crabs, pelecypods, seaweeds and sponges are dominant taxa recorded during the study. The study was an initial step toward understanding the macrobenthic community dynamics of Uran coast and long-term monitoring studies are recommended to evaluate the impacts of human activities on the local marine communities. The comprehensive checklist of macrobenthos provided can be used as the baseline for future research and to develop the management strategy for the conservation of coastal marine ecosystem.
Financial support provided by University Grants Commission, New Delhi [File No: 42-546/2013 (SR) dated 22nd Mar 2013] is gratefully acknowledged. The author is thankful to The Principal, Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Mahalan Vibhag, Phunde (Uran), Navi Mumbai 400 702 for providing necessary facilities for the present study. Special thanks to Dr. Rahul B. Patil for providing healthy cooperation during field visits for photography of the study sites and sponges. Thanks are due to Mr. Sanket S. Shirgaonkar, who worked as a Project Fellow for the present study. Thanks to Dr. Atul G. Babar for the graphic design of the study area and the distribution maps.
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(1) Prabhakar R. Pawar and (2) Abdel Rahman Mohammad Said Al-Tawaha
(1) Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India
(2) Department of Biological Sciences, Al Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma'an, P.O. Box 20, Jordan
Address For Correspondence:
Prabhakar R. Pawar, Veer Wajekar Arts, Science and Commerce College, Department of Zoology, Phunde (Uran), Raigad, Navi Mumbai - 400 702, India.
Table 1: % composition of macrobenthos recorded along Uran coast. Sr. Benthos Division Class Order Family Genus Species No. 1 Sea weeds 05 05 13 15 16 19 2 Sponges --- 03 08 10 12 16 3 Soft corals 01 01 01 01 02 4 Flat worms --- 01 01 04 04 04 5 Polychaetes --- 01 03 04 04 05 6 Crabs --- 01 01 12 21 33 7 Gastropods --- 01 08 25 38 60 8 Pelecypods --- 01 04 08 18 26 9 Cephalopods --- 01 03 03 04 04 10 Tunicates --- 01 01 01 01 01 TOTAL 05 17 44 83 119 170 Sr. Percentage No. Representation 1 11.176 % 2 9.412 % 3 1.176 % 4 2.353 % 5 2.941 % 6 19.411 % 7 35.294 % 8 15.294 % 9 2.353 % 10 0.588 % 100 % Table 2: Checklist of benthic macrophytes recorded along Uran coast, Navi Mumbai collected during June 2013 to May 2015 Class Order Family Division: Charophyta Charophyceae Charales Characeae 1 Division: Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae Cladophorales Cladophoraceae 2 Valoniaceae 3 Ulotrichales Gomonticeae 4 Ulvales Ulvaceae 5 6 7 8 Division: Cyanobacteria Cyanophyceae Oscillatoriales Oscillatoriaceae 9 10 Division: Ochrophyta Phaeophyceae Ectocarapales Scytosiphonaceae 11 Sphacelariales Sphacelariaceae 12 Division: Rhodophyta Florideophyceae Corallinales Corallinaceae 13 Nemaliales Galaxauraceae 14 Gelidiales Gelidiaceae 15 Gelidiellaceae 16 Gracilariales Gracilariaceae 17 Halymeniales Halymeniaceae 18 Ceramiales Rhodomelaceae 19 05 13 15 Class Scientific Name Division: Charophyta Charophyceae Chara baltica (A. Bruzelius,1824) Division: Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae Cladophora rupestris (L.) Kutzing 1843) Valonia aegagropila (C. Agardh, 1823) Monostroma nitidium (Wittrock,1866) Ulva fasciata (Delile, 1813) Ulva lactuca (Linnaeus, 1753) Enteromorpha intestinalis (L.) Nees, 1820 Enteromorpha linza (L.) J. Agardh, 1883 Division: Cyanobacteria Cyanophyceae Lyngbya confervoides (C. Agardh ex Gomont, 1893) Lyngbya majuscule (Harvey ex Gomont, 1892) Division: Ochrophyta Phaeophyceae Colpomenia sinuosa (Derbes & Solier, 1851) Sphacelaria tribuloides (Meneghini, 1840) Division: Rhodophyta Florideophyceae Amphiroa tribuloides (Meneghini, 1840) Galaxaura oblongata (J. V. Lamouroux, 1816) Gelidium pusillum (Stackhouse) Le Jolis, 1863 Gelidiella acerosa (Fosskal) Feldmann & G. Hamel, 1934 Gracilaria verrucosa (Hudson) Papenfuss, 1950 Grateloupia filicina (C. Agardh, 1822) Acanthophora specifera (M.Vahl) Borgesen,1910 05 19 Table 3: Checklist of benthic macrofauna recorded along Uran coast, Navi Mumbai collected during June 2013 to May 2015 Class Order Family Sponges Calcarea Leucosolenida Leucosoleniidae 20 21 Demospongiae Axinellida Axinellidae 22 23 Halichondrida Halichondriidae 24 25 26 27 28 Haplosclerida Haliclonidae 29 Hadromerida Hemiasterellidae 30 Suberitidae 31 Poecilosclerida Hymedesmiidae 32 Microcionidae 33 Homosclerophorida Plakinidae 34 Hexactinellida Hexactinosida Aphrocallistidae 35 Coelenterates (Soft corals) Anthozoa Alcyonacea Nephtheidae 36 37 Flat worms Rhabditophora Polycladida Leptoplanidae 38 Notoplanidae 39 Pericelidae 40 Stylochoplanidae 41 Polychaetes Polychaeta Amphinomida Amphinomidae 42 Phyllodocida Nereididae 43 44 Polynoidae 45 Terebellida Terebellidae 46 Brachyuran crabs Malacostraca Decapoda Grapsidae 47 48 49 50 51 Leucosiidae 52 53 Matutidae 54 Menippidae 55 Ocypodidae 56 57 Oziidae 58 59 Polybiidae 60 Porcellanidae 61 Portunidae 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Sesarmidae 71 72 Xanthidae 73 74 75 76 77 Anomuran crabs Malacostraca Decapoda Diogenidae 78 79 Gastropods Gastropoda Archaeogastropoda Fissurellidae 80 Nacellidae 81 Trochidae 82 83 84 85 86 87 Turbinidae 88 89 Caenogastropoda Cerithiidae 90 91 Potamididae 92 93 Chitonida Ischnochitonidae 94 Cyclo-neritimorpha Neritidae 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 Littorinimorpha Bursidae 104 105 106 107 Cypraeidae 108 109 110 Ficidae 111 Naticidae 112 113 Rostellariidae 114 Tonnidae 115 Neo-gastropoda Buccinidae 116 Clavatulidae 117 Columbellidae 118 Conidae 119 120 Mangeliidae 121 Muricidae 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 Nassariidae 132 Onchidiidae 133 Volemidae 134 135 Chromodorididae 136 Lottiidae 137 138 139 Pelecypods Pelecypoda Arcoida Arcidae 140 141 142 143 144 Ostreoida Ostreidae 145 146 147 Pectinoida Pectinidae 148 149 Pectinoida Placunidae 150 Veneroida Corbiculidae 151 Psammobiidae 152 Trapezidae 153 Veneridae 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 Cephalopods Cephalopoda Myopsida Loliginidae 166 Octopoda Octopodidae 167 168 Sepiida Sepiidae 169 Tunicates Ascidiacea Aplousobranchia Euherdmaniidae 170 12 31 68 Class Scientific Name Sponges Calcarea Leucosolenia complicate (Montagu,1818) Leucosolenia variabilis (Haeckel, 1870) Demospongiae Axinella damicornis (Esper, 1794) Axinella verrucosa (Esper, 1794) Axinyssa ambrosia (de Laubenfels, 1936) Halichondria bowerbanki (Burton, 1930) Halichondria panacea (Pallas, 1766) Hymeniacidon heliophila (Parker, 1910) Hymeniacidon perleve (Montagu, 1814) Haliclona permollis (Bowerbank,1866) Paratimea constellate (Topsent, 1893) Protosuberitis epiphytum (Lamarck, 1815) Kirkaptrickia borealis (Koltun, 1970) Clathria parthena (de Laubenfels,1930) Plakina monolopha (Schulze,1880) Hexactinellida Aphrocallistes Beatrix (Gray, 1858) Coelenterates Anthozoa Dendronephthya klunzingeri (Studer,1888) Dendronephthya hemprichi (Klunzinger,1877) Flat worms Rhabditophora Leptoplana tremellaris (Muller OF, 1773) Notoplana australis (Schmarda, 1859) Pericelis hymanae (Poulter, 1974) Stylochoplana maculata (Quatrefage, 1845) Polychaetes Polychaeta Hermodice carunculata (Pallas, 1766) Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840) Perinereis nuntiavallata (Grube, 1857) Enipo gracilis (Verrill, 1874) Neoamphitrite groenlandica (Malmgren,1866) Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803) Grapsus albolineatus (Lamarck, 1818) Metopograpsus frontalis (Miers, 1880) Metopograpsus messor (Forskal,1775) Metopograpsus oceanicus (H. & Jacquinot,1846) Persephona mediterranea (Herbst, 1794) Tokoyo eburnea (Alcock, 1896) Matuta lunaris(Forskal, 1775) Myomenippe hardwickii (Gray, 1831) Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards, 1837) Uca dussumieri (H. Milne Edwards, 1852) Epixanthus frontalis (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) Ozius rugulosus (Stimpson,1858) Liocarcinus pusillus (Leach, 1815) Petrolisthes galathinus (Bosc,1802) Charybdis acuta (A. Milne-Edwards, 1869) Charybdis feriatus (Linnaeus, 1758) Charybdis japonica (A. Milne-Edwards, 1861) Charybdis lucifera (Fabricius, 1798) Charybdis orientalis (Dana, 1852) Charybdis truncata (Fabricius, 1798) Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758) Portunus sanguinolentus (Herbst, 1783) Scylla serrata (Forskal, 1775) Aratus pisonii (H. Milne Edwards,1837) Metasesarma obesum (Dana, 1851) Leptodius exaratus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) Leptodius sanguineus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) Paractaea monody (Guinot, 1969) Xantho incisus (H. Milne Edwards, 1834) Xantho poressa (Olivi, 1792) Anomuran crabs Malacostraca Clibanarius senegalensis (Chevreux & Bouvier, 1892) Clibanarius taeniatus (H. Milnne Edwards, 1848) Gastropods Gastropoda Diodora gibberula (Lamarck, 1822) Cellana radiata (Born, 1778) Trochus radiates (Gmelin, 1791) Trochus tentorium (Gmelin,1791) Umbonium vestiarium (Linnaeus, 1758) Trochus stellatus (Gmelin, 1791) Trochus maculates (Linnaeus, 1758) Clanculus guineensis (Gmelin, 1791) Astraea stellata (Gmlin, 1791) Astraea semicostata (Kiener, 1850) Clypeomorus bifasciatus (Sowerby II, 1855) Clypeomorus moniliferus (Kiener, 1841) Telescopium telescopium (Linnaeus, 1758) Potamides cingulatus (Gmelin, 1791) Ischnochiton australis (G.B. Sowerby II, 1833) Nerita undata (Linnaeus, 1758) Nerita albicilla (Linnaeus, 1758) Nerita crepidularia (Lamarck, 1816) Nerita oryzarum (Recluz, 1841) Nerita costata (Gmelin, 1791) Nerita chamaeleon (Linnaeus, 1758) Nerita aterrima (Gmelin, 1791) Neritina pulligera (Linnaeus, 1758) Neritina punctulata (Lamarck, 1816) Bursa tuberculata (Broderip,1833) Bursa granularis (Roding, 1798) Bursa spinosa (Schumacher, 1817) Bursa lissostoma (E. A. Smith, 1914) Erosaria lamarckii (J.E. Gray, 1825) Luria lurida (Linnaeus, 1758) Cypraea tigris (Linnaeus, 1758) Ficus gracilis (G. B. Sowerby I,1825) Natica didyma (Roding, 1798) Natica rufa (Born, 1778) Tibia curta (G. B. Sowerby II, 1842) Tonna dolium (Linnaeus, 1758) Cantharus spiralis (Gray, 1839) Makiyamaia arthopleura (Kilburn, 1983) Parvanachis obesa (C. B. Adams, 1845) Conus ambiguus (Reeve, 1844) Conus circumactus (Iredale, 1929) Propebela harpularia (Couthouy, 1838) Drupa konkanensis (Melvill, 1893) Indothais blanfordi (Melvill, 1893) Murex brunneus (Link, 1807) Murex bundharmai (Houart, 1992) Purpura bufo (Lamarck, 1822) Stramonita floridana (Conrad, 1837) Thais carinifera (Lamarck, 1822) Thais sacellum (Gmelin, 1791) Thais gradata (Jonas, 1846) Vasula deltoidea (Lamarck, 1822) Nassarius vibex (Say, 1822) Onchidium damelii (Semper, 1882) Hemifusus pugilinus (Born, 1778) Hemifusus cochlidium (Linnaeus, 1758) Mexichromis mariei (Crosse, 1872) Lottia septiformis (Quoy & Gaimard, 1834) Lottia tenuisculpta (Sasaki & Okutani,1994) Acmaea subrugosa (d'Orbigny, 1846) Pelecypods Pelecypoda Arca granosa (Linnaeus, 1758) Barbatia barbata (Linnaeus, 1758) Barbatia foliata (Forsskal in Niebuhr,1775) Barbatia virescens (Reeve, 1844) Barbatia obliquata (Wood, 1828) Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791) Saccostrea scyphophilla (Peron & Lesueur, 1807) Saccostrea glomerata (Gould, 1850) Volachlamys tranquebaria (Gmelin, 1791) Volachlamys singaporina (Sowerby II, 1842) Placuna placenta (Linnaeus, 1758) Villorita cyprinoides (Gray, 1825) Hiatula diphos (Linnaeus, 1771) Trapezium sublaevigatum (Lamarck, 1819) Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758) Chamelea gallina (Linnaeus, 1758) Dosinia caerulea (Reeve, 1850) Dosinia exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758) Gafrarium divaricatum (Gmelin, 1791) Katelysia japonica (Gmelin, 1791) Meretrix casta (Gmelin, 1791) Meretrix meretrix (Linnaeus, 1758) Meretrix lamarckii (Deshayes, 1853) Paphia rhomboides (Pennant, 1777) Pitar hebraeus (Lamarck, 1818) Protapes gallus (Gmelin, 1791) Cephalopods Cephalopoda Loligo vulgaris (Lamarck, 1798) Eledone cirrhosa (Lamarck, 1798) Octopus vulgaris (Cuvier, 1797) Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758) Tunicates Ascidiacea Euherdmania claviformis (Ritter, 1903) 12 151